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Grundler W - - 1985
In a porcine model of cardiac arrest, the intravascular pressure measured during circulatory standstill was positively correlated with the success of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. When volume was expanded before cardiac arrest, circulatory arrest pressure increased and the success of resuscitation increased. After volume expansion, the hematocrit was reduced and colloid osmotic ...
Grundler W G - - 1985
A porcine model of cardiac arrest with irreversible electromechanical dissociation was associated with highly significant decreases in colloid osmotic pressure in the absence of increases in hematocrit during the initial half hour of CPR. Pulmonary edema was typically observed. These observations are best explained by increases in capillary permeability to ...
Carson C C - - 1985
Extravasation of irrigation fluid during percutaneous nephrostolithotomy is a major complication and can result in severe morbidity. We report 3 cases of peritoneal extravasation of irrigation fluid. Ventilatory difficulty and narrowed pulse pressure suggest intraperitoneal extravasation of irrigation fluid, which should be treated by rapid drainage of extravasated fluid and ...
Sinclair J F - - 1985
An elderly normotensive man underwent percutaneous ultrasonic lithotripsy for renal stone disease, the procedure lasting three hours and the fragments being washed out with 20 l 1.5% glycine. After two hours the inflation pressure had risen to 25 cm H2O and his blood pressure to 150 mm Hg. Inflation pressure ...
Noone K E - - 1985
There are four factors that govern fluid movement to or from the pleural space: hydrostatic pressure, colloid osmotic pressure, filtration coefficient, and lymphatic function. When any of these factors are altered, fluid accumulates within the pleural space. Congestive heart failure, pancreatitis, neoplasia, hypoalbuminemia, and pulmonary thromboembolism can evoke pleural effusions ...
Herrmann A - - 1985
A drastic increase of the intracellular microviscosity of red blood cells in the presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG) was established by electron spin resonance using the small spin label molecule 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperidine-N-oxyl-4-one (TEMPONE). The effective osmotic pressure of PEG solutions stressing the cells was estimated by comparison with those cytoplasmic rotational ...
Sánchez de León R - - 1985
The relationship between fluid filtration rate (FFR) and plasma colloid osmotic pressure (COP) was studied in isolated rabbit lungs perfused at constant flow. A 50% to 60% decrease in COP increased FFR more when left atrial pressure (LAP) was 12.8 to 15 mm Hg than when it was 7.5 to ...
Bassett J E - - 1985
Tissue fluid pressures were recorded from subcutaneous tissues of three bat species by means of an improved servo-micropipet pressure recording system. Experimental animals were restrained but unanesthetized during the procedure by methods which avoided vascular occlusion. Tissue fluid pressures averaged +0.46 +/- 2.08 mm Hg (n = 12) in the ...
Tveit E - - 1985
Interstitial fluid pressure was measured by the wick-in-needle technique in DMBA-induced rat mammary tumours during resting conditions and during noradrenaline infusion. The rate of infusion was chosen to increase the systemic blood pressure by 30-40 mmHg, known to result in a markedly increased vascular resistance of these tumours. During resting ...
Huerta Torrijos J - - 1985
We examined the relationship between measured colloid osmotic pressure (COP), and COP calculated from serum total protein concentration (TP). Serum COP and TP were measured in 40 patients with severe abdominal sepsis. Measured COP values were not significantly different from values calculated using three separate formulas. The correlation rate between ...
Mathias R T - - 1985
The relationship between epithelial fluid transport, standing osmotic gradients, and standing hydrostatic pressure gradients has been investigated using a perturbation expansion of the governing equations. The assumptions used in the expansion are: (a) the volume of lateral intercellular space per unit volume of epithelium is small; (b) the membrane osmotic ...
Adair T H - - 1985
We developed a new method for measuring tissue fluid pressure in subcutaneous tissue. Porous Teflon cylinders were permanently implanted subcutaneously into the inguinal area of 10 dogs, and after several weeks a skin concavity formed in the center of each of the cylinders. A small needle attached to a recording ...
Mayhan W G - - 1985
We studied disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) by acute hypertension and a hyperosmolar solution. The goals were to determine whether 1) disruption of the BBB occurs primarily in arteries, capillaries, or veins, and 2) transport of different-sized molecules is homogeneous or size dependent. Sprague-Dawley rats were studied using intravital ...
Weems W A - - 1985
Experiments were conducted in vitro to determine whether arterial infusion of the C-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin (CCK-8) into cat jejunal segments could elicit propulsive behavior when a segment must do hydrostatic work to expel fluid. Oral and aboral ends of jejunal segments, 17 cm in length, were connected to a ...
Termaat A - - 1985
The aim of this work was to test the hypothesis that the reduced growth rate of wheat and barley that results when the roots are exposed to NaCl is due to inadequate turgor in the expanding cells of the leaves. The hypothesis was tested by exposing plants to 100 millimolar ...
Gonik B - - 1985
A prospective, fluid-controlled study of serially measured colloid osmotic pressure changes in the peripartum period was undertaken. Seventeen patients with uncomplicated pregnancies undergoing elective cesarean section at term were administered a predelivery bolus of 15 ml/kg of lactated Ringer's solution prior to operation. Maintenance crystalloid fluids were infused at 125 ...
Henriksen J H - - 1985
Colloid osmotic pressure in plasma (IIP) and ascitic fluid (IIA) and hydrostatic pressures in the hepatoportal system were measured simultaneously in 20 patients with decompensated cirrhosis. IIP was significantly decreased (mean, 21 mm Hg, versus normal, 30 mm Hg; P less than 0.01), and IIA was significantly below that of ...
Knight A D - - 1985
A synovial cavity is separated from plasma by synovial intima in series with capillary endothelium. Because 20% of the intimal surface is bare interstitium, the system is a convenient model for the study of passive transport through serial endothelial and interstitial layers. Here hydraulic flow across the composite barrier was ...
Barnes G E - - 1985
Intra-abdominal fluid volume and hydrostatic pressure were elevated by positive pressure infusion of Tyrode solution into the peritoneal cavity of anesthetized dogs. The compliance of the peritoneal cavity fell from 10.8 to 0.56 ml X mmHg-1 X kg-1 of body wt as intra-abdominal pressure increased from 0 to 40 mmHg. ...
Rippe B - - 1985
The osmotic reflection coefficient (sigma) for total plasma proteins was estimated in 11 isolated blood-perfused canine lungs. Sigma's were determined by first measuring the capillary filtration coefficient (Kf,C in ml X min-1 X 100g-1 X cmH2O-1) using increased hydrostatic pressures and time 0 extrapolation of the slope of the weight ...
Shabetai R - - 1985
Previous studies of cardiac function in elasmobranch fishes have not included the influence of the pericardioperitoneal canal on pericardial pressure and volume and thus on cardiac function. Accordingly, we studied the function of the pericardium and pericardioperitoneal canal in sharks and rays. We found negative pericardial pressure that rose to ...
Lande W M - - 1985
Volume regulation in the red cell depends on the balance between the osmotic swelling pressure contributed by the polyvalent anions 2,3-DPG and haemoglobin, and the counterbalancing osmotic pressure provided by extracellular Na+. Although changes in 2,3-DPG have been identified in some cases, increases in the electrodiffusional leak of Na+ and ...
Maroudas A - - 1985
An experimental study was carried out which involved comparing cartilage from normal and osteoarthritic joints with respect to (a) swelling pressure and (b) variation of hydration with applied pressure. The main conclusion was that whilst osteoarthritic cartilage is undoubtedly less able to resist water loss under a given applied pressure ...
Koomans H A - - 1985
To find out why most patients with the nephrotic syndrome maintain a normal blood volume despite a reduced plasma colloid osmotic pressure (COP), we measured the transcapillary (plasma-tissue fluid) COP difference in 12 patients with the nephrotic syndrome, as well as in 6 patients during complete (n = 3) and ...
Urban J P - - 1985
In this study we have considered how equilibrium water content of the human nucleus pulposus varies with applied pressure for discs of various spinal levels and of various ages. In all cases hydration decreased as pressure increased but the level of equilibrium hydration depended on the relative amounts of collagen ...
Miller D M - - 1985
The volume flux, J(v), and the osmotic driving force, sigma big up tri, openpi, across excised root systems of Zea mays were measued as a function of big up tri, openP, the hydrostatic pressure difference applied across the root, using the pressure jump method previously described (Miller DM 1980 Can ...
Aladdin Q I - - 1985
Eruption rates of resected incisors were measured while their sockets were kept open to the mouth. In other resected incisors, hypertonic solutions were placed in the pulp cavity, with the intention of drawing fluid by osmosis across the membrane separating the pulp cavity from the socket, to lower the pressures ...
Oian P - - 1985
Plasma and interstitial fluid colloid osmotic pressure (COP) and interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure (Pi) were measured in 10 normal pregnant women in first and third trimester. Interstitial fluid COP was measured by a "wick" technique and Pi by a "wick-in-needle" technique. The COP was significantly lower both in plasma and ...
Holly F J - - 1985
While the total osmolality of the aqueous tears and tear substitutes has received much attention in the past few years, the colloidal osmolality or the oncotic pressure (which includes the Donnan effect), has received practically no attention except for one single foreign publication. The colloidal osmolality of tears is twentyfold ...
Miller D M - - 1985
The cut ends of excised Zea mays roots were sealed to a pressure transducer and their root pressures recorded. These rose approximately hyperbolically to a maximum value of 4.21 +/- 0.34 bar after 30 to 40 minutes. Xylem exudate could not be collected at this pressure since the flow rate ...
Rappaport C - - 1984
The osmotic problems involved when cells are isolated from tissues are analyzed. Evidence is considered which indicates that in vivo the Na pump is operating at maximal or near maximal rates and that this depends on low leak rates for salts and water due to various aspects of the tissues ...
Negi A - - 1984
We have measured the rate of subretinal fluid resorption in rabbits by monitoring the collapse of small experimental retinal detachments (blebs) filled with either Hanks' solution (non-proteinaceous) or autologous serum. Blebs filled with Hanks' solution resorbed much more rapidly over freshly lasered RPE than normal RPE, but the effect disappeared ...
Fauchald P - - 1984
Colloid osmotic pressure in plasma (IIp) and in subcutaneous interstitial fluid (IIi) (wick technique), plasma volume (PV) and interstitial fluid volume (IFV) were measured in nephrotic patients (n = 11) and in healthy controls. Six of the patients were treated with ultrafiltration and the parameters were measured before and after ...
Turski P A - - 1984
A double-blind comparison of Hexabrix and Renografin-76 for intravenous digital subtraction angiography (IV-DSA) revealed a slightly greater percentage of patients with good or satisfactory examinations who received Hexabrix. There were fewer perturbations of the ECG, less alteration in the diastolic blood pressure, and no serious adverse reactions noted in the ...
Calder I M - - 1984
The object of the experiments was to observe the effects of small jets of high pressure fluid on skin and subcutaneous tissues. This was to simulate a situation which might occur following minor failures in the pressure hulls of submersibles. It was found that the dissipation of Kinetic Energy on ...
Quillen E W EW - - 1984
Continuous peritoneal dialysis has been used to maintain anephric dogs at chronically sustained low, normal, and high volume states in order to study the long-term interaction of volume and osmotic stimuli in the control of plasma vasopressin (PAVP). Bilaterally nephrectomized dogs were maintained for 1-3 mo with normal plasma sodium ...
Koch A L - - 1984
The immediate response of growing Escherichia coli to changing external osmotic pressure was studied with stopped-flow turbidimetric measurements with a narrow-beam spectrophotometer. It is shown theoretically that in such a photometer rod-shaped bacteria have an apparent absorbance which is proportional to the inverse of the surface area. The apparent optical ...
Little R C - - 1984
Edema is a common clinical sign indicating expansion of the interstitial fluid volume. Factors that regulate the size of this compartment are capillary fluid dynamics, interstitial fluid pressure, lymph flow, and interstitial compartment compliance, all of which are delicately balanced. An appreciation of the manner in which common disease processes ...
Noddeland H - - 1984
Subcutaneous oedema is a common finding in heart failure. However, some patients have reduced cardiac pump function without oedema. The aim of this study was to investigate whether local mechanisms in subcutaneous tissue contribute to oedema prevention. A reduction in interstitial colloid osmotic pressure (pii) and a rise in interstitial ...
Bowsher D J - - 1984
The kinetics of urea and inulin were studied after simultaneous i.v. injection in six anesthetized dogs. The distribution of both compounds was characterized by a three-compartment model. The initial volume of urea distribution averaged 2.21 +/- 0.39 liters (+/- S.D.) and was similar to the expected volume of intravascular space. ...
Buhac I - - 1984
Tense ascites is a widely used clinical concept lacking a quantitative correlate. In 13 patients with tense cirrhotic ascites we measured total intraabdominal pressure (IAP), hydrostatic pressure (HP), and tension. HP was defined as the level of ascitic fluid determined by percussion of the abdominal wall, and tension was the ...
Lüttge U - - 1984
Malate concentration and stem osmotic pressure concomitantly increase during nighttime CO(2) fixation and then decrease during the daytime in the obligate Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant, Cereus validus (Cactaceae). Changes in malate osmotic pressure calculated using the Van't Hoff relation match the changes in stem osmotic pressure, indicating that changes ...
Michel R P - - 1984
We utilized light microscopic morphometry to examine the distribution of fluid in bronchovascular bundles of different sizes. Permeability edema was induced in 10 anesthetized dogs with 27 mg/kg of alpha-naphthylthiourea. Eight dogs served as controls. After moderately severe edema, diagnosed on chest radiographs and with decreasing arterial pO2, lobes were ...
Tözeren H - - 1984
Viscous dissipation inside the erythrocyte during its aspirational entry into a micropipette is analyzed. The motion of the intracellular fluid is approximated by a flow into the micropipette orifice from a half space (the portion of the erythrocyte outside the micropipette). The stream function and intracellular pressure (p) in the ...
Roth T E - - 1984
Synovial fluid hydrostatic pressure within the temporomandibular joint of the pig, Sus scrofa domesticus, was examined, utilizing the "wick method" for the determination of fluid pressure. Acute hydrostatic pressure levels were monitored in seven surgically exposed TMJ capsules of five animals. In six out of seven of the surgically exposed ...
Hecker J F - - 1984
It is suggested that failure of infusions because of phlebitis or extravasation usually results from irritation of the endothelium by the infusate, inducing venoconstriction. If such venoconstriction prevents flow, then pressure which builds up in the vein will enlarge the hole in its wall made by the needle or cannula ...
Cotton D B - - 1984
A study was undertaken to determine the effect of route of delivery on plasma colloid osmotic pressure. Plasma colloid osmotic pressure was measured on admission to the hospital and 8 to 24 hours post partum in 72 patients at term with uncomplicated prenatal histories. Thirty-six patients underwent uncomplicated vaginal deliveries ...
Milligan S R - - 1984
The hydrostatic pressures generated during controlled flushing of the mouse uterus increased at implantation and under conditions of uterine closure. These pressures may be responsible for inducing tissue damage during flushing. The possibility that samples collected by flushing might be contaminated with interstitial fluid or plasma was studied using intravenously ...
Weems W A - - 1984
The intrinsic ability of cat colonic segments to do hydrostatic work to expel fluid was investigated in vitro and compared with the propulsive ability of ileal segments evaluated under identical conditions. Colonic segments spontaneously produced propulsive complexes at an average interval of 4.8 min when basal intraluminal pressure was set ...
Knight A D - - 1984
Fluid exchange across the synovium lining the cavity of extended knees was studied in twenty rabbit hindquarters. The isolated hindquarters were perfused with blood from an extracorporeal pump-oxygenator system at controlled arterial pressure (PA) and venous pressure (PV). Intra-articular pressure (PJ) was set at 18 cmH2O in most experiments. The ...
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