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Hargens A R - - 1989
The two basic research tools developed to measure tissue fluid pressure (wick catheter) and osmotic pressure (colloid osmometer) have undergone extensive validation and refinement over the past 20 years. Using these techniques, basic science investigations were undertaken of edema in Amazon reptiles, pressure-volume relations in animals and plants, adaptive physiology ...
Lee Y F - - 1989
A large amount of fluid extravasation into the surrounding muscle and soft tissue may occur during arthroscopy of the shoulder and particularly of the subacromial space. The tense swollen appearance of the shoulder has caused concern that the intramuscular deltoid pressure may become elevated to dangerous levels. Therefore, the intramuscular ...
Tomos A D - - 1989
The intrinsic control of uniform and differential growth of plant cells can be traced to a small number of physical parameters. These are cell wall rheology, membrane and tissue hydraulic conductivity, and membrane and tissue solute transport. Water and solute effects are manifested as alterations in turgor pressure. Environmental and ...
Cosgrove D J - - 1989
Stem elongation in peas (Pisum sativum L.) is under partial control by gibberellins, yet the mechanism of such control is uncertain. In this study, we examined the cellular and physical properties that govern stem elongation, to determine how gibberellins influence pea stem growth. Stem elongation of etiolated seedlings was retarded ...
Wolf M B - - 1989
Capillary osmotic reflection coefficients (sigma) for NaCl, urea, sucrose, and raffinose were measured in the isolated, perfused cat hindlimb using the osmotic transient technique. sigma were determined from the ratio of the maximum rate of transcapillary absorption [delta Jv(max)] to the increase in the osmotic pressure (25-35 mosmol/kg H2O) in ...
Flynn H W - - 1989
A cannulated extrusion needle was designed as a modification of the standard 20-gauge extrusion by including an inner 24-gauge flexible cannula that can be extended up to 18 mm beyond the metal tip. Indications for use of the instrument are reviewed along with selected case histories demonstrating its use. The ...
Myers R R - - 1988
Endoneurial fluid pressure measurements were made in the interstitial space of rat L5 dorsal root ganglia and in the corresponding sciatic nerves. Endoneurial fluid pressure was always higher in the ganglia than in the paired distal nerve. This proximodistal gradient in endoneurial fluid pressure may be the driving force responsible ...
Ohayon J - - 1988
The microstructure of the collagen sheath or weave surrounding a myocyte and the collagen struts interconnecting neighboring myocytes is incorporated into a fluid-fiber-collagen continuum description of the myocardium. The sheaths contribute to anisotropic elasticity, whereas the struts contribute to an isotropic component. Elastic moduli of the composite myocyte-sheath complex and ...
Rein K A - - 1988
The intra- and postoperative variations of the transcapillary forces [colloid osmotic pressure of plasma (COPpl), colloid osmotic pressure of interstitial fluid (COPif), average hydrostatic pressure in the interstitium (Pif)] were studied in the subcutaneous tissue as a function of time in 13 patients operated on for coronary artery disease using ...
Kirshon B - - 1988
Fifteen primigravid patients with severe pregnancy-induced hypertension were studied by catheterization of the right side of the heart. A hemodynamic protocol was implemented that required maintaining colloid osmotic pressure above 17 millimeters of mercury, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure below 15 millimeters of mercury and the mean arterial pressure in a ...
Lund T - - 1988
Interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure (Pif) was measured with micropipettes during the acute edema generation that followed thermal skin injury in rats. Intradermal Pif was reduced from normal level of -1 mmHg to very negative values after thermal injury. The strongly negative Pif reflects a tissue imbibition pressure created by the ...
Millman B M - - 1988
Repulsive pressure in the A-band filament lattice of relaxed frog skeletal muscle has been measured as a function of interfilament spacing using an osmotic shrinking technique. Much improved chemical skinning was obtained when the muscles were equilibrated in the presence of EGTA before skinning. The lattice shrank with increasing external ...
Lauter D J - - 1988
Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) plants were grown for 4 weeks in saline, isoosmotic rooting substrates with different proportions of K and Na. Isoosmotic media did not affect growth (except at the highest external K concentrations) or estimates of intracellular osmotic pressure in expanding leaves (i.e. osmotic ...
Miserocchi G - - 1988
In 15 anesthetized apneic, oxygenated rabbits we simultaneously measured pleural liquid and interstitial extrapleural parietal pressures by using catheters and/or cannulas and micropipettes connected to a servonull system. With the animal in lateral posture, at an average recording height of 4.4 +/- 0.9 (SD) cm from the most dependent part ...
Hatashita S - - 1988
The relationship of the osmotic pressure gradient between blood and brain, and the development of ischemic brain edema was studied. Focal cerebral ischemia was produced by left middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. Brain osmolality was determined with a vapor pressure osmometer, brain water content by wet-dry weight, and tissue ...
Bradley J R - - 1988
The role of peripheral vascular tone in the development of hypotension induced by dialysis was investigated in eight patients undergoing haemodialysis with acetate or bicarbonate buffered fluid. Each patient had two sessions of dialysis with acetate fluid and two with bicarbonate fluid in the order acetate, bicarbonate, bicarbonate, acetate or ...
Daniels F H - - 1988
Various small and large molecules have been studied as osmotic agents to replace dextrose in peritoneal dialysis. Macromolecules are attractive because of their slow absorption from intraperitoneal solutions; however, it has been assumed that they are only marginally effective as osmotic agents unless they function as polyelectrolytes at physiological pH. ...
Montgomery R J - - 1988
After injection of ferritin into the tibial nutrient artery of adult dogs, ferritin was seen in the interstitial fluid compartment of the tibial cortex immediately and up to 25 min after injection. The pattern of movement was consistent with bulk interstitial fluid flow influenced by hydrostatic pressure. In osteons sectioned ...
Causse J B - - 1988
Causes of vertigo after otosclerosis surgery were studied postoperatively and in long-term follow-up examinations. Pressure and mobility changes in the posterior labyrinth fluids, enzymatic process, and decrease in blood supply at the time of operation appear to be the major causes. Methods of detection, avoiding, and managing vertigo are presented.
Gamble J - - 1988
1. The isolated perfused submandibular salivary gland of the rabbit has been used in order to make estimates of the filtration coefficient (Kf) and reflection coefficient (sigma d) of the capillary wall to albumin. 2. An isogravimetric preparation was used and in paired experiments the value for Kf obtained in ...
Rein K A - - 1988
The purpose of this study was to compare the blister suction technique and the wick technique for measuring interstitial colloid osmotic pressure of subcutaneous tissue (COPif). Eight healthy volunteers and 14 patients undergoing aortocoronary bypass using extracorporal circulation (ECC) were included in the investigation. Colloid osmotic pressure was measured in ...
Linko K - - 1988
Twenty healthy pigs weighing 12-17 kg were anesthetized and the small intestines were exteriorized into saline-moistened gauze. During a 2-h period 4% of the animals' body weight was bled through an arterial cannula in six increments and replaced immediately by the fluid tested: hydroxyethyl starch 120 (HES, Plasmafusin, Orion Corp., ...
Wiig H - - 1988
A colloid osmometer for submicrolitre samples was constructed from solid polymethylmetacrylate and acrylnitrilmethylmetacrylate blocks, exposing a 0.85 mm diameter area of a Diaflo PM-30 ultrafiltration membrane. The unknown sample, contained in a 1-microliter glass micropipette, was applied to the membrane by suction, providing minimal exposure to air. The lower limit ...
Forni F - - 1988
The mechanism of papaverine hydrochloride release from ethyl cellulose-walled microcapsules in both simulated gastric and intestinal fluid is discussed. The microcapsules were prepared by coacervation using different core: wall ratios. The rupture of the thin-walled microcapsules after release in simulated gastric fluid was shown and attributed to the internal osmotic ...
Suzuki S - - 1988
A 40-year-old man developed cardiomegaly with protrusion of the right heart border following staphylococcal endocarditis. Computed tomography of the chest revealed a large anterior mediastinal mass. Hemodynamic pressure curves presented features similar to those of constrictive pericarditis. At operation, 150 ml of purulent fluid was encapsulated within the thickened pericardium ...
Dandekar P V - - 1988
Polyovular follicles were found in 61 (24%) of 251 laparoscopies performed for in vitro fertilization. Of 898 follicles that contained at least one oocyte, 76 (8%) were polyovular. When the oocytes from polyovular follicles were assessed by morphologic criteria, it was found that 46 of the follicles contained oocytes that ...
Yamada S - - 1988
We have continuously measured protein osmotic pressure of blood and lymph in sheep to compare two kinds of needle osmometers (rigid and flexible) with a membrane osmometer (Wescor). We also compared the averaged values of the continuous measurement with osmotic pressure calculated from total protein and albumin fraction, using the ...
Ahlqvist J - - 1988
In many types of arthropathy the synovial fluid (SF) oxygen tension and glucose levels often are low and associated with lactic acidosis which, unless joints are insensitive to the lack of fuel and oxygen, must contribute to joint damage. To such hypoxic-ischaemic changes can contribute quite a number of rheological ...
Gonnet F - - 1988
To investigate a possible effect of osmotic pressure on prolactin (PRL) release in rainbow trout, we developed a technique for in vitro perifusion of trout pituitaries. Changes in osmotic pressure similar to those observed in fish plasma during transfer experiments did not induce significant modifications of PRL release. In contrast, ...
Bert J L - - 1988
A dynamic mathematical model is formulated and used to describe the distribution and transport of fluid and plasma proteins between the circulation, interstitial space of skin and muscle, and the lymphatics in the rat. Two descriptions of transcapillary exchange are investigated: a homoporous "Starling model" and a heteroporous "plasma leak ...
Levick J R - - 1988
Fluid exchanges between blood and a synovial joint cavity across two membranes in series--synovial capillary wall (fenestrated) and synovial intima (modified connective tissue). The relation between transsynovial absorption of intraarticular Krebs solution (flow Qs) and plasma colloid osmotic pressure pi p was investigated in rabbit knees perfused at constant blood ...
Hatashita S - - 1988
We studied whether the biomechanical properties of brain play an important role in the development of early ischemic brain edema in cats with middle cerebral artery occlusion. Brain tissue pressure, tissue compliance, and tissue resistance were measured from the gray matter in the core and the periphery of the middle ...
Knox P - - 1988
Synovial fluid from rabbit elbow, shoulder, hip and knee was analysed to establish the normal levels of parameters relevant to fluid exchange viz. fluid mass per joint, hydraulic pressure, temperature, colloid osmotic pressure (COP), protein, albumin and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) concentrations. Fluid mass was greatest in the least congruous joint, the ...
Rein K A - - 1988
Colloid osmotic pressure in plasma (COPpl) from a cubital vein and in interstitial fluid (COPif) in the subcutaneous tissue at heart level, and interstitial fluid pressure (Pif) at the same level, were measured in 18 healthy subjects and in 28 patients requiring aortocoronary bypass. Interstitial fluid was collected via subcutaneously ...
D'Amore T - - 1988
An intracellular accumulation of ethanol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was observed during the early stages of fermentation (3 h). However, after 12 h of fermentation, the intracellular and extracellular ethanol concentrations were similar. Increasing the osmotic pressure of the medium caused an increase in the ratio of intracellular to extracellular ethanol ...
Knight A D - - 1988
The volume of synovial fluid in a joint correlates inversely with plasma colloid osmotic pressure (COP). The inferred influence of plasma osmotic forces on trans-synovial flow was investigated directly here, in isolated perfused hindquarters of sixteen rabbits. Flow of intra-articularly infused Krebs solution across the synovial lining of the cannulated ...
Schmalstig J G - - 1988
The dependence of stem elongation on solute import was investigated in etiolated pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L. var Alaska) by excising the cotyledons. Stem elongation was inhibited by 60% within 5 hours of excision. Dry weight accumulation into the growing region stopped and osmotic pressure of the cell sap declined ...
Ahlqvist J - - 1988
Analysis of rheumatoid factor (RF) effects according to physiological principles suggests that RF activity may decrease joint swelling by (i) decreasing synovial fluid (SF) colloid osmotic pressure, by increasing plasma viscosity and thereby decreasing (ii) fluid escape from the plasma and (iii) convective flux of proteins into joints, and by ...
Petrow J M - - 1988
New aspects and details of the mechanism of the microcirculation in the tissues are discussed in the paper. Particular attention is payed to the role of the blood pressure amplitude for the filtration and resorption processes through the capillary wall. A new model of the microcirculation is discribed in which ...
Hahn R - - 1988
Continuous recording of intravesical pressure (IVP) and incremental volumetric measurements of irrigating fluid absorption were performed during 37 transurethral resections of the prostate (TUR). Absorption which resulted in concomitant dilutional changes in peripheral blood, indicating intravascular absorption, was associated with prolongation of the time required to increase the IVP. There ...
Tedgui A - - 1987
To measure the distribution volume for sucrose and albumin in the media of the rabbit thoracic aorta, we studied the uptake of tracers in vitro. In most cases the tracers were applied to both luminal and adventitial surfaces at the same concentration. When transmural convection was prevented by pressurization of ...
McIntosh T J - - 1987
The change in pressure needed to bring egg phosphatidylcholine bilayers into contact from their equilibrium separation in excess water has been determined as a function of both distance between the bilayers and water content. A distinct upward break in the pressure-distance relation appears at an interbilayer separation of about 5 ...
McCarty B W - - 1987
Ovalbumin and lysozyme have been reported to undergo a mixed association in solutions of low ionic strength. Osmotic pressure experiments were performed on ovalbumin and on lysozyme solutions in 0.06 M cacodylate buffer (I = 0.02, pH = 5.8) at 30 and at 37 degrees C. The individual proteins did ...
Alizadeh H - - 1987
The onset and duration of alterations in intrinsic fluid propelling behavior of guinea pig jejunum caused by infection with Trichinella spiralis was determined using an in vitro monitoring system. Isolated intestinal segments from uninfected hosts produced propulsive complexes of approximately 30-s duration at 125-s intervals. The maximum intraluminal pressure produced ...
Pomeranz A - - 1987
Adequate drainage volume (DV) is a prerequisite for long-term success of intermittent peritoneal dialysis (IPD). Ultrafiltration (UF) is basically determined by the interplay of two major forces: a driving osmotic force created by a hyperosmolar dialysate solution versus an opposing force--the intraperitoneal hydrostatic pressure. Conventional drainage procedures (CS) are capable ...
Reed R H - - 1987
Natural-abundance 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has shown glycerol to be the major osmotically significant low-molecular-weight solute in exponentially growing, salt-stressed cells of the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, and Debaromyces hansenii. Measurement of the intracellular nonosmotic volume (i.e., the fraction of the cell that is osmotically unresponsive) by using the ...
Koch A L - - 1987
Gas vesicles were used as probes to measure turgor pressure in Ancylobacter aquaticus. The externally applied pressure required to collapse the vesicles in turgid cells was compared with that in cells whose turgor had been partially or totally removed by adding an impermeable solute to the external medium. Since gram-negative ...
Steudle E - - 1987
A root pressure probe has been used to measure the root pressure (P(r)) exerted by excised main roots of young maize plants (Zea Mays L.). Defined gradients of hydrostatic and osmotic pressure could be set up between root xylem and medium to induce radial water flows across the root cylinder ...
Wiig H - - 1987
Interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) was measured with two acute (micropipettes and wick-in-needle) and two chronic methods (perforated and porous capsules) in dog skin/subcutis. In control conditions all techniques gave similar mean pressures, approximately -2 mmHg. Overhydration induced by intravenous Ringer infusion, 10% of body wt, caused two to three times ...
Oian P - - 1987
Capillary hydrostatic pressure has been calculated in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia. In humans, capillary hydrostatic pressure cannot be measured directly but may be calculated when the colloid osmotic pressure in plasma and interstitial fluid and interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure are known (Starling equation). New methods have made it possible to ...
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