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Results 601 - 650 of 1138
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Levick J R - - 1991
The synovial lining of a joint is a layer of specialized connective tissue, containing fenestrated capillaries, that regulates the volume and composition of fluid in the joint cavity. The hydraulic conductance of the synovial lining and of the plasma-to-cavity pathway is increased by high intra-articular pressures (IAP greater than 9 ...
Shackel K A - - 1991
The pressure microprobe was used to determine whether the turgor pressure in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., variety "Castelmart") pericarp cells changed during fruit ripening. The turgor pressure of cells located 200 to 500 micrometers below the fruit epidermis was uniform within the same tissue (typically +/- 0.02 megapascals), and the ...
Prior F G - - 1991
Problems inherent in the existing theories of fluid exchange are discussed. An alternative theory based on the interaction between the pulsing of the capillary pressure and the osmotic gradient between plasma and interstitial fluid is offered. Theoretic values for plasma and interstitial osmolalities are calculated. These are similar to the ...
Jones S R - - 1991
Culture characteristics of two species of piscine trypanosomes were compared. Trypanosoma catostomi from Catostomus commersoni was isolated in hypo-osmotic blood agar media but not in hyper-osmotic media. However, T. phaleri from Amia calva was isolated in both media. Only T. catostomi was stimulated to divide by diluting infected blood with ...
Jewell J B - - 1991
We reported previously that, when exposed to high osmotic pressure, Lactobacillus acidophilus IFO 3532 cells accumulated N,N,N-trimethylglycine (glycine betaine), which serves as a compatible intracellular solute. When grown in medium with high osmotic pressure, these cells also accumulated one amino acid, proline. The uptake of [3H]proline by resting, glucose-energized cells ...
Gilányi M - - 1991
It has been suggested that electrostatic interactions between the electric charges on the interstitial gel matrix play a significant role in determining tissue elasticity and interstitial fluid pressure (IFP). The relationship between the net charge and IFP, however, has not been adequately established. Our purpose was to explore the net ...
Aarli V - - 1991
The long-term effect of increased local venous pressure (Pv) on interstitial fluid pressure (Pi), colloid osmotic pressure (COPi), and fractional removal rate of 125I-labeled human serum albumin (kAlb) was studied in rat gingiva. Measurements were performed on experimental animals and sham-operated controls up to 4 days after ligation of jugular ...
Adair T H - - 1991
We tested the hypothesis that mechanical factors associated, with a skin concavity can cause the local tissue fluid pressure to become more negative. Perforated Teflon collars, 26 mm in diameter and having various heights (5, 10, 13, and 16 mm), were implanted into the fascial plane of the inguinal and ...
Meikle A J - - 1991
Analysis of seventeen yeast strains by 13C-NMR spectroscopy has confirmed the significance of glycerol as the sole osmoregulatory solute under salt-stressed conditions, and has shown arabitol to be present in most of the osmotolerant species. Ribitol was detected in some species, including Debaryomyces hansenii, although ribitol accumulation did not correlate ...
Somjen G G - - 1991
The blood-brain barrier was breached in urethane anaesthetized rats by infusing hypertonic mannitol or NaCl at high rate under high pressure into one internal carotid artery. Opening of the blood-brain barrier was confirmed by staining of the perfused hemisphere by intravenous Evans Blue dye. Orthodromic-evoked potentials in CA1 region of ...
Helms L M - - 1991
Altered osmotic pressure and somatostatin (SRIF) rapidly alter prolactin (PRL) release from the pituitary gland of the euryhaline teleost, the tilapia. The present studies were undertaken to determine whether altered osmotic pressure and SRIF influence cAMP metabolism in a manner that is correlated with the pattern of PRL release observed ...
Redondo-Müller C - - 1991
Carp semen obtained from isolated fish after hormonal stimulation was highly variable in terms of volume of semen, osmotic pressure of the seminal plasma, and sperm capacity to move. Moreover, this last parameter was unstable when the spermatozoa were kept within the seminal plasma, and the present work was designed ...
Ramsay J G - - 1991
A variety of techniques can aid the anaesthetist in reducing requirements for perioperative blood products. These include careful preoperative assessment of the patient, and employing techniques during surgery which reduce the blood pressure and help preserve the normal haemostatic mechanism. If the level to which haematocrit will be permitted to ...
Ikeda K - - 1991
The ionic composition of the endolymph in the endolymphatic sac (ES) of the chinchilla was measured using double-barreled ion-selective micro-electrodes. The DC potential of the ES was 9.3 +/- 1.8 mV (N = 18). The K+, Na+, and Cl- concentrations of the ES were 13.3 +/- 4.7 mM (N = ...
Nearman H S - - 1991
Colloid fluid solutions are frequently used as plasma volume expanders in the critically ill. As a group, these nonblood volume replacement solutions have in common a number of potential adverse effects. Intravascular volume overload, dilutional coagulopathy, extravascular extravasation across leaky capillary membranes, and anaphylactoid reactions may all occur with administration ...
Reed R K - - 1991
Interstitial fluid pressure (Pif) was measured in skin of pentobarbital-anesthetized rats during anaphylaxis toward dextran and after subdermal injection of histamine by using sharpened glass capillaries (tip diam 5-7 microns) connected to a servo-controlled counterpressure system. Control Pif averaged -1.5 mmHg (SD = 1.0). After intravenous dextran Pif in the ...
Aarli V - - 1991
This study was performed to provide information on the determinants of lymph flow by comparing the effect of venous stasis and hypoproteinaemia in the rat tail. This low-compliant tissue was chosen in an attempt to induce preferential changes in interstitial pressure or volume. The removal rate (kAlb) of 125I-labelled human ...
Rudnick J - - 1991
Two-dimensional cell-like membranes acted on by osmotic pressure differentials are represented by closed, unrestricted random walks. The treatment omits excluded-volume effects, and the pressure that is imposed thus favors an oriented area, so that the shriveled configuration of a vesicle with excess external pressure is inaccessible in this model. Nevertheless, ...
Aarli V - - 1991
The long-term effect of elevated tail venous pressure (Pv) on interstitial fluid pressure (Pi) and colloid osmotic pressure (COPi) was studied in rats. Measurements were performed on different rats after 1-5 days of congestion, and on a sham operated control group. Two different degrees of venous stasis were obtained by ...
Bray D - - 1991
The possible involvement of osmotically generated hydrostatic pressure in driving actin-rich extensions of the cell surface was examined using cultures of chick neurons. Estimation of the excess internal osmotic pressure of chick neural tissue by vapor pressure deficit osmometry, and of the excess internal hydrostatic pressure in cultured chick neurons ...
Ballard S T - - 1991
We separated the solute and water flow across the alveolar epithelium from flow across airway epithelia of the adult rat. Small volumes (0.5-1.0 ml) of Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate (KRB) were trapped in the distal air space of the isolated vascular-perfused left lung lobes while the airways were blocked by immiscible O2-carrying ...
Maroudas A - - 1991
X-ray diffraction measurements on native and proteoglycan-free articular cartilage have been made in order to test the dependence of the lateral packing of the collagen molecules on the osmotic pressure gradient, either naturally occurring or externally applied, between the intra- and extrafibrillar compartments. From the information on collagen packing we ...
Onarheim H - - 1991
The effects of fluid therapy on interstitial colloid osmotic and hydrostatic pressures in thermally injured skin were investigated in anesthetized rats subjected to full-thickness scald burns to 40% of the body surface area and resuscitation for 3 hr by either lactated Ringer's or plasma. Interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure (Pif) was ...
Hodson S - - 1991
1. Ox corneal stromal swelling pressure (gel pressure) may be measured by osmometry: polyethylene glycol of nominal molecular mass 10,000 Da (PEG 10K) is a suitable non-penetrating solute. 2. Corneal hydrations equilibrate within 4 h of exposure to 154 mM-NaCl including various concentrations (2-8%) of PEG 10K, providing that the ...
Webb A R - - 1991
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of two hydroxyethyl starch solutions of different molecular weight ranges for volume maintenance in a porcine model of fecal peritonitis. DESIGN: Randomized prospective trial. SETTING: Laboratory investigation. SUBJECTS: Adolescent female pigs weighing approximately 30 kg. INTERVENTIONS: We compared diafiltered 6% pentastarch with 6% high molecular ...
Sathiaseelan V - - 1991
The heating potentials of two newly-developed microwave interstitial antennas are reported in this paper. The longitudinal (parallel to the antenna) and transverse (over a plane perpendicular to the antenna) specific absorption rate (SAR) distributions of single and an array of four parallel antennas were measured in a muscle equivalent phantom ...
Kelly S M - - 1991
The feasibility of using the servo-null technique for direct measurement of intracellular pressure (Pin) was investigated. A large cell, the Xenopus laevis oocyte, was chosen for study, and it was established that Pin obtained with this method was both stable and accurate in these cells. Median resting Pin in oocytes ...
Schaper M - - 1991
Using a previously developed bioassay, the sensory and pulmonary irritating properties of a group of 10 aerosolized machining fluids were evaluated in mice. Single, 3-hr inhalation exposures were conducted with the fluids at exposure concentrations ranging from 20 to 2000 mg/m3. The results have shown that all 10 were capable ...
Aukland K - - 1991
This study explores a centrifugation technique for estimating interstitial fluid composition and macromolecular transport. Rat tail tendon supported by a nylon net was subjected to three consecutive 15-min centrifugations at 3,000, 6,000, and 14,000 revolutions per minute (rpm) or 3, 10, and 20 min at 6,000 rpm. Colloid osmotic pressure ...
Wolter J R - - 1991
The cytopathology of a lipogranuloma of external origin is reported in the eyelid of a 32-year-old man excised 1 year following regional exposure to an explosion of hydraulic oil under high pressure. The foreign lipids were still present in chronic lipogranulomas with intercellular lipid-filled cysts surrounded by macrophages and giant ...
Gentine A - - 1991
The properties of the membranous wall of the semi-circular canal and of the labyrinthine fluids give as a result the inflating pressure of this inflatable structure. The difference of osmotic pressure between perilymph and endolymph, which is involved in this problem, depends on temperature. Therefore, a caloric stimulation leads to ...
Jansson B - - 1991
Hyaluronan (HA) 0.5, 1, 1.9 and 4% was instilled into the round window niche in mice. Six hours after the 1.9% HA and 4, 6 and 8 h after the 4% HA deposition there was a significant increase in the proportion of granule-containing light epithelial cells in the endolymphatic sac. ...
Hoeft A - - 1991
We have undertaken a randomized study on 20 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery in order to determine the influence of cardiopulmonary pump prime solutions on colloid osmotic pressure and extravascular lung water. Crystalloid priming with Ringer lactate was compared with an albumin solution of nearly physiological colloid osmotic composition ...
Briggs T P - - 1991
The transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) syndrome has been attributed to the effects of the excess absorption of irrigating fluid. Absorption may be reduced by preventing bladder distension using continuous irrigating resectoscopes or suprapubic trocar drainage. Pressure rises should be limited by the head of pressure in the fluid ...
Vincent J L - - 1991
The type of fluid that should be infused in the critically ill patient remains controversial. In the presence of normal lungs, maintenance of the colloid osmotic pressure (COP) can limit the development of pulmonary edema when the hydrostatic pressure is raised. When the permeability of the lung capillaries is altered, ...
Maita E - - 1991
Dentinal fluid volume and protein concentrations were measured from cavities prepared in the dentine of dog molars. Fluid was collected under spontaneous conditions, during the application of negative pressures, and during a recovery period. The data allowed the calculation of dentine permeability as hydraulic conductances, fluid flux, protein flux, reflection ...
Skandfer M - - 1991
Disturbed fluid balance is a significant clinical problem in hypothermia and rewarming. We have therefore investigated whether the transcapillary fluid balance in rats exposed to hypothermia and rewarming could be studied with the use of a wick method. Double nylon wicks were sewn into the abdominal skin and left there ...
Kigel J - - 1991
The underlying mechanism of photoinhibition of stem elongation by blue (BL) and red light (RL) was studied in etiolated seedlings of pea (Pisum sativum L. cv Alaska). Brief BL irradiations resulted in fast transient inhibition of elongation, while a delayed (lag approximately 60 minutes) but prolonged inhibition was observed after ...
Dodd K T - - 1991
Anesthetized, carefully positioned, female, weanling, white-haired pigs were used to test the hypothesis that (1) interface pressure, the pressure between the skin and an external load, can be used to predict the interstitial fluid pressure over the wings of ilia and the last dorsal spinous process and (2) three-dimensional tissue ...
Glover M G - - 1991
Swelling of the intervertebral disc nucleus pulposus may be a contributing factor in lower back pain syndromes. We have designed and tested a new osmometer for in vitro determination of nucleus pulposus swelling pressure. The functional principle of the osmometer involves compressing a sample of nucleus pulposus with nitrogen gas ...
Whatmore A M - - 1990
The effects of hypersaline treatment (osmotic upshock) on cell water relations were examined in the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis using particle size analysis. Application of the Boyle-van't Hoff relationship (cell volume versus reciprocal of external osmolality) permitted direct determination of turgor pressure, which was approximately 0.75 osmol kg-1 (1.9 MPa) ...
Rodt S A - - 1990
Intradermal interstitial fluid pressure (Pi) has been studied in rat skin during formation of inflammatory oedema caused by application of xylene. Pi was measured with sharpened micropipettes connected to a servocontrolled counter-pressure system. Control Pi averaged -1.3 +/- 0.6 (SD) mmHg. Following xylene application Pi decreased to -5.0 mmHg after ...
Guyton A C - - 1990
Long-term arterial pressure control is very different from acute control, because many of the acute control systems are overridden by a single long-term mechanism that has little to do with short-term control. This is the renal fluid volume mechanism for pressure control. It is based on a simple functional property ...
Ebbehøj N - - 1990
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the needle method for pancreatic tissue fluid pressure measurements. Clinical evaluation was performed in 24 patients with chronic pancreatitis, comparing repeated pressure measurements via sonographically guided fine-needle puncture and intraoperative pressure measurements by direct puncture of pancreatic tissue and duct. In ...
Wennberg E - - 1990
We have studied haemodilution and cardiovascular responses to i.v. hydration with either 3% dextran 70 (Dx70) or Ringer's acetate using a non-invasive cardiac output monitor (BoMed NCCOM3-R7) in 40 healthy parturients undergoing Caesarean section under extradural anaesthesia. Haemodilution was more pronounced, and central venous pressure, mean arterial pressure and cardiac ...
Undeen A H - - 1990
Both the lag period and the time required for the filament and sporoplasm to emerge from Nosema algerae spores were prolonged when germination occurred under hyperosmotic conditions. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) and sucrose inhibited germination, first by preventing eversion of the filament, and then at higher concentrations by preventing stimulation. The ...
Santamore W P - - 1990
It has been suggested that pericardial fluid functions as a lubricant rather than a means of transmitting pericardial pressure from one region of the heart to another. Since the functional behavior of pericardial fluid depends on fluid thickness, we measured pericardial volume and fluid distribution. In seven animals, we found ...
Hamann J - - 1990
Machine milking induced repeatable, short-term changes in thickness of the teat apex. These changes were measured with a spring-loaded caliper instrument under milking conditions that imposed differing forces on the teat apex. The mean percentage changes in teat end thickness (relative to the premilking values for individual teats) varied from ...
Randell T - - 1990
Brain-dead organ donors are often dehydrated and have serum electrolyte disorders. This study was designed to analyse the haemodynamic condition and serum electrolyte balance of liver donors. Two different fluid management plans for the harvesting operation were studied. Sixteen consecutive organ donors were included. They were randomly infused either with ...
Stelin G - - 1990
Intraperitoneal fluid volume (IPV) changes versus time were followed in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) using a simple volume recovery method. In each patient dialysates containing 1.36 and 3.86 percent glucose as an osmotic agent were investigated. The patients' IPV versus time data were fitted to a function ...
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