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Results 551 - 600 of 1138
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Tollan A - - 1993
Redistribution of body fluids has been suggested as a possible pathophysiological mechanism for the premenstrual syndrome (PMS). To elucidate this hypothesis, transcapillary fluid balance was studied in ten women with well defined PMS. Wick-methods were used for measuring colloid osmotic and hydrostatic interstitial pressures on the thorax and on the ...
Koller M E - - 1993
The present study was performed to investigate whether the increased negativity of interstitial fluid pressure (Pif) observed after intravenous injection of dextran could be mediated via mast cell degranulation induced by C48/80 and polymyxin B sulfate. Increased negativity of Pif, concomitant with edema formation and increased albumin extravasation, was seen ...
Jones D R - - 1993
The ability to resist fluid penetration was measured in body fabric and forearm seams of standard and reinforced non-woven disposable theatre gowns. Six standard use, non-woven gowns showed water strike-through in the body area at pressures ranging between 12.1 +/- 0.8 cmH2O and 23.2 +/- 2.2 cmH2O (means +/- 95% ...
Kamat S V - - 1993
Supercritical fluids are a unique class of nonaqueous media in which biocatalytic reactions can occur. The physical properties of supercritical fluids, which include gas-like diffusivities and liquid-like densities, can be predictably controlled with changing pressure. This paper describes how adjustment of pressure, with the subsequent predictable changes of the dielectric ...
Werner H A - - 1993
Continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration (CAVH) is an increasingly popular technique in the care of critically ill children. The operating characteristics of the available circuits are largely unknown. Prior to introducing CAVH into our pediatric intensive care unit, we investigated the performance of three CAVH circuits: CAVH with postfilter dilution, CAVH with ...
Watson P D - - 1993
Isolated vasodilated cat hindlimb skeletal muscles were perfused at constant flow and stimulated at 4 Hz for 2-4 min in three studies. Water uptake rates were measured gravimetrically or calculated from venous protein concentration changes. Venous plasma sodium, potassium, chloride, and osmolality were also measured. Maximum water uptake rates averaged ...
Bachofen H - - 1993
To study the accumulation and distribution of edema fluid and the associated changes in alveolar microarchitecture, edema was induced in excised rabbit lungs perfused with 6% albumin solution. The lungs, including the edema fluid, were then fixed by vascular perfusion with glutaraldehyde, osmium tetroxide, and uranyl acetate. Tissue samples were ...
Hahn R G - - 1993
The absorption of irrigating fluid was measured by the ethanol method every 10 minutes during the course of 700 transurethral prostatic resections. The total blood loss was also measured using a photometer method. We found that ethanol determination is a convenient method of monitoring irrigating fluid absorption in daily practice. ...
Harris T S - - 1993
Infiltration or extravasation is the undesirable infusion of fluids and medication into the tissue space surrounding a blood vessel. If left undetected, it may cause severe tissue damage to patients requiring surgical repair or even amputation. While there are numerous patents purporting the automatic detection of infiltration, few seem to ...
Renkin E M - - 1993
Tracer uptake studies were carried out in adult female Nagase (NA) strain analbuminemic rats [derived from Sprague-Dawley (SD) stock] and in adult female SD controls to determine the extent to which capillary permeability to plasma proteins is altered in the absence of endogenous albumin. Accessory measurements (arterial pressure, central venous ...
Astiz M E - - 1993
Hypovolemia is one of the principal defects contributing to cardiovascular instability and circulatory failure during septic shock. Fluid infusion is the mainstay of initial resuscitation. Large amounts of fluids may be required and should be titrated to optimal hemodynamic effects while attempting to minimize the development of pulmonary and systemic ...
Fusé M - - 1993
When subjected to hyper- or hypo-osmotic stress at 5 degrees C for 24 h, third-stage larvae of the parasitic nematode Pseudoterranova decipiens do not exhibit changes in mass or in the osmotic pressure of the pseudocoelomic fluid. Immersion in solutions containing 3H2O demonstrates that exchange with the water in the ...
Griffiths H - - 1993
Stimulus transmission across dentine, in conditions such as dentine hypersensitivity, is considered to occur via a hydrodynamic mechanism. This fluid flow in dentine may then induce a mechanoreceptor response in pulpal nerves. However, when fluid flows through a porous structure electrical potentials are also generated. The aim of this study ...
Weidner W J - - 1993
We examined the effects of acute expansion of extracellular fluid volume (ECFV) on lung fluid balance and the ultrastructure of the pulmonary air-blood barrier in chickens (Gallus domesticus). We compared changes in extravascular lung water content (EVLW) to the sum of mean pulmonary capillary blood pressure and plasma protein osmotic ...
Norlén H - - 1993
123 transurethral resections of the prostate were studied. The operations were randomized to either continuous or intermittent technique. The first 64 operations were performed using an irrigating fluid pressure head of 65 cm (measured from the top of the operating table). In the rest of the operations an 80 cm ...
Joles J A - - 1993
In hypoproteinemia, increased interstitial hydrostatic and decreased interstitial colloid osmotic pressures, together with increases in lymph flow, prevent interstitial fluid volume expansion, thus forming the edema-preventing mechanisms. Transfer of a substantial portion of the interstitial protein pool into the vascular compartment by increased lymph flow is the major edema-preventing mechanism. ...
Wills P R - - 1993
Consideration is given to the interpretation of virial coefficients reflecting thermodynamic nonideality in incompressible solutions of a single macromolecular species for which there is no volume change on mixing. Expressions are presented for the concentration dependence of thermodynamic activity under conditions where either the chemical potential of solvent or the ...
Aukland K - - 1993
While the study of the physiochemical composition and structure of the interstitium on a molecular level is a large and important field in itself, the present review centered mainly on the functional consequences for the control of extracellular fluid volume. As pointed out in section I, a biological monitoring system ...
Gervais P - - 1992
The variation rate of the osmotic pressure increase was found to have a great effect on the viability of yeasts subjected to hyperosmotic stress. A low intensity of the increase rate of osmotic pressure could maintain an important viability of the cells (about 90 to 100%) even for very high ...
Miserocchi G - - 1992
We injected technetium-labeled albumin (at a concentration similar to that of the pleural fluid) in the costal region of anesthetized dogs (n = 13) either breathing spontaneously or apneic. The decay rate of labeled activity at the injection site was studied with a gamma camera placed either in the anteroposterior ...
Barry S I - - 1992
The behaviour of a cavity during an injection of fluid into biological tissue is considered. High cavity pressure drives fluid into the neighbouring tissue where it is absorbed by capillaries and lymphatics. The tissue is modelled as a nonlinear deformable porous medium with the injected fluid absorbed by the tissue ...
Länne T - - 1992
Compensatory, net fluid transfer across the capillaries was studied in the arm of man with plethysmographic technique during experimental hypovolaemia induced by lower body negative pressure (LBNP). Thirty, 60, and 110 cmH2O LBNP evoked rapid transfer of fluid from tissue to blood at average rates of 0.053, 0.088 and 0.147 ...
Länne T - - 1992
Our previous studies strongly indicate that the capillary filtration coefficient (CFC) in skeletal muscle and skin of man is much larger than previously believed, or about 0.050 ml min-1 100 ml-1 mmHg-1. The hypothesis that this large capillary fluid permeability is a factor of primary importance for plasma volume control ...
Bates D O - - 1992
Interstitial fluid pressures were measured by the wick in needle method in the swollen and normal arms of 38 patients with lymphoedema resulting from treatment for breast cancer. The mean increase in arm volume, calculated from sequential circumferential measurements, was 33% (range 0.25 to 85.9). Subcutis interstitial fluid pressure in ...
Magid A D - - 1992
The osmotic behavior of soluble cortical and nuclear steer lens crystallins was characterized by secondary osmometry for several ionic strength and pH conditions. Osmotic pressure versus protein concentration relationships were measured for pressures up to 1.15 x 10(6) dyn cm-2. At low concentrations (< 0.2 g ml-1), the osmotic pressure ...
Moise K J KJ - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the current investigation was to ascertain whether derangements in umbilical venous pressure and plasma colloid osmotic pressure are involved in the pathophysiologic condition of immune hydrops fetalis. STUDY DESIGN: Umbilical venous pressure (corrected for ambient amniotic fluid pressure) and colloid osmotic pressure were measured during intravascular ...
Boucher Y - - 1992
The interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) has been found to be as high as 20 to 50 mm Hg in both experimental and human solid tumors. While the IFP is an important determinant of the delivery of therapeutic agents to neoplastic cells in vivo, the mechanisms responsible for interstitial hypertension are ...
Casley-Smith J R - - 1992
A mathematical model has been constructed to investigate the alterations, in amount and in importance, of the Factors controlling interstitial fluid volume in a number of steady-state oedemas. There are many so-called "Safety Factors" (at least 15), including a whole group concerned with regulating the amount of protein in the ...
Armson B A - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to observe and compare the effects of ritodrine hydrochloride and magnesium sulfate on maternal fluid dynamics. STUDY DESIGN: Fourteen women in preterm labor were prospectively studied during tocolytic therapy with either ritodrine hydrochloride or magnesium sulfate. The cardiovascular and renal effects of a ...
Fjaertoft M - - 1992
Interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) in normal and inflamed gingiva of rats was measured by sharpened glass capillaries (diameter 2-4 microns) connected to a servocontrolled counterpressure system ad modum Wiederhielm. Gingival inflammation was induced by a steel ligature placed unilaterally around the first maxillary molar. After 8 weeks, the ligature was ...
Basser P J - - 1992
A model of infusion-induced swelling in the brain is presented, in which gray and white matter are treated as poroelastic media. The distributions of interstitial pressure, flow, and volume are derived for steady-state and transient infusion protocols. A significant percentage increase in interstitial volume is predicted near the injection site, ...
Hoefs J C - - 1992
The albumin difference or gradient between serum ascites is presumed to be an effective estimate of the colloid osmotic pressure gradient, although this has never been directly demonstrated. The colloid osmotic pressure gradient is controlled by the degree of portal hypertension. Thus the albumin gradient is clinically useful in detecting ...
Vulgaropulos S P - - 1992
OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to document the causes of fluid absorption during continuous flow hysteroscopy and to determine under which operative conditions fluid overload may occur. STUDY DESIGN: Fifteen patients underwent operative hysteroscopy with 2% ethanol solution for uterine distention. Absorption of fluid was measured by blood alcohol, sodium, osmolarity, ...
Suzuki S - - 1992
The aim of this study was to elucidate renojejunal reflex controlling the net jejunal fluid, Na+, and Cl- absorption in response to an increased ureteropelvic pressure (UPP) in anesthetized dogs. Unilateral UPP was increased under hydrostatic pressure from 0 to 80 mmHg by a step of 20 mmHg in random ...
Money N P - - 1992
When hyphae of the water mold Achlya were subjected to osmotic stress, imposed with polyethylene glycol (PEG)-300 or sucrose, turgor pressure fell in proportion to the increase in external osmotic pressure. There was no evidence of turgor regulation, even over a period of days, yet the extension rate was unaffected ...
McDonald J N - - 1992
A recent model predicted a local synovial circulation of extravascular fluid in which capillary filtrate entered a joint cavity and fluid simultaneously drained out of the cavity via intercellular pathways distant from capillaries. Here, solutions of albumin (10-250 g l-1) were infused continuously into the knee joint cavity in fifteen ...
Zimmermann U - - 1992
High-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance images (using very short spin-echo times of 3.8 milliseconds) of cross-sections of excised roots of the halophyte Aster tripolium showed radial cell strands separated by air-filled spaces. Radial insertion of the pressure probe (along the cell strands) into roots of intact plants revealed a marked increase ...
Johnstone B - - 1992
The fluid content of the disc, which governs its mechanical response and biological behavior, varies with external load. Because load on the disc changes after death, the fluid content and swelling pressure profiles of human discs taken at autopsy were measured, and compared with discs removed during surgical procedures. In ...
Turner M R - - 1992
1. Monolayers of arterial endothelium on porous membranes were exposed to a pressure of 15 cmH2O at 37 degrees C, or of 30 cmH2O at 0 degree C. At constant pressure, the rate of liquid flow per unit area (Jv/A) through each monolayer decreased with time, in the way previously ...
Peitzsch R M - - 1992
Using polyethylene glycol and dextran as osmotic stressing agents, the concentrations of hyaluronate and heparin were measured as a function of osmotic pressure II over the range of 0.03 to nearly 50 atmospheres. The experimental results were analyzed in terms of the Donnan osmotic pressure, the virial expansion, and Flory's ...
McIntosh T J - - 1992
Pressure versus fluid spacing relations have been obtained for sphingomyelin bilayers in the gel phase and equimolar sphingomyelin/cholesterol in the liquid-crystalline phase by the use of X-ray diffraction analysis of osmotically stressed aqueous dispersions and oriented multilayers. For interbilayer separations in the range of 5-20 A, the repulsive hydration pressure ...
Suzuki S - - 1992
The aim of the present study was to elucidate the effects of an increased ureteropelvic pressure (UPP) on the net jejunal fluid, Na+, and Cl- absorption in anesthetized dogs. UPP was changed under hydrostatic pressure with warmed Ringer's solution. At a UPP of 0 mmHg, the net jejunal fluid, Na+, ...
Lund T - - 1992
One of the obvious acute features of cutaneous thermal injury is the swelling of the involved tissue. This swelling is caused by a fluid shift from circulating plasma. Along with the evolution of intravenous fluid therapy in trauma and surgery, the implementation of such therapy to burn victims has improved ...
Durand P Y - - 1992
A simple, non-invasive and well-tolerated technique for routine measurement of intraperitoneal hydrostatic pressure (IPP) in patients treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD) is presented. The height of the dialysis fluid in the PD line was measured, under atmospheric pressure, before drainage and during inspiration (IPPinsp) and expiration (IPPexp), taking the axillary ...
Koller M E - - 1992
This study shows that, in rat trachea, dextran anaphylaxis is associated with increased negativity of interstitial fluid pressure (Pif) as measured with sharpened glass capillaries (tip diameter 3-7 microns) connected to a servo-controlled counterpressure system. Experiments were carried out in pentobarbital-anesthetized Wistar-Møller rats. Pif in the control situation was -2.5 ...
Palluault F - - 1992
High osmotic pressure was used to preserve the ultrastructure of rabbit-, SCID mouse-, and rat-derived Pneumocystis carinii organisms from osmotic stress during fixation. Organelles and cytosol were well preserved within the tonicity range of 850-1,300 mosmol. Under these experimental conditions, we determined that the endoplasmic reticulum was well developed in ...
Flessner M F - - 1992
'Net ultrafiltration' in peritoneal dialysis refers to the difference between the osmotically induced ultrafiltration into the peritoneal cavity and the fluid loss from the cavity during dialysis. Recent research has demonstrated that, during a 3- to 4-hour experimental dialysis, 5-25% of the total fluid loss is via lymphatics and the ...
Levick J R - - 1991
The effect of intraarticular infusions of albumin solution on transsynovial flow was studied in healthy rabbit knee joints and compared with the effect of albumin solution perfused through the synovial microcirculation. Increasing intravascular albumin levels enhanced fluid absorption from the joint cavity, whereas increasing intraarticular albumin levels reduced the absorption ...
Parazynski S E - - 1991
To understand the mechanism, magnitude, and time course of facial puffiness that occurs in microgravity, seven male subjects were tilted 6 degrees head-down for 8 h, and all four Starling transcapillary pressures were directly measured before, during, and after tilt. Head-down tilt (HDT) caused facial edema and a significant elevation ...
Winston K R - - 1991
A mechanism for the hydraulic regulation of brain parenchymal volume is hypothesized. Ventricular fluid pressure is transmitted to parenchymal capillaries and affects the pressure difference across the capillary wall, thereby influencing the rate of movement of fluid from the capillary lumen to interstitial fluid. The tendency for brain parenchyma to ...
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