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Results 501 - 550 of 1138
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Ahlqvist J - - 1994
Three out of the four Starling pressures were determined at arthroscopy of traumatic effusions of the knee. The range of the joint fluid hydrostatic pressure Pjoint was 5-83 cmH2O (0.5-8.1 kPa, 4-61 mmHg), that of the colloid osmotic pressure difference COPplasma-COPjoint 0-21.7 cmH2O. In 11 of 15 cases the sum ...
Klopfenstein H S - - 1994
Experimental studies have confirmed the clinical impression that large bilateral pleural effusions are able to raise the pressure in an otherwise hemodynamically insignificant pericardial effusion to a level sufficient to produce right ventricular diastolic collapse (RVDC). The hemodynamic consequences of this syndrome are not as severe as when the intrapericardial ...
McIntosh T J - - 1994
The structure and interactive properties of liquid-crystalline egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) bilayers containing the ganglioside GM1 and its uncharged analogue, asialoGM1 (AGM1), have been obtained by X-ray diffraction analysis of osmotically stressed liposomes. Both electron density profiles and reciprocal space modeling indicate that (1) the incorporation of up to 30 mol ...
Tsuji M - - 1994
In order to investigate the different contactile effects between intraluminal and extraluminal vasoactive agents, we studied the contractile responses of rabbit basilar artery to selective intraluminal and extraluminal administration of potassium, serotonin and histamine in vitro. We also studied how the physical pressure gradients, such as hydrostatic or osmotic pressure ...
Lee K F - - 1994
The pleural cavity is created between the 4th and 7th week of embryologic development and is lined by the splanchnopleurae and somatopleurae. These embryonic components of visceral and parietal pleurae develop different anatomic characteristics with regard to vascular, lymphatic, and nervous supply. Both pleurae have two layers: a superficial mesothelial ...
Groom R C - - 1994
A revised circuit design for modified ultrafiltration is presented rendering the technique more convenient for use after cardiopulmonary bypass when blood cardioplegia is used. The procedure employs a hollow-fiber ultrafiltration device attached to the cardioplegia circuit. A bubble trap, heat exchanger, and a pressure monitor are incorporated as safety features. ...
Flack N J - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to study the effect of operator transducer pressure on amniotic fluid index and single deepest pool measurements and their intraobserver and interobserver variability. STUDY DESIGN: Forty subjects in the third trimester with intact membranes were studied by two observers at three predetermined operator pressures. Pressure was ...
Bates D O - - 1994
1. Surgery and radiotherapy to axillary lymph nodes during breast cancer treatment is often followed, commonly years later, by chronic postmastectomy oedema (PMO). PMO is considered a 'high protein' oedema due to reduced axillary lymph drainage. Since oedema formation also depends on fluid input (capillary filtration), we studied the Starling ...
Marmor M F - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate experimentally the conditions necessary for the formation of serous detachments. METHODS: Selective injury to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and choriocapillaris was produced in cats using weak laser burns and intense diffuse light, with or without photosensitization with rose bengal. The fundi were analyzed by observation, fluorescein ...
Carvajal H F - - 1994
The objectives of fluid therapy in the burned child can be simply stated and defined, and they should represent the basis for the resuscitation process. During the first 24 h after the burn, the ultimate goal is restoration of the patient's volume and electrolyte homeostasis. All efforts should be directed ...
Parkin G - - 1994
PURPOSE: To assess the use and validity of a mean systemic filling pressure analogue (Pmsa) in the closed-loop control of fluid replacement in continuous hemodiafiltration. METHODS: Cardiovascular variables were computer acquired from bedside monitor. Pmsa was calculated and compared with a target value. Gravitational fluid replacement to the extracorporeal hemodiafiltration ...
Hsu S H - - 1994
This investigation used a previously described bench-top device (Gaver et al., J. Appl. Physiol. 69: 74-85, 1990) to examine the role of nonnewtonian and viscoelastic fluids on events at reopening of a closed flexible tube. Aqueous sodium alginate solutions with and without calcium chloride and sodium dodecyl sulfate in desired ...
Robinson C R - - 1994
To characterize the role of water in protein-DNA interactions, we have studied the specificity of the EcoRI restriction endonuclease as a function of osmotic and hydrostatic pressure. The extent of cleavage by the enzyme at noncanonical ("star") sites is shown to depend uniquely upon the osmotic pressure in the reaction ...
Wilson B C - - 1994
Experiments were done to study the effects of porcine relaxin on osmotically evoked changes in intramammary pressure and the release of oxytocin and vasopressin in anaesthetized rats. Injections (1 microliter) of hypertonic (0.75 M) NaCl into the left lateral cerebral ventricle were used to induce consistent rises in intramammary pressure ...
Kjellstrand C - - 1994
We studied the trans compartmental speed of urea transfer by comparing concentration changes of blood urea nitrogen to mass changes of urea during 80 dialyses in six patients. The speed of urea transfer was studied as a dependent factor of 15 patient characteristics: age; gender; fluid overload; and pre and ...
Weinbaum S - - 1994
A new experimentally testable hypothesis is advanced for the mechanosensory transduction mechanism by which communicating osteocytes sense the very small in vivo strains in the calcified matrix components of bone. We propose that the osteocytes, although not responsive to substantial fluid pressures, can be stimulated by relatively small fluid shear ...
Ekengren J - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: We compared fluid absorption, blood loss, and immediate postoperative complications in transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) performed with the continuous flow and the intermittent flow irrigation techniques. We also studied pressure conditions under which fluid absorption occurs when continuous flow irrigation is used. METHODS: One experienced urologic surgeon ...
Ahlquist M - - 1994
The hydrodynamic theory of dentin sensitivity holds that pain is evoked by stimuli producing minute shifts in tubule fluid. In human volunteers hydrostatic pressures were applied to prepared dentinal cavities. The subjects reported the magnitude and quality of their sensations of pain by means of an intermodal matching technique in ...
Koch T - - 1994
Small volumes of hypertonic NaCl-solutions have been proven to restore haemodynamics in hypovolemic shock patients. Topic of this study was to investigate whether bolus application of 7.5% NaCl-6.5% starch-solution (HSS) apart from its relevance in shock might be an effective therapy in oedema. Considering differential therapeutic aspects, the volume effects ...
Blackwell M M - - 1994
Plasma colloid osmotic pressure (COP) is an important determinant in edema formation. Three methods for assessing the COP were evaluated. Direct measurement of COP using the 4420 Wescor Colloid Osmometer was compared to the estimation of COP from both serum total protein and total serum solids (TSS) determinations. Blood samples ...
Rabbany S Y - - 1994
The central hypothesis of this investigation is that a shortening myocyte generates a time-varying transmural pressure, or intracellular pressure. A mathematical model was formulated for a single myocyte, consisting of a fluid-filled cylindrical shell with axially arranged contractile filaments, to quantitate the fiber-fluid interaction. In this model, the intracellular pressure ...
Naftalin R J - - 1994
Very high pressure is required to generate hard faeces approximately 5-10 atmospheres. This is much more than can be supplied by the mechanical force from the muscular wall of the colon. Osmotic pressure (at least 200 mOsm) can generate the necessary suction forces required to consolidate faeces. The colon has ...
Tsukimoto K - - 1994
We previously demonstrated disruptions of the pulmonary capillary endothelium and alveolar epithelium at transmural pressures (Ptm) of 52.5 cmH2O in rabbit by electron microscopy. In the present study, we determined the characteristics of the alveolar edema fluid in this condition by carrying out bronchoalveolar lavage after blood perfusion for 10 ...
Tomita H H Department of Neurosurgery, Musashino Red-Cross Hospital, Tokyo, - - 1994
We investigated whether prolonged high colloid oncotic therapy for two weeks can suppress contusional brain edema. Eighteen patients with cerebral contusion were randomly divided into two groups of patients receiving high oncotic pressure (HOP; 26-30 mmHg) treatment and those receiving normal oncotic pressure (NOP; 22-26 mmHg) treatment. Oncotic pressure was ...
Asgeirsson B - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a new therapy of posttraumatic brain oedema, with the main concept that opening of the blood-brain barrier upsets the normal brain volume regulation, inducing oedema formation. This means that transcapillary fluid fluxes will be controlled by hydrostatic capillary and colloid osmotic pressures, rather than by crystalloid osmotic ...
Chieffi G - - 1994
The Zoological Station of Naples was founded in 1872 by Anton Dohrn as a research institute for zoology and comparative anatomy. Although the original fields of interest were the morphology of vertebrates and comparative embryology, a department of physiology was added to the station in 1888. Osmoregulation in marine organisms ...
Komatsu T - - 1994
Triglyceride microsphere emulsified with phospholipid derivative of heme (5,10,15,20-tetrakis[alpha,alpha,alpha,alpha-o-[2,2-dimethyl-20- [2-(trimethylammonioethoxy) phosphonatoxy]eicosanamido]phenyl]porphinatoiron(II); lipidheme) provides a totally synthetic artificial red cell (lipidheme-microsphere; LH-M). Its structure, solution properties and O2 binding ability are described. The particle diameter of the LH-M was ca. 90 nmø elucidated by electron microscopy. Viscosity of the LH-M suspension ...
Grazi E - - 1993
The diameter of the actin filament is influenced by osmotic stress, being 9.0 nm at 1 x 10(5) dynes/cm2 and 6.8 nm at 9.00 x 10(6) dynes/cm2. At 1.81 x 10(5) dynes/cm2, the protein osmotic pressure in frog muscle, the diameter is 7.95 nm. The diameter of the tropomyosin-decorated actin ...
Lillywhite H B - - 1993
Previous studies have implicated morphological adaptations as important counter-measures to gravitational stresses on the circulatory systems of arboreal or climbing snakes. Such features include tight skin and relatively non-compliant tissue compartments that oppose edema formation, but these traits have not been previously studied quantitatively. To provide information on this subject, ...
Yeast J D - - 1993
OBJECTIVES: The purposes of this study were to evaluate the effect of magnesium sulfate therapy on colloid osmotic pressure and to determine whether changes in colloid osmotic pressure increased the risk of pulmonary edema. STUDY DESIGN: During a 1-year time period 294 patients received parenteral magnesium sulfate for the treatment ...
Crichton E G - - 1993
Measurements of extremely high osmolalities in cauda epididymidal fluids of hibernating bat species led to an investigation of the junctional complex morphology of the epithelium of this sperm storage site. Freeze fracture replicas revealed the presence, at certain times of the year, of a tight junction architecture that resembled that ...
Hurd W W - - 1993
An automatic pressure infusion system equipped with a fluid warmer has been developed for rapid intravenous infusion of homeothermic fluids. The use of this system for irrigation during operative laparoscopy provides the surgeon with the ability to irrigate at a relatively high flow while avoiding the hypothermic effects of irrigation ...
Lindahl O A - - 1993
The course of tissue swelling in human non-injured skin after burn injury was investigated with a non-invasive impression method that measures force and tissue fluid translocation during mechanical compression of the skin. Time-dependent changes in the fluid translocation and the interstitial-pressure related to impression force were measured on 11 occasions, ...
Tølløfsrud S - - 1993
The effects of Ringer's acetate (RAc) infusion with different temperatures, 18 degrees C compared to 36 degrees C, were studied in 20 healthy volunteers. An infusion volume of 20% of the estimated extracellular volume was given over 45 min. Before and after the RAc infusion, interstitial colloid osmotic pressure and ...
Barnea O - - 1993
Injuries involving massive blood loss, such as burns, combat wounds, and injuries resulting from car accidents, require fluid resuscitation. The risk involved in fluid therapy is overloading of the circulation, resulting in pulmonary edema which can lead to death. The risk of pulmonary edema may be eliminated by proper determination ...
Witz C A - - 1993
OBJECTIVES: To review the literature concerning complications resulting from absorption of hysteroscopic fluid distension media and to describe methods to treat and prevent these complications. DESIGN: All pertinent literature on fluid distension media used for endoscopy, as well as relevant reports concerning the management of fluid and electrolyte imbalance, was ...
Zakaria E R - - 1993
In this study the osmotic barrier characteristics of the rat peritoneal membrane were investigated. Fluid movements between the peritoneal cavity and the blood were measured following instillation of isotonic saline (control) and hypertonic solutions of NaCl, glucose, sucrose, raffinose and myoglobin (test solutions). Moreover, 5 and 8% albumin in NaCl ...
Tsushima H - - 1993
The effects of D-Ala2-D-Leu5-enkephalin (DADL, a delta-opioid agonist), microinjected directly into the hypothalamic supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei, on urine outflow rate, urinary osmotic pressure, blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate and rectal temperature were investigated in water-loaded and ethanol-anesthetized rats. The microinjection of DADL into both the nuclei ...
Steudle E. - - 1993
The effects of puncturing the endodermis of young maize roots (Zea mays L.) on their transport properties were measured using the root pressure probe. Small holes with a diameter of 18 to 60 [mu]m were created 70 to 90 mm from the tips of the roots by pushing fine glass ...
Rajalakshmi M - - 1993
Ultrastructural changes in the efferent duct and in different regions of the epididymis in men with obstructive azoospermia were compared with corresponding tissues collected from men of proven fertility who underwent castration due to malignancy of the prostate. Major degenerative changes were seen in the efferent duct and the caput ...
Giorgio T D - - 1993
The transport of albumin, glucose and fluid in a hollow fiber bioartificial liver (BAL) was predicted by theory and measured experimentally. Results from the experiment were used in a three compartment transport model to estimate the transfiber fluid flux. Fluid convection driven by the transfiber pressure gradient transported solutes across ...
Baisch F J - - 1993
The lack of hydrostatic forces in space eventually produces a fluid deficit within the circulatory system. This deficit may alter the circulatory regulation patterns. The aim of the present study was to determine how much of this fluid deficit is attributable to interstitial fluid losses and to determine the effects ...
Barbera A - - 1993
Changes in amniotic fluid pressure before and after amniocentesis fell within the range of +/- 5 mmHg, except when uterine contractions were present. Intra-amniotic pressure is not affected by amniocentesis between 13 and 18 weeks of gestation. Amniotic fluid pressure was recorded in 82 pregnancies of patients undergoing genetic amniocentesis ...
Hodson S - - 1993
After the Donnan osmotic potential derived theory of corneal stromal swelling was suggested (Hodson, 1971) it later was proposed, and verified experimentally, (Elliott et al., 1980) that the theory could be applied even in situations where there were no bounding cellular membranes attached to the corneal stroma. This was a ...
Pashley D H - - 1993
In vitro experiments were conducted to evaluate the influence of outward forced convective flow on the inward diffusion of radioactive iodide. When the smear layer was present, application of 15 cmH2O (1.47 kPa) outward-directed filtration pressure reduced the inward flux of iodide by about 10-20% depending upon the hydraulic conductance ...
Jansson B - - 1993
This study, using mice, correlated serum osmotic pressure, experimentally elevated with an intravenous injection of glycerol of varying tonicity (1.3, 2.6 and 5.2 g glycerol/kg body weight) with endolymphatic sac (ES) response. The injection produced a rise in serum osmotic pressure that was measured after 15 min (from 308 +/- ...
Glucksberg M R - - 1993
We report the first direct measurements of the effect of pulmonary vascular pressures on perialveolar interstitial pressures. In seven experiments we varied the intravascular pressure (Pvas) in isolated dog lungs held at constant airway pressure (PA). By the micropuncture servo-null technique, we recorded perialveolar interstitial pressures with respect to pleural ...
Rodt S A - - 1993
Increased negativity of the interstitial fluid pressure (P(i)) in the skin is a major driving force to create the initial edema in burn injury and, to a smaller degree, in the edemas formed in the initial phase of the chemical irritation induced by xylene and the anaphylactic reaction induced by ...
McDonald J N - - 1993
1. The effect of extravascular plasma protein on fluid flux through interstitial matrix was investigated in vivo by studying the pressure-flow relation across synovium during intra-articular infusions of protein solutions (usually bovine serum albumin). Synovium is a sheet of non-epithelial cells separated by interstitium-filled gaps, beneath which are fenestrated capillaries: ...
Shumko J Z - - 1993
Direct measurements of pleural fluid hydrostatic and colloid osmotic pressures after infusion of saline, bovine serum albumin, or silicone into the pleural space were coupled with ultrastructural morphometric analyses to assess the response of pleural mesothelial cells to hydrothorax. Increases of hydrostatic pressure, either independent or in combination with decreases ...
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