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Results 351 - 400 of 1064
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Alipour Fariborz - - 2009
This study was to investigate glottal flow resistance in excised pig, sheep, and cow larynges during phonation at different oscillation ranges and to examine the relation of the glottal flow resistance to the laryngeal geometry and vocal fold vibration. Several pig, sheep, and cow larynges were prepared, mounted on an ...
Kieser Jules - - 2008
This article introduces a new way of recording intraoral pressures from a range of locations within the oral cavity. To measure pressure flow dynamics during swallowing, we fitted eight miniature pressure transducers capable of measuring absolute pressures to a chrome-cobalt palatal appliance with a labial bow. Unlike previous devices, our ...
Lawrenson Christopher C - - 2007
A condenser microphone has been fabricated for measuring low-frequency sound pressure. The goal of this design is to keep the background noise as low as possible. The microphone features a high membrane compliance with a large backchamber volume, a prepolarized backplane, and a high impedance preamplifier located inside the backchamber. ...
Toussaint Edward L - - 2007
Western free reed instruments, including the reed organ, harmonium, harmonica, and accordion, use asymmetric free reeds that are able to maintain sustained oscillation in the absence of a pipe resonator. Studies of the motion of air-driven American reed organ reeds and accordion reeds have been made that yield the volume ...
Hastings Mardi C - - 2007
Several studies [A. R. Scholik and H. Y. Yan, Hear. Res. 152, 17-24 (2001); A. N. Popper et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 117, 3958-3971 (2005); M. E. Smith et al., J. Exp. Biol. 209, 4193-4202 (2006)] indicate that the equal energy hypothesis does not apply when evaluating auditory effects ...
Ahroon William A - - 2007
An earlier presentation described a hybrid instrument using electromechanical and ultrasound-Doppler techniques to permit auscultation in extremely noisy environments, such as Army medical evacuation vehicles [Houtsma et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 120, 3361 (2006)]. That paper presented the theories behind the hybrid instrument and provided simulations of auscultation in ...
Tessien Ross A - - 2007
The behavior of shocks emitted from transient cavitation in acoustic cavitation systems with static pressures up to 300 bar is explored using photomultiplier tubes, hydrophones, Schlieren, and Shadowgraphic methods. Shocks emitted from strong implosions travel initially at supersonic velocities, leading to a shortening of the time of flight (TOF) from ...
Lau C K - - 2007
The vortex dynamics and the sound generation by an inviscid vortex in the presence of a finite length porous material on an otherwise rigid plane are studied numerically in the present study in an attempt to understand the sound generation near the surface of a wall lining in a lined ...
Raspet Richard - - 2007
Recent research on the prediction of wind noise contributions from the measured turbulent velocity spectrum has led to a better understanding of what meteorological variables are necessary to analyze and compare wind noise measurements on infrasound arrays. In this talk, we will describe the variables necessary to correlate different contributions ...
Peak Chris - - 2007
Sound power and dynamic pressure measurements were used to identify where noise is generated by a single spindle lawnmower deck. The sound power measurements were performed with different blades and deck profiles to quantify the overall levels. An electric motor was used to turn the blade, and the measurements were ...
Gabrielson Thomas B - - 2007
There are several commercial measurement-grade condenser microphones that are suitable for measurements down to about 0.1 Hz; however, these one-half-inch microphones reach those low frequencies with an in-line attenuator that compromises the overall dynamic range. In a previous paper [T. M. Marston and T. B. Gabrielson, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. ...
Rasmussen Gunnar - - 2007
Infrasonic measurements and calibration. Infrasonic measurements call for special instrumentation in order to cover the low frequency range. Below 100 Hz the microphones present a special problem. The microphone performance is very different between free field conditions with wave motion and closed conditions without propagating waves. The primary method for ...
Yanagisawa K - - 2007
The purpose of this study was to clarify which physiological and anatomical factors were involved in the formation of tongue indentations, which are believed to be a clinical sign of clenching. Twenty-four dentulous subjects were investigated. They were divided into two groups, depending on the presence or absence of tongue ...
Hedwig Gavin R - - 2008
Sound speeds have been measured for aqueous solutions of alanine and the peptides alanylglycine (alagly), alanylglycylglycine (ala(gly)(2)), alanylglycylglycylglycine (ala(gly)(3)) and alanylglycylglycylglycylglycine (ala(gly)(4)) at T=298.15 K and at the pressures p=0.1, 5.0, 10.0, 20.0, 40.0, 60.0, 80.0 and 100.0 MPa. A method is described whereby reliable partial molar volumes at infinite ...
Alipour Fariborz - - 2007
The purpose of this study was to find relationships between subglottal pressure (P(s)) and fundamental frequency (F(0)) of phonation in excised larynx models. This included also the relation between F(0) and its rate of change with pressure (dFdP). Canine larynges were prepared and mounted over a tapered tube that supplied ...
Voss Susan E - - 2007
Direct acoustic stimulation of the cochlea by the sound-pressure difference between the oval and round windows (called the "acoustic route") has been thought to contribute to hearing in some pathological conditions, along with the normally dominant "ossicular route." To determine the efficacy of this acoustic route and its constituent mechanisms ...
Bovenzi Massimo - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: To investigate prospectively the relation between vibration-induced white finger (VWF), exposure to hand-transmitted vibration (HTV) and the cold response of digital arteries in users of vibrating tools. METHODS: Two-hundred and sixteen HTV workers and 133 control men of the same companies underwent initially a medical examination and a standardised ...
Lu H Z - - 2007
Small axial-flow fans used for computer cooling and many other appliances feature a rotor driven by a downstream motor held by several cylindrical struts. This study focuses on the aerodynamic mechanism of rotor-strut interaction for an isolated fan. The three-dimensional, unsteady flow field is calculated using FLUENT, and the sound ...
Hottinger Daniel G - - 2007
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: This experiment studied a new aerodynamic parameter, phonation threshold flow, along with phonation threshold pressure, by varying prephonatory glottal width in canine larynges ex vivo. Goals were to examine phonation threshold flow as a measurable parameter sensitive to physiologic changes in the vocal folds and compare the relative sensitivities ...
Ni Chun-hui - - 2007
BACKGROUND: There are few studies on the arterial compliance of noise exposure. The purpose of this study was to understand the relationship between hearing loss, blood pressure and arterial compliance of female workers who exposed to occupational noise in a textile mill. METHODS: The noise levels in the workplace were ...
Niss K - - 2007
We study the changes in the low-frequency vibrational dynamics of poly(isobutylene) under pressure up to 1.4 GPa, corresponding to a density change of 20%. Combining inelastic neutron, x-ray, and Brillouin light scattering, we analyze the variations in the boson peak, transverse and longitudinal sound velocities, and the Debye level under ...
Baggott Christopher D - - 2007
Subglottal pressure (SGP) is a valuable parameter in the research and clinical assessment of laryngeal function. The lungs serve as a constant pressure source during sustained phonation, and that pressure, SGP, can be used to determine the efficiency with which the larynx converts aerodynamic power to acoustic power. As the ...
Wålinder Robert - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: This study tested the hypothesis that classroom noise is related to stress reactions among primary school children. Stress was monitored via symptoms of fatigue and headache, systolic blood pressure, reduced diurnal cortisol variation, and indicators of emotional distress. METHODS: In three classrooms of pupils in the fourth grade (10 ...
Mahajan Aman - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Auscultation of breath sounds is used routinely to confirm tracheal placement of endotracheal tubes (ETT). In infants and children, this method is limited by the conduction of breath sounds bilaterally, despite endobronchial intubation. Although several methods of detecting endobronchial intubation have been described, none is both simple and reliable. ...
Tack Johannes W - - 2007
BACKGROUND: A sound generator based on a double-membrane design that fits into a regular tracheoesophageal shunt valve may improve voice quality after total laryngectomy in patients rehabilitated with surgical voice prostheses. METHODS: Voice-producing element (VPE) prototypes were manufactured using medical grade biocompatible materials and tested in vitro under physiological conditions. ...
Takahashi Hirokazu - - 2008
In normal speech, coordinated activities of intrinsic laryngeal muscles suspend a glottal sound at utterance of voiceless consonants, automatically realizing a voicing control. In electrolaryngeal speech, however, the lack of voicing control is one of the causes of unclear voice, voiceless consonants tending to be misheard as the corresponding voiced ...
Hart Roger C - - 2007
Nonintrusive, off-body flow barometry in Mach 2 airflow has been demonstrated in a large-scale supersonic wind tunnel using seedless laser-induced thermal acoustics (LITA). The static pressure of the gas flow is determined with a novel differential absorption measurement of the ultrasonic sound produced by the LITA pump process. Simultaneously, the ...
Cobo Pedro - - 2007
Although hybrid passive-active absorption in impedance tubes has been widely analyzed, its study in more realistic conditions remains to be accomplished. This letter describes the practical measurement of the passive-active absorption coefficient in a free field. The passive absorber consists of a microperforated panel backed by an air cavity and ...
Zhang Yu - - 2007
PURPOSE: The present study was a methodological study designed to reveal the dynamic mechanisms of phonation instability pressure (PIP) using bifurcation analysis. Phonation pressure range (PPR) was also proposed for assessing the pressure range of normal vocal fold vibrations. METHOD: The authors first introduced the concept of bifurcation on the ...
Laukkanen Anne-Maria - - 2008
This study investigated the peak-to-peak (p-t-p) amplitude of the voice source as a function of fundamental frequency (F(0)). Nine males and nine females with or without singing training produced (1) a glissando from lowest to highest F(0) and back in their speaking range on /a:/ and (2) an ascending-descending scale ...
Björkner Eva - - 2008
The considerable voice timbre differences between musical theater (MT) and western operatic singers are analyzed with respect to voice source and formant frequencies in five representatives of each singer group. Audio, subglottal pressure (P(sub)), and electroglottograph (EGG) signals were recorded while the subjects sang a sequence of [pae:] syllables starting ...
Yokota Reiko - - 2007
Measurement of the pressure applied to the anterior region of the palate and incisor region of the mandible during thumb-sucking was carried out 3 female children. A polyethylene bag embedded with a high-sensitivity small pressure sensor was fixed on the ventral side of the thumb so that the baroreceptor could ...
Aydin Y - - 2007
The aim of this study was to evaluate subjective noise perception and objective parameters of circulation in the vicinity of the Frankfurt airport. Two areas were selected in which aircraft noise was the predominant source of noise (and was) created by planes induced by take off but not during landing. ...
Finnegan Eileen M - - 2009
The aim of this study is to determine how phonation is affected by the presence and by alteration in the position of the supraglottic structures. The study used three excised canine larynges. A series of pressure-flow experiments were completed first on the excised larynx with false folds and epiglottis intact, ...
Searl Jeff - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: This study compared bilabial contact pressure (CPsp) and oral air pressure (Po) for /p/, /b/, and /m/ produced by tracheoesophageal (TE) versus laryngeal speakers. Nonspeech maximum bilabial contact pressures (CPmax) were measured to calculate the percentage of the range utilized for bilabial phonemes. METHODS: Ten TE speakers and 10 ...
Williams Warwick - - 2007
Some individuals must wear hearing protectors in order to reduce their noise exposure even after all other avenues of exposure control have been exhausted. However, is it reasonable to expect these individuals to wear earmuffs for long, continuous periods? Measurements of 39 commonly available earmuffs show that in all cases, ...
van Iersel Maikel M - - 2007
The effect of hydrostatic pressure on chemical reactions induced by 20 kHz ultrasound has been studied using three different methods: the oxidation of potassium iodide, bubble cloud visualization studies, and sound attenuation measurements. The latter two have demonstrated that shielding of the ultrasonic wave is less pronounced at elevated pressures. ...
Jacobsen Finn - - 2007
Statistically optimized near field acoustic holography (SONAH) differs from conventional near field acoustic holography (NAH) by avoiding spatial Fourier transforms; the processing is done directly in the spatial domain. The main advantage of SONAH compared with NAH is that the usual requirement of a measurement aperture that extends well beyond ...
Bell Andrew - - 2007
It is widely thought that organisms detect sound by sensing the deflection of hair-like projections, the stereocilia, at the apex of hair cells. In the case of mammals, the standard interpretation is that hair cells in the cochlea respond to deflection of stereocilia induced by motion generated by a hydrodynamic ...
Braunschweig T - - 2008
An objective method for the diagnosis of functional dysphonias is presented. The mathematically motivated approach was evaluated on 71 female subjects with normal voice or functional dysphonia. Using digital high-speed recordings, the phonation onset process was recorded in real-time for 8-10 different sound pressure levels for each subject. From these ...
Garrel Renaud - - 2008
Well-known multimass models of vocal folds are useful to describe main behavior observed in human voicing but their principle of functioning, based on harmonic oscillation, may appear complex. This work is designed to show that a simple one-mass model ruled by laws of relaxation oscillation can also depict main behavior ...
Alipour Fariborz - - 2007
The purpose of this study was to examine the aerodynamic and acoustic effects of the false vocal folds and the epiglottis on excised larynx phonation. Several canine larynges were prepared and mounted over a tapered tube that supplied pressurized, heated, and humidified air. Glottal adduction was accomplished either by using ...
Wolff, M.
This paper reports on a study of applying an HMM-based labeler along with a tailored feature extraction to Korotkoff sounds. These sounds can be heard through a stethoscope during the auscultatory blood pressure measurement usually done at medical practices. While this method works well when the patient is at rest, ...
Laukkanen Anne-Maria - - 2007
Vocal exercises that increase the vocal tract impedance are widely used in voice training and therapy. The present study applies a versatile methodology to investigate phonation during varying artificial extension of the vocal tract. Two males and one female phonated into a hard-walled plastic tube (phi 2 cm), whose physical ...
Kim Jun Sik - - 2007
The tongue has important roles in deglutition, speech, airway protection, taste, and sexual function, and its amputation is very serious. Using supermicrosurgical techniques, we replanted successfully a patient's tongue, the distal part of which had been amputated by the bite of another person, through the anastomosis of a blood vessel ...
Choi Hyun Seok - - 2007
Motion artifacts can degrade the quality of data measured. In this paper, we suggest a capacitive sensor application which is able to be fabricated easily and employed for adaptive filtering. When the motion artifacts occur, the capacitance varies as well. Thereby, the capacitance data coincide with the motion artifacts. The ...
Horácek Jaromír - - 2007
The maximum impact stress at the contact of the vocal folds achieved during the oscillation cycle was estimated in phonation using an aeroelastic model of voice production. Relations of impact stress to the lung pressure, fundamental frequency of self-oscillations, prephonatory glottal width, sound pressure level generated at the end of ...
Toll Nathanial J - - 2007
The effects of barometric pressure and earth tide changes are often observed in ground water level measurements. These disturbances can make aquifer test interpretation difficult by masking the small changes induced by aquifer testing at late times and great distances. A computer utility is now available that automatically removes the ...
Holmberg Eva B - - 2007
This study discusses phonetogram recordings as a tool in the voice clinic. It reports experiences during recordings and changes in measures across voice therapy for women with vocal fatigue. Phonetogram data are discussed along with subglottal pressure measurements and subjective evaluations of voice function and quality. Assessments were made pre-, ...
Ketelslagers K - - 2007
The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical value of subglottic pressure (SGP) in normal and dysphonic subjects. "The airway interrupted method" was used to measure the intra-oral pressure. Voice samples from 60 healthy subjects and 79 dysphonic patients were recorded under normal conditions of pitch and intensity. ...
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