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Hentschel Roland - - 2011
Resistive properties of endotracheal tubes (ETTs) are particularly relevant in newborns and small infants who are generally ventilated through ETTs with a small inner diameter. The ventilation rate is also high and the inspiratory time (ti) is short. These conditions effectuate high airway flows with excessive flow acceleration, so airway ...
Rickards Caroline A - - 2011
Higher oscillations of cerebral blood velocity and arterial pressure (AP) induced by breathing with inspiratory resistance are associated with delayed onset of symptoms and increased tolerance to central hypovolemia. We tested the hypothesis that subjects with high tolerance (HT) to central hypovolemia would display higher endogenous oscillations of cerebral blood ...
El Beheiry Mostafa H - - 2011
Acute β-blockade with metoprolol has been associated with increased mortality by undefined mechanisms. Since metoprolol is a relatively high affinity blocker of β(2)-adrenoreceptors, we hypothesized that some of the increased mortality associated with its use may be due to its abrogation of β(2)-adrenoreceptor-mediated vasodilation of microvessels in different vascular beds. ...
Schmidlin Olga - - 2011
In healthy, mostly normotensive blacks, 19 salt-sensitive (SS) and 18 salt-resistant (SR), we tested the hypothesis that, in SS subjects, dietary NaCl loading induces its initial pressor effect by inducing a normal increase of cardiac output, while failing to induce a normal pressor-offsetting vasodilatation, consequent to its inhibition by asymmetrical ...
Cohn Jay N - - 2011
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2011;13:690-692. ©2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. KEY POINTS AND PRACTICAL RECOMMENDATIONS: •  Hydralazine and minoxidil act by dilating resistance arterioles, thus reducing peripheral resistance, with no dilating effect on the venous side of the circulation. •  There is a baroreflex-mediated venoconstriction, resulting in an increase in venous ...
Benedusi Mascia - - 2011
When performing whole-cell configuration recordings, it is important to minimize series resistance to reduce the time constant of charging the cell membrane capacitance and to reduce error in membrane potential control. To this end, an existing method was improved by widening the patch pipette shank through the calibrated combination of ...
Jin Xin - - 2011
Endothelium regulates vascular tone via release of endothelium-derived relaxing factors (EDRF) including nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin I(2) (PGI(2)), and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). The mesenteric vascular bed produces vascular resistance to develop blood pressure and regulate tissue blood flow that plays an important role in maintenance of systemic blood pressure. ...
Mulvany Michael J - - 2011
Increased blood pressure (essential hypertension) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk and the condition is treated primarily with a view to reducing this parameter. However, in the early stages, the main pathological changes are increased peripheral resistance and altered cardiovascular structure. The aim of this MiniReview was to trace the ...
Hedelin Petter - - 2011
Aim:  Our aim was to test the hypothesis that dual endothelin receptor blockade with tezosentan attenuates hypoxia induced pulmonary vasoconstriction. Methods:  14 anaesthetised, ventilated pigs, with a mean±SEM weight of 30,5±0,6 kg, were studied, in normoxia (FiO(2) ∼0,21) and with tezosentan (5mg·kg(-1) ) infusion during (n=7) or before (n=7) hypoxia ...
Pimenta Eduardo - - 2011
Resistant hypertension is an increasingly common medical problem, and patients with this condition are at a high risk of cardiovascular events. The prevalence of resistant hypertension is unknown, but data from clinical trials suggest that 20% to 30% of hypertensive individuals may be resistant to antihypertensive treatment. The evaluation of ...
Hwang Jin-Young - - 2011
This randomized single-blinded, cross-over study was done to evaluate the influence of the size of tracheal tubes on air leaks around the cuffs. In a benchtop model, the number of longitudinal folds on the cuffs was evaluated for different sizes of tracheal tubes. In an anesthetized patient study, thirty patients ...
Faber J J - - 2011
Infusion of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalaprilat into fetal sheep caused a profound arterial hypotension within days. Five fetal lambs were infused with enalaprilat for 8 days starting at day 128 of gestation. Total accumulated dose was 0.30 ± 0.11 mg/kg. Arterial pressure decreased from 43.6 to 25.6 mmHg; venous ...
Bathula Rajaram R National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College Academic Health Sciences Centre, London, - - 2011
South Asians have a 1.5-fold increased stroke mortality compared with Europeans, despite similar blood pressures (BP). We hypothesized that it is the greater hyperglycaemia in South Asians that increases stroke risk, by adversely affecting cerebrovascular haemodynamics. A population-based sample of 149 Europeans and 151 South Asians underwent metabolic profiling and ...
Belin de Chantemèle Eric J - - 2011
Although the anorexic effects of leptin are lost in obesity, leptin-mediated sympatho-activation is preserved. The cardiovascular consequences of leptin-mediated sympatho-activation in obesity are poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that 32 weeks of high-fat diet (HFD) induces metabolic leptin resistance but preserves leptin-mediated sympatho-activation of the cardiovascular system. HFD in ...
Sobotka Paul A - - 2011
Essential hypertension, insulin resistance, heart failure, congestion, diuretic resistance, and functional renal disease are all characterized by excessive central sympathetic drive. The contribution of the kidney's somatic afferent nerves, as an underlying cause of elevated central sympathetic drive, and the consequences of excessive efferent sympathetic signals to the kidney itself, ...
Pisoni R R Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA. - - 2012
Hypertension is a major risk factor for the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) are effective in the management of resistant hypertension but are not widely used in CKD because of the risk of hyperkalemia. We retrospectively evaluated the long-term effects and safety of ...
Maitland Jessica E - - 2011
Fresh and fresh-cut tomatoes have been associated with numerous outbreaks of salmonellosis in recent years. One effective post harvest treatment to reduce Salmonella enterica in tomatoes may be high pressure processing (HPP). The objectives of the study were to determine the potential for HPP to reduce S. enterica serovars Newport, ...
Nyktari V - - 2011
BACKGROUND: /st> To investigate whether the effects of desflurane on inspiratory resistance are similar to those of isoflurane and sevoflurane during 30 min administration at 1 and 1.5 MAC in patients with healthy lungs. METHODS: /st> Seventy-one patients undergoing elective surgery were randomly assigned to receive isoflurane, sevoflurane, or desflurane. ...
Groothuis J T - - 2011
The pathophysiology of orthostatic hypotension in Parkinson's disease (PD) is incompletely understood. The primary focus has thus far been on failure of the baroreflex, a central mediated vasoconstrictor mechanism. Here, we test the role of two other possible factors: 1) a reduced peripheral vasoconstriction (which may contribute because PD includes ...
Pan Yangxing - - 2011
To compare the differences in stroke volume (SV) and stroke volume index (SI) between Han and Korean-Chinese and to investigate the correlated risk factors. A total of 1 647 Han and 876 Korean-Chinese aged 10-80 years were investigated. SV, SI, cardiac output, cardiac output index, heart rate (HR), systemic vascular ...
Okamoto T - - 2011
The ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) system has been used successfully to assess donor lungs. Perfadex (PX) is usually the flush and preservation solution in EVLP systems. We have used the extracellular-type-Kyoto (ET-K) solution containing 44 mEq/L potassium for clinical lung transplantation, investigating whether it rather than PX affects the ...
Lorenz John N - - 2011
Endogenous cardiotonic steroids, through their interaction with the ouabain-binding site of the Na-K-ATPase α-subunit, have been implicated in a variety of cardiovascular disease states including hypertension. We have previously shown that ACTH-induced hypertension is abolished in mutant mice expressing ouabain-resistant α1- and α2-subunits. To further evaluate hypertension resistance in these ...
Lucas Peter W - - 2012
Here, we show how the mechanical properties of a thick-shelled tropical seed are adapted to permit them to germinate while preventing their predation. The seed has evolved a complex heterogeneous microstructure resulting in hardness, stiffness and fracture toughness values that place the structure at the intersection of these competing selective ...
Wang Junrui - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Colonization pressure has been confirmed as an important risk factor for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) acquisition among inpatients, but their precise relationship has not been well investigated. Because MRSA carriers can disperse MRSA into their immediate environment with different abilities, the relationship among colonization pressure, the degree of MRSA ...
Holecki Michał - - 2011
Large clinical trials and experimental studies have indicated that not all of the beneficial properties of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is) can be attributed to the lowering of blood pressure. The aim of this study was to assess doctors' opinions about the importance of the cardioprotective effects of ACE-Is beyond lowering ...
Flevari A G - - 2011
The aim of the study was to calculate the in vitro inspiratory resistance (R(ETT)) of adult endotracheal tubes (ETT), via the end-inspiratory occlusion method, and to apply this method in vivo in order to estimate R(ETT) value in real time. By plotting R(ETT) over inspiratory flow (V) and calculating Rohrer's ...
Yang Qiang - - 2011
Objective  To determine the effect of intraocular pressure (IOP) on blood flow velocity and resistance in the rabbit ophthalmic artery. Animals  Ten adult New Zealand White rabbits were used. Procedures  Right eyes were cannulated and the IOP was raised in a stepwise manner from 20 to 70 mmHg. Peak systolic velocity ...
Korniewicz Denise M - - 2011
: This study was conducted to: (1) determine the clinical effectiveness of a low-air-loss surface, VersaCare P500, in the prevention of pressure ulcers in surgical patients; (2) determine differences in the adjusted Braden scores between those using VersaCare and VersaCare P500 mattress surfaces; and (3) explore the demographic and therapeutic ...
Nguyen Ba D - - 2011
Epidermolysis bullosa encompasses a group of inherited cutaneous disorders with characteristic blisters easily induced by minor mechanical injury from pressure or friction of the skin. The authors present a case of recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa with positive PET finding from non-neoplastic skin lesion of the upper extremity caused by blood ...
Keller David Melvin - - 2011
Prolonged exposure to microgravity and its ground-based analog, head-down bed rest (HDBR), reduces orthostatic tolerance in humans. While skin surface cooling improves orthostatic tolerance, it remains unknown whether this could be an effective countermeasure to preserve post-HDBR orthostatic tolerance. We tested the hypothesis that skin surface cooling improves orthostatic tolerance ...
Sarafidis Pantelis A - - 2011
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2011;13:523-528. ©2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Resistant hypertension is an entity that has gained a lot of attention in recent years. The prevalence and prognosis of resistant hypertension have not yet been examined by proper population studies, but data from several sources suggest that this entity is ...
Shi Yubing - - 2011
This study presents a numerical simulation of cardiovascular response in the heart failure condition under the support of a Berlin Heart INCOR impeller pump-type ventricular assist device (VAD). The model is implemented using the CellML modelling language. To investigate the potential of using the Berlin Heart INCOR impeller pump to ...
Forni Cristiana - - 2011
Aim.  The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of polyurethane foam in contact with the heel inside a plaster cast to decrease the rate of pressure sores in the population at most risk. Background.  The rate of pressure sores caused by the plaster cast is reported to ...
Clarys Peter - - 2011
Background/purpose: The measuring probe of the electrical hydration instruments is equipped with a spring system to ensure a constant pressure of probe application on the skin surface. However, it is possible to trigger the measurement at, respectively, a low and a high force of probe application. It is the purpose ...
Manifold R N - - 2011
Topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) photodynamic therapy (PDT) of skin lesions is an accepted treatment for skin tumours but success rates need improvement. The effectiveness of PDT is influenced by availability of oxygen. The aim of this study was to demonstrate, in normal skin, whether a decrease ...
Black Joyce M - - 2011
Although pressure ulcer (PrU) development is now generally considered an indicator for quality of care, questions and concerns about situations in which they are unavoidable remain. Considering the importance of this issue and the lack of available research data, in 2010 the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (NPUAP) hosted a ...
Andrews Samantha N - - 2011
Microdermabrasion has been shown to increase skin permeability for transdermal drug delivery by damaging or removing skin's outer layer, stratum corneum. However, relationships between microdermabrasion parameters and effects on the stratum corneum barrier have not been developed. In this study, we determined the effect of microdermabrasion crystal flow rate, time, ...
Mohiuddin Mohammad - - 2011
Electrically conductive polymers reinforced with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have generated a great deal of scientific and industrial interest in the last few years. Advanced thermoplastic composites made of three different weight percentages (8%, 9%, and 10%) of multiwalled CNTs and polyether ether ketone (PEEK) were prepared by shear mixing process. ...
Klein Ainat - - 2011
to compare the reproducibility of three portable instruments-the Tono-Pen tonometer (Reichert Ophthalmic Instruments, Depew, NY), the Phosphene tonometer (Bausch & Lomb, Rochester, NY), and the TERT (Through Eyelid Russian Tonometer; Rjazan State Instrument Making, Rjazan, Russia)-in the measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP) with and without soft contact lenses and in ...
Papademetriou Vasilios - - 2011
Despite the many therapeutic options available today for the treatment of hypertension, a sizable number of patients still remain resistant to treatment. The prevalence of resistant hypertension in the general population under optimal conditions is about 3-5%. Although several factors and conditions can be identified and corrected a percentage of ...
Hopps Eugenia - - 2011
Portopulmonary hypertension (PPHT) is a respiratory complication of portal hypertension, defined as an increase in mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) of > 25 mmHg with an increase in pulmonary vascular resistance of > 240 dyn.s/cm-5 and a normal pulmonary capillary wedge pressure ( < 15 mmHg), which often occurs in ...
Lim Liang - - 2011
Diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy are popular research techniques for noninvasive disease diagnostics. Most systems include an optical fiber probe that transmits and collects optical spectra in contact with the suspected lesion. The purpose of this study is to investigate probe pressure effects on human skin spectroscopic measurements. We conduct ...
Jacobsen Jens Christian Brings - - 2011
Vascular flow reserve (VFR) is the relative increase in tissue perfusion from the resting state to a state with maximum vasodilatation. Longstanding hypertension reduces the VFR, which in turn reduces the maximum working capacity of the tissue. In principle, both inward arteriolar remodelling and rarefaction of the microvascular network may ...
Gefen Amit - - 2011
In this study, a mathematical model is developed for analyzing the effects of the microclimate on skin tolerance to superficial pressure ulcers (SPUs). The modeling identified the following factors as such that decrease the tolerance of skin to SPUs: (i) increase in the skin temperature, (ii) increase in the ambient ...
Capelli Claudio - - 2010
To investigate the impact of balloon inflation pressure and balloon diameter on the expansion forces exerted in a stenosed vessel (congenital heart disease applications) using computational models. A simplified three-dimensional model of a vessel with a cylindrical stenosis was created. Two low-compliance balloons with different inflation diameters (10 vs. 16 ...
Beiderman Yevgeny - - 2010
We present a novel technique for remote noncontact blood pulse pressure measurement. It is based on tracking both temporal and amplitude changes of reflected secondary speckle produced in human skin when illuminated by a laser beam. The implemented technique extracts the difference between the systolic and the diastolic blood pressure. ...
Shafer Ilari - - 2011
Vascular adaptation-or structural changes of microvessels in response to physical and metabolic stresses-can influence physiological processes like angiogenesis and hypertension. To better understand the influence of these stresses on adaptation, Pries et al. (1998, 2001a,b, 2005) have developed a computational model for microvascular adaptation. Here, we reformulate this model in ...
Ramirez Rolando J J RJ University of Akron, Department of Biology & Integrative Biology Program, Akron, OH 44325, - - 2011
A central component of preeclampsia is a reduction in utero-placental perfusion. We tested the hypothesis that vascular reactivity of second - order mesenteric arteries would be increased in a pregnant rat with reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP). Pregnant 10-12 week old Sprague-Dawley rats underwent RUPP surgery on gestational day 14, ...
Kieć-Wilk Beata - - 2010
Remodelling process is associated with activity of such substances as transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, FGF2), or insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). In the course of hypertension the remodelling of blood vessels and heart muscle takes place. Studies performed on animal models as well as ...
Kumar V Suresh - - 2010
The design and development of a novel supercritical extraction experimental facility adapted for safe operation in a glove box for the recovery of radioactive elements from waste is described. The apparatus incorporates a high pressure extraction vessel, reciprocating pumps for delivering supercritical fluid and reagent, a back pressure regulator, and ...
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