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Drury Paul P - - 2012
Dopamine is commonly used for blood pressure support in the neonate, but has limited empirical evidence to support its use. We tested the hypothesis that after near-terminal asphyxia in utero, dopamine infusions would prevent secondary hypotension. Fetal sheep (122-129 days of gestation, term is 147 days) received umbilical cord occlusion ...
Sia A T H - - 2012
Hypotension occurs in most caesarean sections under spinal anaesthesia, necessitating vasopressor administration. However, the optimal dosing regimen remains unclear. We have developed a novel vasopressor delivery system that automatically administers phenylephrine or ephedrine based on continuous non-invasive blood pressure monitoring. This prospective cohort study recruited 55 healthy women under standardised ...
Ngan Kee W D - - 2012
BACKGROUND: /st>Closed-loop feedback computer-controlled infusion has not been described for administering phenylephrine to maintain arterial pressure (AP) during spinal anaesthesia for Caesarean delivery. We aimed to compare AP control using this automated system with a previously described manual infusion system. METHODS: /st>We randomly allocated 222 healthy subjects having spinal anaesthesia ...
Seliškar Alenka - - 2012
Objective  To use the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM) validation criteria to evaluate the performance of high definition oscillometric (HDO) and Doppler blood pressure measurement techniques against invasive blood pressure measurements in anaesthetized dogs. Study design  Prospective clinical study. Animals  Twenty client-owned dogs. Materials and Methods  Invasive blood ...
Quinn Christopher T - - 2012
Objective  Evaluation of the accuracy of Masimo signal extraction technology (SET) pulse oximetry in anaesthetized late gestational pregnant sheep. Study design  Prospective experimental study. Animals  Seventeen pregnant Merino ewes. Methods  Animals included in study were late gestation ewes undergoing general anaesthesia for Caesarean delivery or foetal surgery in a medical ...
Koga Masatoshi - - 2012
OBJECTIVE:: Optimal blood pressure (BP) control in acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) remains controversial. We determined the effects of SBP lowering to 160 mmHg or more using intravenous nicardipine for acute ICH patients. METHODS:: This is a prospective, multicenter, observational study conducted in Japan, with the lack of control groups. Patients with ...
Richardson Peter B - - 2012
The mode of ventilation used during awake extubation has not previously been studied. We conducted a randomised controlled trial comparing spontaneous respiration, intermittent positive pressure ventilation, and pressure support ventilation (each n = 13) for incidence and severity of peri-extubation complications following routine elective surgery. We found the severity of ...
Viterbo João F - - 2012
CONTEXT: Haemodynamic stability during induction is a cornerstone of cardiac anaesthesia. The evaluation of pharmacokinetic models for propofol during induction is lacking. OBJECTIVE: To compare haemodynamics during cardiac anaesthesia induction with two pharmacokinetic models. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, São João Hospital; July to December 2010. ...
Hwang Sung-Kyun - - 2012
The authors performed a multicenter prospective study to evaluate the feasibility and safety of intravenous nicardipine hydrochloride for acute hypertension in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). This study included 88 patients (mean age: 58.3 yr, range 26-87 yr) with ICH and acute hypertension in 5 medical centers between August 2008 ...
Averina Viktoria A VA University of Minnesota, Department of Mathematics, Minneapolis, MN, - - 2012
A conceptually novel mathematical model of neurogenic angiotensin II-salt hypertension is developed and analysed. The model consists of a lumped parameter circulatory model with two parallel vascular beds; two distinct control mechanisms for both natriuresis and arterial resistances can be implemented, resulting in four versions of the model. In contrast ...
Müller-Fielitz Helge - - 2012
Plasma aldosterone levels correlate positively with obesity, suggesting a link between the hypertension associated with obesity and increased mineralocorticoid levels. We tested the hypothesis that aldosterone is involved in the BP response to angiotensin II (AngII) in obese rats. Lean (LZR) and obese (OZR) Zucker rats were treated with AngII ...
Anwar M A - - 2012
High blood pressure is responsible for the modulation of blood vessel morphology and function. Arterial hypertension is considered to play a significant role in atherosclerotic ischaemic heart disease, stroke and hypertensive nephropathy, whereas high venous pressure causes varicose vein formation and chronic venous insufficiency and contributes to vein bypass graft ...
Richard Normand A - - 2012
The presence of differences in physiological response to a lowered inspired Po2 mediated by hypobaric hypoxia (HH) or normobaric hypoxia (NH) is controversial. This review examines the brief, acute, and subacute respiratory, cardiovascular, and subjective symptom response to intermediate and severe hypoxic exposure in NH and HH. Brief exposures lead ...
Omosofe F O - - 2012
Electroconvulsive therapy provokes abrupt changes in systemic haemodynamics. We compared the effects of propofol and thiopentone on haemodynamic responses of patients scheduled for ECT between September 2008 and March 2009 in two Nigerian tertiary hospitals. In a prospective, randomized study, 40 patients scheduled for ECT were allocated into 2 groups ...
Monnet X - - 2012
BACKGROUND: /st>We evaluated the ability of an infrared photoplethysmography arterial waveform (continuous non-invasive arterial pressure, CNAP) to estimate arterial pulse pressure variation (PPV). We compared the ability of non-invasive PPV to predict fluid responsiveness with invasive PPV, respiratory variation of pulse contour-derived stroke volume, and changes in cardiac index induced ...
Barodka Viachaslau - - 2012
Since the introduction of the first Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) captopril in 1981, ACE inhibitors have become a mainstay of anti-hypertensive therapy. In addition to lowering BP, there is overwhelming evidence that ACE inhibitors (and angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARB)) provide end organ protection independent of blood their pressure lowering properties in ...
Martínez-Revelles Sonia - - 2012
Aims: This study evaluates a possible relationship between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2-derived products in conductance and resistance arteries from hypertensive animals. Angiotensin II infused mice or spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) treated with the NAD(P)H Oxidase inhibitor apocynin, the mitochondria-targeted SOD2 mimetic mito-TEMPO, the superoxide dismutase analogue tempol, ...
Rollinger B - - 2012
A miniature fast response high temperature pressure probe, with demonstrated use in liquid metals up to 255 °C (528 K), has been developed. Innovative packaging technologies have been applied to integrate a conventional piezoresistive silicon pressure sensor into the probe, without the need of an auxiliary water-cooling system. In situ static ...
Sun Tao - - 2012
Sub-harmonic response from ultrasound contrast agent microbubbles has been demonstrated to be an effective modality for noninvasive pressure measurement. In the present study, the dependence of ultra-harmonic response on the ambient overpressure was investigated by both experimental measurements and simulations. In the measurements, the microbubbles were exposed to Gaussian pulses ...
Bomfim Gisele F GF Department of Pharmacology, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. - - 2012
Activation of TLRs (Toll-like receptors) induces gene expression of proteins involved in the immune system response. TLR4 has been implicated in the development and progression of CVDs (cardio-vascular diseases). Innate and adaptive immunity contribute to hypertension-associated end-organ damage, although the mechanism by which this occurs remains unclear. In the present ...
Kauffenstein Gilles G Biologie Neurovasculaire et Mitochondriale Intégrée, UMR CNRS 6214 INSERM 1083, Université d'Angers, - - 2012
Blood flow autoregulation results from the ability of resistance arteries to reduce or increase their diameters in response to changes in intravascular pressure. The mechanism by which arteries maintain a constant blood flow to organs over a range of pressures relies on this myogenic response, which defines the intrinsic property ...
Wallasch Thomas-Martin - - 2012
PURPOSE.: To provide reference values of cerebrovascular reactivity measured with transcranial Doppler ultrasonography in response to rapid changes in blood pressure during the late straining phase (IIb) of a Valsalva maneuver (VM). METHODS.: Middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity, arterial blood pressure changes, and end-tidal partial carbon dioxide pressure (pCO(2) ...
Turner Stephen T - - 2012
To identify genes influencing blood pressure response to an angiotensin II receptor blocker, single nucleotide polymorphisms identified by genome-wide association analysis of the response to candesartan were validated by opposite direction associations with the response to a thiazide diuretic, hydrochlorothiazide. We sampled 198 white and 193 blacks with primary hypertension ...
Gentili A - - 2012
Caudal block with levobupivacaine or ropivacaine is the most commonly used regional anaesthesia in children. The aim of study was to compare the cardiocirculatory profile induced in two matched groups of young patients, submitted to caudal anaesthesia with levobupivacaine or ropivacaine for an elective subumbilical surgery. Sixty children were enrolled: ...
Sathishkumar Kunju K Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-1062, - - 2012
Examine temporal alterations in vascular angiotensin II receptors (AT(1)R and AT(2)R) and determine vascular response to angiotensin II in growth-restricted offspring. Offspring of pregnant rats fed low-protein (6%) and control (20%) diet were compared. Prenatal protein restriction reprogrammed AT(1a)R messenger RNA expression in male rats' mesenteric arteries to cause 1.7- ...
Tate Kevin B - - 2012
Effects of dehydration on reptilian embryonic cardiovascular function are unknown. Here, we present the first morphological and physiological data quantifying the cumulative effects of four acute dehydration events on the embryonic American alligator, Alligator mississipiensis. We hypothesized that dehydration would alter embryonic morphology, reduce blood volume and augment the response ...
Hopps Jamie J - - 2012
Oleamide is an endocannabinoid-like, fatty acid amide with structural similarities to anandamide. The cardiovascular effects of anandamide are enhanced in hypertension and we have now examined how hypertension affects responses to oleamide. Vasorelaxant responses to oleamide were significantly (P<0.001) enhanced in aortic rings from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), such that ...
Takai Shinji - - 2012
Angiotensin II plays an important role in regulating blood pressure. Moreover, angiotensin II directly promotes organ damage by inducing expression of various genes, such as transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 precursors. Blockade of angiotensin II has been shown to not only lower blood pressure, but also to ...
Shibata Hirotaka - - 2012
The role of aldosterone in the pathogenesis of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases has been clearly shown in congestive heart failure and endocrine hypertension due to primary aldosteronism. In resistant hypertension, defined as a failure of concomitant use of three or more different classes of antihypertensive agents to control blood pressure ...
Prysyazhna Oleksandra - - 2012
Blood pressure regulation is crucial for the maintenance of health, and hypertension is a risk factor for myocardial infarction, heart failure, stroke and renal disease. Nitric oxide (NO) and prostacyclin trigger well-defined vasodilator pathways; however, substantial vasorelaxation in response to agents such as acetylcholine persists when the synthesis of these ...
Brown T C K - - 2012
The physiological application of OHMS LAW explains the basis of hypotensive anesthesia. V = IR translates into: Pressure = Flow × Resistance or Blood pressure = Cardiac Output × Peripheral Resistance. If peripheral resistance is reduced by a vasodilator such as sodium nitroprusside (a short acting, vascular smooth muscle relaxant) or phenoxybenzamine (a long acting α adrenoreceptor antagonist), blood pressure ...
Kairaitis Kristina - - 2012
Increasing lung volume improves upper airway airflow dynamics via passive mechanisms such as reducing upper airway extraluminal tissue pressures (ETP) and increasing longitudinal tension via tracheal displacement. We hypothesized a threshold lung volume for optimal mechanical effects on upper airway airflow dynamics. Seven supine, anesthetized, spontaneously breathing New Zealand White ...
Sekido Noritoshi - - 2012
Hydrodynamic analysis of a pressure flow study is the only reliable method to determine the presence or absence of a bladder outlet obstruction, especially benign prostatic obstruction. To interpret the results of pressure flow study in benign prostatic obstruction, understanding the outlines of the basic theory about evaluation of the ...
Azizi M - - 2012
This review aims to describe the role and the results of catheter-based renal nerve ablation for the treatment of resistant hypertension. Despite the availability of multiple classes of orally active antihypertensive treatments, resistant hypertension remains an important public health issue in 2012 due to its prevalence and association with target-organ ...
Shimizu Ippei - - 2012
Several clinical studies have shown that insulin resistance is prevalent among patients with heart failure, but the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Here, we report a mechanism of insulin resistance associated with heart failure that involves upregulation of p53 in adipose tissue. We found that pressure overload markedly ...
Nassar Boulos S - - 2012
PURPOSE: Knowledge of patients' lung compliance and resistance aids clinical management. We investigated whether these values, readily measured during volume assist-control ventilation (VACV), could also be estimated during pressure assist-control ventilation (PACV). METHODS: Data were collected in 12 mechanically ventilated human subjects. During VACV, peak pressure, plateau pressure, end-expiratory pressure, ...
Kish Adrienne - - 2012
In this study, we examined the high-pressure survival of a range of prokaryotes not found in high-pressure environments to determine the effects of adaptations to osmotic and oxidative stresses on piezo-resistance. The pressure survivals of Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1, Deinococcus radiodurans R1, and Chromohalobacter salexigens were compared to that of Escherichia ...
Zeiler Gareth E - - 2012
A 10-month-old, 580 kg, hand-reared white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) calf was presented for emergency exploratory celiotomy. Anaesthesia was safely induced with three successive intravenous (IV) boluses of diazepam (10 mg) and ketamine (100 mg) until the trachea could be intubated. Anaesthesia was adequately maintained with isoflurane-inoxygen (mean end-tidal isoflurane concentration ...
Czosnyka Marek - - 2012
Objective: The programmable Shunt Assistant (capped!) (ProSA) shunt system has recently been introduced into clinical use. The system can be in vivo adjusted magnetically, and this adjustability is supposed to affect CSF drainage only in the vertical body position. Materials and methods: We tested a combination of ProSA with fixed ...
Shujaat Adil - - 2012
In sepsis both under- and overresuscitation are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Moreover, sepsis can be complicated by myocardial dysfunction, and only half of the critically ill patients exhibit preload responsiveness. It is of paramount importance to accurately, safely, and rapidly determine and optimize preload during resuscitation. Traditional methods ...
Wegner Nicholas C - - 2012
Ram ventilation and gill function in a lamnid shark, the shortfin mako, Isurus oxyrinchus, were studied to assess how gill structure may affect the lamnid-tuna convergence for high-performance swimming. Despite differences in mako and tuna gill morphology, mouth gape and basal swimming speeds, measurements of mako O(2) utilization at the ...
Turner Stephen T - - 2012
To determine whether office, home, ambulatory daytime and nighttime blood pressure (BP) responses to antihypertensive drug therapy measure the same signal and which method provides greatest power to identify genetic predictors of BP response. We analyzed office, home, ambulatory daytime and nighttime BP responses in hypertensive adults randomized to atenolol ...
Liu Ye-Cheng YC Department of Emergency Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing 100730, - - 2012
This study aimed to determine whether modified shock index (MSI) is associated with mortality that is superior to heart rate, blood pressure, or the shock index (SI) in emergency patients. A retrospective database review was performed on 22 161 patients who presented to Peking Union Medical College Hospital Emergency Department ...
Hamlin J J - - 2011
We report x-ray diffraction, electrical resistivity, and magnetoresistance measurements on Bi(2)Se(3) under high pressure and low temperature conditions. Pressure induces profound changes in both the room temperature value of the electrical resistivity as well as the temperature dependence of the resistivity. Initially, pressure drives Bi(2)Se(3) toward increasingly insulating behavior and ...
Lai En Yin EY Hypertension, Kidney, and Vascular Research Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, NW, Washington, DC 20007, - - 2012
Myogenic and angiotensin contractions of afferent arterioles generate reactive oxygen species. Resistance vessels express neutrophil oxidase-2 and -4. Angiotensin II activates p47(phox)/neutrophil oxidase-2, whereas it downregulates NOX-4. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that p47(phox) enhances afferent arteriolar angiotensin contractions. Angiotensin II infusion in p47(phox) +/+ but not -/- mice increased ...
Belfort Michael - - 2011
AUTHORS: Michael Belfort, MBBCH, MD, PhD; Teelkien Van Veen; G. Lance White; ShaleceKofford, RN, MPH; Janalee Allred, RN; InekePostma; Michael Varner, MD OBJECTIVE: To determine if decreased resistance (vasodilatation) in the Maternal Middle Cerebral Artery (MMCA)in the second trimester can predict third trimester development of preeclampsia. STUDY DESIGN: 405 low ...
Tahvanainen Anna M - - 2011
OBJECTIVES:: Pulse wave analysis is widely applied to measure the haemodynamic effects of nitroglycerin and salbutamol as an endothelium-independent and endothelium-dependent vasodilator, respectively. The recordings are usually performed in supine position from 10 to 20 successive heartbeats without simultaneous measurement of vascular resistance and cardiac function. Our objective was to ...
Genovesi Simonetta - - 2011
OBJECTIVE:: The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether insulin resistance [as measured by Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) index] has an effect on prehypertension and hypertension risk in children after acknowledging the role of BMI and waist-to-height ratio. METHODS:: We studied a sample of 377 children 10.5 ± 2.3 years ...
Sen Sayan S International Centre for Circulatory Health, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK. - - 2012
The purpose of this study was to develop an adenosine-independent, pressure-derived index of coronary stenosis severity. Assessment of stenosis severity with fractional flow reserve (FFR) requires that coronary resistance is stable and minimized. This is usually achieved by administration of pharmacological agents such as adenosine. In this 2-part study, we ...
Gamé Xavier - - 2011
Introduction.  Nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) and estrogen receptors are expressed in the female urethra. Aim.  We aimed to assess the impact of sildenafil on micturition behavior, urethral tone according to the hormonal status and to determine the implications of the neuronal isoform of NOS (nNOS). Methods.  Four-week-old C57/BL6 female mice ...
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