Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 1539
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Szekeres Maria - - 2004
The myogenic response, an active constriction and dilation of vessels to changes in intravascular pressure, can play an important role in the regulation of coronary blood flow. The characteristics of the myogenic response and its modulation by endothelium-derived factors are organ and location specific and have not been studied extensively ...
Cipolla Marilyn J - - 2004
Eclampsia is thought to be similar to hypertensive encephalopathy, whereby acute elevations in intravascular pressure cause forced dilatation (FD) of intrinsic myogenic tone of cerebral arteries and arterioles, decreased cerebrovascular resistance, and hyperperfusion. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that pregnancy and/or the postpartum period predispose cerebral arteries ...
Pessana F - - 2004
The viscoelastic properties of the arterial wall are responsible for their functional role in the arterial system. Cryopreservation is widely used to preserve blood vessels for vascular reconstruction but is controversially suspected to affect the dynamic behaviour of these allografts. The aim of this study was to determine whether differences ...
Lin Albert Chin-Yuh - - 2004
From the energy point of view, obtaining simultaneous blood pressure and flow rate of the radial artery at the wrist is very important for sphygmic diagnosis in medicine. This work depicts the conceptual design for a noninvasive multi-functional sphygmus detection system. According to Y. C. Fung's flow rate equation, flow ...
Kispélyi Barbara - - 2004
The newly developed self-etching, self-priming all-in-one adhesives are appealing to clinicians because they are simple and efficient to use. These single-application bonding systems contain chemically active compounds that can alter pulpal blood circulation when applied to deep dentin surfaces. Since adequate microcirculation and oxygenation are the basic requirements for tissue ...
Svaasand Lars O - - 2004
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The average success rate in achieving total blanching of port wine stain (PWS) lesions treated with laser-induced selective photothermolysis is below 25%, even after multiple treatments. This is because smaller diameter (5-20 microm) PWS blood vessels are difficult to destroy with selective photothermolysis since the volumetric heat ...
Jarajapu Yagna P R - - 2004
PURPOSE: To study and quantify myogenic behavior and reactivity of the rat ophthalmic artery to pressure and different vasoactive substances in vitro. METHODS: Rat ophthalmic arteries (diameter of 217 +/- 6 microm, n = 22) were isolated, cannulated with glass pipettes in an arteriograph and pressurized in a physiological buffer. ...
Shou Y - - 2004
Atherosclerosis is a disease mainly of large, high pressure arteries and of valves, typically sparing veins and small, low pressure arteries. We investigate the resistances of the vena cava and the pulmonary artery to the flow of water and the infiltration of solutes into the vessel walls and compare them ...
Coats P - - 2003
In critical limb ischaemia (CLI), the ability to regulate regional blood flow in the diseased portion of the leg would appear to be severely compromised. Considering this, pressure-dependent myogenic and mechanical properties of resistance arterioles isolated from control subjects and from patients with CLI were studied. Using confocal microscopy and ...
Garhöfer Gerhard - - 2003
PURPOSE: Diffuse luminance flicker light increases retinal and optic nerve head blood flow in animals and humans, but the exact mechanisms that mediate increased flow have yet to be identified. In the current study, the effect of increased plasma lactate levels on flicker-induced vasodilatation in the retina was investigated in ...
Rajagopalan Sanjay - - 2003
Raynaud's syndrome (RS), which is characterized by recurrent episodes of vasospasm with exposure to cold, may occur alone (primary RS) or in association with connective tissue diseases or other underlying conditions (secondary RS). We investigated the effect of cilostazol on vessel wall responses in RS. Patients were diagnosed (primary or ...
Nagel Edgar - - 2004
PURPOSE: To investigate the autoregulative response of large retinal vessels to artificial reduction of perfusion pressure. METHODS: The diameters of a venous and an arterial segment (each approx.1.5 mm in length) in one eye of each of 13 healthy volunteers (age 54.5+/-18 years) were measured continuously using the Retinal Vessel ...
Moosmang Sven - - 2003
Blood pressure is regulated by a number of key molecules involving G-protein-coupled receptors, ion channels and monomeric small G-proteins. The relative contribution of these different signaling pathways to blood pressure regulation remains to be determined. Tamoxifen-induced, smooth muscle-specific inactivation of the L-type Cav1.2 Ca2+ channel gene in mice (SMAKO) reduced ...
Rumbaugh Marilyn L - - 2003
To compare arterial bursting pressure after vessel closure using a vessel-sealing device (LigaSure Atlas Laparoscopic Sealer/Divider Instrument; Valleylab, Boulder, CO), a ligate-and-divide stapling device (LDS), and 2-0 polydioxanone suture. To evaluate the LigaSure Atlas as a method for ligation of the mesenteric vasculature during small intestinal resection in normal horses. ...
Jacobsen Jens Christian Brings - - 2003
Adequate function of the microcirculation is vital to any tissue. To maintain an optimal function, microvascular networks must be able to adapt structurally to changes in the physical environment. Here we present a mathematical network model based on vessel wall mechanics. We assume based on experimental observations that longstanding change ...
D'Armiento Jeanine - - 2003
Mice haploinsufficient for elastin develop structural changes in vessel walls similar to those seen in patients with mutations in the elastin gene. A new study demonstrates that due to mechanical changes in the vessel wall, these animals exhibit increased mean arterial pressures. The results evoke the possibility that alterations in ...
Gokina Natalia I - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to investigate differences in diameter and vasoconstriction of premyometrial versus uteroplacental radial arteries and to evaluate the contribution of nitric oxide (NO) to myogenic tone as a function of vessel location. STUDY DESIGN: Radial arteries supplying either the myometrium or placenta were dissected ...
Presthus James B - - 2003
We evaluated the vessel-sealing ability of one application of a pulsed plasma kinetic (PK) electrosurgical device on skeletonized vessels up to 7 mm in diameter to withstand sustained pressure of 300 mm Hg using bench and animal models. Forty-six porcine specimens and 66 abattoir vessels (112 total) were pressure tested ...
Perrée Jop - - 2003
In this report we describe the application of an in vitro pressure-perfusion system for study of functional/structural changes after in vitro balloon dilation injury. Pig carotid arteries were perfused at P = 100 mm Hg and Q = 100 ml/min, balloon angioplastied (BA), and cultured under these hemodynamic conditions for ...
Shiraishi Mitsuya - - 2003
The physiological role of smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform diversity is poorly understood. The expression of MHC-B, which contains an insert at the ATP binding pocket, has been linked to enhanced contractile kinetics. We recently reported that the renal afferent arteriole exhibits an unusually rapid myogenic response and ...
Rohra Dileep Kumar - - 2003
Hydrogen ion concentration (H+) is an important regulator of many cellular functions including contractility of the vascular smooth muscle cells. In many physiological and pathological states, changes in pH may have profound effects on the contractility of blood vessels and thus on the peripheral vascular resistance and blood pressure. Therefore, ...
Vicaut E - - 2003
A large part of the changes in peripheral resistances associated with hypertension involves changes in the microvascular network. From the brief review presented here, it appears that arterioles' functional characteristics are largely modified in hypertension. Sensitivity to numerous vasoconstrictive substances is increased. Local angiotensin-converting enzyme activity is considerably higher. Endothelium-dependent ...
Undavia Samir S - - 2003
Previous in vivo studies indicate that vascular autoregulation does take place in adipose tissue. We tested the hypothesis that adipose tissue arterioles can develop a myogenic response to increases in transmural pressure. Arterioles, isolated from the inguinal fat pad of male Wistar rats, were placed in a microvessel chamber containing ...
Tamura N - - 2003
In situ tissue engineering using acellular xenografts is a new approach to autologous tissue regeneration. In the present study, we analyzed a new regeneration scaffold comprised of xenogenic acellular vessels in a dog model. Xenogenic vascular conduits of porcine carotid arteries were acellularized by a 48-hour detergent incubation to extract ...
Wang Jie Jin - - 2003
To describe cross-sectional relations between hypertension and retinal vessel wall signs in an older white population. These signs were defined from fundus photographs in 3654 Blue Mountains Eye Study participants > or =49 years of age. Focal arteriolar narrowing and arteriovenous nicking were graded through the use of standard protocol. ...
Tozzi P - - 2003
A high resolution echo-tracking system permits the calculation of cross-sectional compliance considering vessel diameter variations alone, and assumes that longitudinal movement of the vessel wall due to pulse pressure is negligible. However, using piezoelectric crystals sutured on the adventitia of the vessel wall we demonstrated that arterial length changes up ...
Brook Robert D - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine if hypertensive adults have a blunted triglyceride catabolic rate (TG K(2)) and if related hemodynamic and vascular alterations are determinants of TG K(2). METHODS: Fasting levels of insulin, glucose, lipoproteins and plasma catecholamines were measured in 10 normotensive and 10 hypertensive adults. TG K(2) was ...
Lemarié Catherine A - - 2003
The effects of mechanical factors on nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation and its potential functional roles have been very little explored in the intact vessel. Thus, we chose to study the regulation of NF-kappaB by intraluminal pressure using an organ culture model of mouse carotid arteries maintained at 80 or 150 ...
Vlasova M A - - 2003
Clipping of the abdominal aorta distally to the renal arteries produces a persistent decrease in blood pressure in hindquarter vessels by 35-40%. On week 6-7 postoperation, the reactions of the caudal artery perfused in vitro under constant pressure to norepinephrine were studied. At transmural pressure of 150 mm Hg, the ...
Leung Harry - - 2003
PURPOSE: To describe the cross-sectional relationships between age, blood pressure (BP), and quantitative measures of retinal vessel diameters in an older Australian population. METHODS: Retinal photographs from right eyes of participants (n = 3654, aged 49+ years) in the Blue Mountains Eye study taken during baseline examinations (1992-1994) were digitized. ...
Harold K L - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Advanced laparoscopic procedures have necessitated the development of new technology for vascular control. Suture ligation can be time-consuming and cumbersome during laparoscopic dissection. Titanium clips have been used for hemostasis, and recently plastic clips and energy sources such as ultrasonic coagulating shears and bipolar thermal energy devices have become ...
Chesler Naomi C - - 2003
The goal of this study was to quantify the effect of hemodynamic pressure, flow and waveform perturbations on the deposition of protein-sized particles in porcine carotid arteries ex vivo. An ex vivo perfusion system was used to control the pressure and flow environment for excised arterial tissue. Confocal laser microscopy ...
Constable Peter D - - 2003
The sphingolipid signaling pathway appears to play an important role in regulating vascular tone. We examined the effect of fumonisin B(1), a fungal toxin in corn that blocks ceramide synthase in the sphingolipid signaling pathway, on the ascending aortic impedance spectrum of pigs. Sixteen pigs were fed culture material containing ...
Hessellund Anders - - 2003
PURPOSE: To characterize vasomotion in porcine retinal arterioles in vitro using isobaric (pressure myograph) and isometric (wire myograph) methods. METHODS: Pressure myograph: 208 small porcine retinal arterioles (outer diameter 68 +/- 4 microm) were studied under isobaric conditions in a double-barrelled pipette system. Diameter changes of the arterioles were registered ...
Nohria Anju - - 2003
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent vasoconstrictor that increases vascular tone in the resistance vessels of subjects with hypertension. It is unclear whether endogenous ET-1 affects resistance-vessel function equally in patients with other cardiovascular risk factors. Vasoconstriction to ET-1 is mediated principally via the endothelin-A (ETA) receptor on vascular smooth muscle ...
Spofford Christina M - - 2003
The arterial wall is composed of dynamically interacting cellular and acellular components that are necessary for the maintenance of vessel homeostasis. Two extracellular proteins in the vessel wall, elastin and laminin, play important structural roles. We recently established a role for the elastin-laminin receptor (ELR) in mechanotransduction of stretch in ...
Melcher Peter J - - 2003
The relation between xylem vessel age and vulnerability to cavitation of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) was quantified by measuring the pressure required to force air across bordered pit membranes separating individual xylem vessels. We found that the bordered pit membranes of vessels located in current year xylem could withstand ...
Gschwend Simone - - 2003
In hypertension, pressure-induced myogenic constriction and impaired endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF)-mediated dilation may contribute to increased vasomotor tone. Myogenic constriction as well as EDHF-mediated dilation may share common signaling mechanisms, and both may control KCa channel activity to set arterial tone. To investigate a potential relation between the 2 mechanisms, ...
Su Baogen Y - - 2003
Previous attempts to determine developmental changes in the vascular myogenic response have been confounded by the presence of competing vasoactive stimuli or the use of isolated vessels with markedly different baseline diameters. To circumvent these issues, small mesenteric arteries (diameter approximately 150 microm) from 1- and 10-day-old piglets were studied ...
Allemann Reto - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Ocular blood flow dysregulation is considered to be a risk factor associated with the optic neuropathy observed in glaucoma patients. The present study evaluates the vasoactive effect of the ocular hypotensive agent travoprost (Travatan) on isolated pig ciliary arteries. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Isometric forces were measured with a myograph ...
Bakker E N T P - - 2003
We tested the hypothesis that under physiological conditions, arterioles match their diameter to the level of shear stress. Haemodynamic and anatomical data were obtained in segments of the first-order arteriole of the rat cremaster muscle. Along this segment of ~10 mm in length, local blood pressure decreased from 68 +/- ...
Brookes Zoe L S - - 2003
In the rat, the spleen is a major site of fluid efflux out of the blood. By contrast, the mesenteric vasculature serves as a blood reservoir. We proposed that the compliance and myogenic responses of these vascular beds would reflect their different functional demands. Mesenteric and splenic arterioles ( approximately ...
Golding Elke M - - 2003
In an effort to localize the site at which increased resistance occurs after brain trauma, pial arteriole diameter and pressure were assessed after mild controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury in rats using an open cranial window technique. The authors tested the hypothesis that an increase in resistance accompanied by vasoconstriction ...
Landman Jaime - - 2003
PURPOSE: We assessed the usefulness of the LigaSure (Valleylab, Boulder, Colorado) vessel sealing system for vascular control during laparoscopic surgery and compared it with other available hemostatic modalities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 31 domestic pigs were divided into 5 groups. In groups 1 and 2 the vessel sealing ...
Schulze-Bauer C A J - - 2003
Stress-strain analyses of vessel walls require appropriate constitutive equations. Determination of constitutive equations is based on experimental data of (i) diameter and length of a vessel segment subject to internal pressure and external axial force, and (ii) the load-free reference geometry. Typical clinical data, however, provide only pressure-diameter relations in ...
Schiffrin Ernesto L - - 2003
Blood vessels are remodeled in hypertension both structurally and functionally. The changes that occur in their structure, mechanical properties, and function contribute to blood pressure elevation and to complications of hypertension. We studied the remodeling of small arteries in experimental animals and humans. Smooth muscle cells of small arteries are ...
New David I - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The constriction of resistance arteries in response to an increase in transmural pressure, the myogenic response, is thought to be an important determinant of peripheral vascular resistance and therefore of arterial blood pressure. Since raised peripheral resistance is known to occur in uremic hypertension, abnormal myogenic constriction might be ...
Lawrence A R - - 2003
Based on the decisive effects of the hemodynamic and mechanical environments on the development and remodeling of arteries in vivo, several groups have cultured tissue-engineered vessels and excised vessels in various mechanically active perfusion systems. To facilitate the interpretation and design of such studies, accurate estimates of the applied forces ...
Winestone John S - - 2003
Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenous dilator in the newborn cerebral circulation. The present study addressed the hypothesis that endogenous CO attenuates pial arteriolar vasoconstriction caused by hypocapnia, platelet activating factor, and elevated blood pressure. Experiments used anesthetized piglets with implanted, closed cranial windows. Topical application of a metal porphyrin ...
Markiewicz Włodzimierz - - 2003
The aim of the present study was to determine: (i) the presence of dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DbetaH)- and neuropeptide Y (NPY)-immunoreactive (IR) nerve fibres in the wall of the porcine ovarian artery, (ii) the influence of NPY and norepinephrine (NE) on the contractile activity of the pig ovarian arteries, and (iii) the ...
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