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Geerts Bart F - - 2012
Hypovolemia is a common clinical problem. The Trendelenburg position and passive leg raising (PLR) are routinely used in the initial treatment while awaiting fluid resuscitation. In this meta-analysis, we evaluated the hemodynamic effects of PLR and Trendelenburg positioning to determine which position had the most optimal effect on cardiac output ...
Salazar Sergio A - - 2012
Physiological principles that directly apply to physical diagnosis provide opportune occasions to bring basic science to the bedside. In this article, we describe the effect of cardiac maneuvers on systolic murmurs and how physiological principles apply to the explanation of the changes noted at the bedside. We discuss the effect ...
Le Manach Yannick - - 2012
Cardiac output (CO) is rarely monitored during surgery, and arterial pressure remains the only hemodynamic parameter for assessing the effects of volume expansion (VE). However, whether VE-induced changes in arterial pressure accurately reflect changes in CO has not been demonstrated. The authors studied the ability of VE-induced changes in arterial ...
Kaur Divjyot - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have shown significant ethnic differences in coronary heart disease death rates with South Asians showing significantly greater coronary heart disease mortality than other groups. PURPOSE: This research examined ethnic differences in cardiovascular reactivity (CVR) among Chinese, Malays and Indians in Singapore as well as a sample of ...
Mancini Massimiliano M Department of Radiology, Oncology and Pathology, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, - - 2013
The mechanisms underlying coronary microvascular remodeling and dysfunction, which are critical determinants of abnormal myocardial blood flow regulation in human hypertension, are poorly understood. The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) exhibits many features of human hypertensive cardiomyopathy. We demonstrate that remodeling of intramural coronary arterioles is apparent in the SHR already ...
Saul S M - - 2012
Antihypertensive therapy is aimed at improving vascular and cardiac health, as well as lowering blood pressure (BP). The benefit of such drugs in untreated patients with borderline BP has not been demonstrated. Subjects with BPs 130 mm Hg systolic or 85 mm Hg diastolic and at least one additional risk factor were randomly assigned ...
Callaway Clifton W - - 2012
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Epinephrine is the primary drug administered during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) to reverse cardiac arrest. Epinephrine increases arterial blood pressure and coronary perfusion during CPR via alpha-1-adrenoceptor agonist effects. However, the dose, timing and indications for epinephrine use are based on limited animal data. Recent studies question whether ...
Arora Natasha Purai - - 2012
The investigators describe the clinical course of a 26-year-old-man who was brought to the emergency department in a comatose state with status epilepticus after smoking a large amount of crack cocaine. In the emergency department, he was intubated because of depressed mental status and respiratory acidosis. His troponin I remained ...
You Jieyun - - 2012
BACKGROUND:: Notch1 signaling controls the cardiac adaptation to stress. We therefore aimed to validate whether olmesartan, a widely used angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker, ameliorates cardiac remodeling and dysfunction via DLL4/Notch1 pathway in mice with chronic pressure overload. METHODS:: Cardiac pressure overload was produced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). ...
Maertens Vicky L - - 2012
AIM: To measure ventilation rate using tracheal airway pressures in prehospitally intubated patients with and without cardiac arrest. METHODS: Prospective observational study. In 98 patients (57 with and 41 without cardiac arrest) an air-filled catheter was inserted into the endotracheal tube and connected to a custom-made portable device allowing tracheal ...
Arumugham Pradeep - - 2012
Aims: Defining the clinical and physiologic significance of an intermediate coronary artery stenosis is aided by measurement of fractional flow reserve (FFR). Adenosine is the most common agent used in the cardiac catheterisation laboratory for the measurement of FFR. Regadenoson, a selective adenosine receptor agonist, with fewer side effects than ...
Gault Mandy L - - 2012
Cardiovascular responses of older adults to downhill (DTW, -10%) and level treadmill walking (LTW, 0%) at self-selected walking speed (SSWS) were examined. Fifteen participants (age: 68±4 yr; height: 1.69±0.08 m; body mass: 74.7±8.1 kg) completed two 15-minutes walks at their SSWS (4.6±0.6 km·hr-1). Cardiovascular responses were estimated using an arterial ...
Mizuno Julio - - 2013
This quasi-experimental study describes the effects of a yoga sequence following hemodynamic and biochemical parameters in patients with hypertension. Thirty-three volunteers participated in the study (control = 16 and yoga = 17) for four months. Blood pressure measurements, cardiac and respiratory rate were collected monthly, while the biochemical profile was taken at the beginning ...
He Shao-Ru - - 2012
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to assess the normal values for Smith-Madigan inotropy (SMI), Smith-Madigan inotropy index (SMII), oxygen delivery (DO(2)) and oxygen delivery index DO(2)I in healthy term neonates on the first day of life and during circulatory adaptation over the first three days of life. METHODS: ...
Slagt Cornelis - - 2012
To evaluate the 3.02 software version of the FloTrac/Vigileo™ system for estimation of cardiac output by uncalibrated arterial pressure waveform analysis, in septic shock. Nineteen consecutive patients in septic shock were studied. FloTrac/Vigileo™ measurements (COfv) were compared with pulmonary artery catheter thermodilution-derived cardiac output (COtd). The mean cardiac output was ...
Potter Brian J - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: Determine the role of cardiac output and central venous pressure (CVP) measurements in the clinical decisions that were based on the algorithm used in a randomized trial that compared a colloid to a crystalloid solution in the management of patients early after cardiac surgery (FACS trial, NCT00337805, Crit Care ...
Ginn Jennifer A - - 2012
A 4 yr old spayed female Labrador retriever was examined 4 hr after ingesting an overdose of phenylpropanolamine (PPA). Clinical signs included anxiety, piloerection, mucosal ulceration, cardiac arrhythmia, mydriasis, and hyphema. Clinicopathologic abnormalities included elevated creatine kinase (CK) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), proteinuria, and pigmenturia. Ventricular tachycardia and severe systemic ...
Helmi Mochamat - - 2012
External leg compression (ELC) may increase cardiac output (CO) in fluid-responsive patients like passive leg raising (PLR). We compared the hemodynamic effects of two methods of ELC and PLR measured by thermodilution (COtd), pressure curve analysis Modelflow™ (COmf) and ultra-sound HemoSonic™ (COhs), to evaluate the method with the greatest hemodynamic ...
Ma Yuedong - - 2012
Although the role of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in cardiac hypertrophy induced by pressure overload has been consistently studied, the fundamental importance of the UPS in cardiac fibrosis has received much less attention. Our previous study found that proteasome inhibitor (MG132) treatment attenuated cardiac fibrosis and heart failure during the ...
Sutton Robert M - - 2012
AIM: Adequate coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is essential for establishing return of spontaneous circulation. The objective of this study was to compare short-term survival using a hemodynamic directed resuscitation strategy versus an absolute depth-guided approach in a porcine model of asphyxia-associated cardiac arrest. We hypothesized that ...
Egstrup Michael - - 2012
AIMS: To investigate whether left ventricular (LV) systolic shortening velocity (s'), diastolic lengthening velocity (e'), and non-invasively estimated LV filling pressure (E/e') during low-dose dobutamine echocardiography (LDDE) reflect invasive measures of cardiac output and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) in stable patients with chronic systolic heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: ...
Sánchez-de-la-Torre Manuel - - 2013
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a common health concern caused by repeated episodes of collapse of the upper airway during sleep. The events associated with OSA lead to brain arousal, intrathoracic pressure changes, and intermittent episodes of hypoxaemia and reoxygenation. These events activate pathways such as oxidative stress, sympathetic activation, ...
Benter Ibrahim F - - 2012
Diabetes is associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular disease. Mechanisms that contribute to development of diabetic cardiopathy are not well understood. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) is a family of protein kinases that play an important role in regulation of cardiac function. It has been shown that inhibition of certain PI3K enzymes ...
Weir Matthew R - - 2012
The relationship between blood pressure and cardiovascular events in hemodialysis patients is complicated and controversial. The timing of blood pressure measurements (home, before dialysis, after dialysis, during dialysis) provide somewhat different results. Moreover, the use of antihypertensive medications may also confound the relationship between blood pressure and cardiovascular outcome. Most ...
Maas Jacinta J - - 2012
OBJECTIVE:: We studied the variable effects of norepinephrine infusion on cardiac output in postoperative cardiac surgical patients in whom norepinephrine increased mean arterial pressure. We hypothesized that the directional change in cardiac output would be determined by baseline cardiac function, as quantified by stroke volume variation, and the subsequent changes ...
Doganci Suat - - 2012
The present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effect of sodium nitrite (NaNO2) and sodium nitrate (NaNO3) against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in a pig regional ischemia model. Eighteen pigs were randomly divided into three groups as control (Group 1), sodium nitrite (Group 2) and sodium nitrate (Group 3) ...
Yuan Ning - - 2012
Excessive sympathetic activity contributes to the initiation and progression of hypertension. Reactive oxygen species in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is involved in sympathetic overdrive and hypertension. The present study was designed to investigate whether superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) overexpression in the PVN attenuated sympathetic activation and hypertension. Adenoviral vectors containing ...
Fischer Henrik - - 2012
The goal of this experimental study was to investigate rescuer exertion when using "Animax," a manually operated hand-powered mechanical resuscitation device (MRD) for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), compared to standard basic life support (BLS). This was a prospective, open, randomized, crossover simulation study. After being trained, 80 medical students with substantial ...
Chen Horng H HH Cardiorenal Research Laboratory, Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA. - - 2012
The purpose of the present study was to translate our laboratory investigations to establish safety and efficacy of 8 weeks of chronic SC B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) administration in human Stage C heart failure (HF). B-Type natriuretic peptide is a cardiac hormone with vasodilating, natriuretic, renin-angiotensin inhibiting, and lusitropic properties. ...
Leung Ting-Kai - - 2012
The present study examined the effects of BIOCERAMIC on psychological stress-conditioned elevated heart rate, blood pressure and oxidative stress-suppressed cardiac contractility using in vivo and in vitro animal models. We investigated the effects of BIOCERAMIC on the in vivo cardiovascular hemodynamic parameters of rats by monitoring their heart rates, systolic ...
Covassin Naima - - 2012
ObjectiveEssential hypotension represents a form of chronic low blood pressure (BP) not explained by medical or orthostatic conditions. The pathogenesis of essential hypotension may involve sympathetic hypoactivation and other forms of autonomic dysregulation. The aim of the current study was to investigate autonomic and cardiovascular activity during sleep in individuals ...
Reimann Manja - - 2012
OBJECTIVE:: To evaluate the role of pain perception and pain stimulus components for blood pressure responses to stress in the black and the white African population with hypertension. BASIC METHODS:: Cardiovascular regulation in response to a cold pressor stimulus was studied in hypertensive black (n = 110) and white (n = 95) Africans. Perception ...
Monnet Xavier - - 2012
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The Nexfin device estimates arterial pressure by the volume clamp method through a finger pneumatic cuff. It also allows to estimate cardiac index (CInoninv) by pulse contour analysis of the non-invasive arterial pressure curve. We evaluated the ability of the device to track changes in cardiac index induced ...
Magder Sheldon - - 2012
ABSTRACT: Hemodynamic monitoring is used to identify deviations from hemodynamic goals and to assess responses to therapy. To accomplish these goals one must understand how the circulation is regulated. In this review I begin with an historical review of the work of Arthur Guyton and his conceptual understanding of the ...
Yoshida Masayoshi - - 2012
Recent studies have reported the clinical usefulness of positive airway pressure ventilation therapy with various kinds of pressure support compared with simple continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for heart failure patients. However, the mechanism of the favorable effect of CPAP with pressure support can not be explained simply from the ...
Desir Gary V - - 2012
Renalase is a novel flavoprotein, highly expressed in kidney and heart, which metabolizes catecholamines and catecholamine-like substances via a superoxide (O2(-))-dependent mechanism using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) as a cofactor. Its mechanism of action is distinct from that of monoaminooxidases A and B, because it oxidizes catecholamines (epinephrine>L-DOPA>dopamine = norepinephrine) ...
Quarti A - - 2012
INTRODUCTION: Over the last few years, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been introduced to study cerebral haemodynamics and oxygenation. This paper points out how the use of an external source of CO(2) effects on the absolute value of cerebral NIRS during cardiac surgery on cardiopulmonary bypass.Patients and methods:Between January 2010 and ...
Torgersen Christian - - 2012
AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the association between haemodynamic variables during the first 24hours after intensive care unit (ICU) admission and neurological outcome in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) victims undergoing therapeutic hypothermia. METHODS: In a multi-disciplinary ICU, records were reviewed for comatose OHCA patients undergoing therapeutic hypothermia. The hourly ...
Enrico Carolina - - 2012
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to characterize the cardiovascular responses to dobutamine and their predictors. Our hypotheses were that dobutamine mainly produces tachycardia and vasodilation and fails to improve the microcirculation of patients with septic shock. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Systemic hemodynamics and sublingual microcirculation were evaluated with dobutamine ...
Lanspa Michael J MJ Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT, USA. - - 2012
Volume expansion is a common therapeutic intervention in septic shock, although patient response to the intervention is difficult to predict. Central venous pressure (CVP) and shock index have been used independently to guide volume expansion, although their use is questionable. We hypothesize that a combination of these measurements will be ...
Roysommuti Sanya - - 2012
Taurine is an abundant, free amino acid found in mammalian cells that contributes to many physiologic functions from that of a simple cell osmolyte to a programmer of adult health and disease. Taurine's contribution extends from conception throughout life, but its most critical exposure period is during perinatal life. In ...
Macheret Fima F Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York 10065, USA. - - 2012
This study sought to investigate plasma levels of circulating cardiac natriuretic peptides, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and B-type or brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), in the general community, focusing on their relative differences in worsening human hypertension. Although ANP and BNP are well-characterized regulators of blood pressure in humans, little is ...
Hamner J W JW Cardiovascular Research Laboratory, Spaulding Hospital Cambridge, Cambridge, MA 02138, - - 2012
Despite growing evidence of autonomic nervous system involvement in the regulation of cerebral blood flow, the specific contribution of cholinergic vasodilatation to cerebral autoregulation remains unknown. We examined cerebral and forearm blood flow responses to augmented arterial pressure oscillations with and without cholinergic blockade. Oscillatory lower body negative pressure was ...
Rizzi Elen - - 2012
Cardiovascular remodeling found in later phases of two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C) hypertension may involve key mechanisms particularly including MMP-2, oxidative stress, transforming grow factor-β (TGF-β), and inactivation of the endogenous MMP inhibitor, the tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMP)-4. We examined whether temporal cardiac remodeling resulting from 2K1C hypertension occurs concomitantly with ...
Gu Congying - - 2012
The pressure output of a pump cannot be increased simply by connecting several of them in series. This barrier is eliminated with the micro pump developed in this work. The pump is actually an assembly of a number of fundamental pump units connected in series. The maximum pressure output of ...
O'Brien Eoin - - 2013
It has become apparent that noncardiovascular drugs can affect blood pressure (BP) in an off-target manner, either by raising or lowering pressure or by negating the beneficial hypotensive effect of concomitantly prescribed antihypertensives. This paper presents compelling evidence that ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) should be used to detect BP ...
Peng Feng - - 2012
The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of transient prehypertensive treatment with losartan compared with amlodipine in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) on long-term blood pressure (BP), cardiac and renal protection. SHRs were prehypertensively treated with losartan, amlodipine or saline. Rats were followed up until 46 weeks of age. ...
Wang Mao-Hsien - - 2012
Oxidative stress induced by hypertension has been reported to cause alterations in neural cytoarchitecture and cognitive dysfunction. Green tea catechins, especially (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), have potent antioxidative properties and protect against various oxidative damages. In this study, we examined the impact of hypertension in rats on locomotor activity, learning, and memory, ...
Alghamri Mahmoud S - - 2012
Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is present in the heart and thought to exert protective functions. We conducted studies in ACE2 deficient mice to determine whether enzyme loss would exacerbate the cardiac and vascular pathological responses to chronic subcutaneous (sc) angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion. Eight-week-old male ACE2 knockout (KO) and ...
Tanaka Tetsu - - 2012
Background: Pressure-overload is known to be a cause of cardiac hypertrophy that often transits to heart failure. Although nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) is a key factor in the progression of cardiac hypertrophy, its pathophisiology is yet to be elucidated. Thus, we aimed to show that inhibition of NF-kappaB activation improves pressure ...
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