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Results 501 - 550 of 1126
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Hofmeyr G J GJ Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Coronation Hospital and Effective Care Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, - - 2001
Misoprostol, an inexpensive, stable, orally active prostaglandin analogue, has been suggested for use in the prevention of postpartum haemorrhage. Potential side-effects, however, need to be quantified. To compare the rate of postpartum shivering and pyrexia following oral misoprostol 600 micrograms and placebo. A double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Women in labour were ...
Thadhani R - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To find whether pulse pressure, a measure of arterial compliance, is associated early in pregnancy with increased risk of developing preeclampsia. METHODS: In a prospective cohort of 576 nulliparas, we examined blood pressures throughout pregnancy and at 6-8 weeks postpartum. Measurements during weeks 7-15, 16-24, and 25-38 of gestation ...
Zhang J - - 2001
Low blood pressure during pregnancy has been associated with poor perinatal outcomes. However, whether this association is causal or is due to confounding has never been carefully assessed. The authors used data from the Collaborative Perinatal Project, a large prospective cohort study in 12 hospitals in the United States from ...
Satish S - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: To explore the relationship between systolic and diastolic blood pressure and risk of 6-year, all-cause mortality in men and women age 65 to 84 versus those 85 and older. DESIGN: A population-based longitudinal study. SETTING: This study was conducted at four different sites: East Boston, Massachusetts; New Haven, Connecticut; ...
Page G D - - 2001
Although medical survey studies often rely on self-reported symptoms to establish the presence or absence of clinical conditions in respondents, recent findings suggest that surveys that assess a broad range of symptoms may have limited sensitivity in detecting specific clinical conditions such as hypertension. The present study evaluated the accuracy ...
Anderson D E - - 2001
BACKGROUND: A previous study found high resting end tidal CO2 (PetCO2) to be an independent determinant of systolic blood pressure in women, but not men. The present study investigates the association of PetCO2 with the common carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and wall-to-lumen (W/L) ratio in a sample of normotensive ...
Zhang J - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To examine the ability of five common definitions of hypertension in pregnancy to predict adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. METHODS: We studied 9133 singleton nulliparous pregnancies with early prenatal care from the Collaborative Perinatal Project, a large cohort study conducted between 1959 and 1965. Definitions from five different groups ...
Higashi Y - - 2001
Both menopause and hypertension are associated with endothelial dysfunction and are risk factors for coronary heart disease. We evaluated forearm resistance artery endothelial function in hypertensive postmenopausal women (HPW, n=57) and compared it with endothelial function in normotensive postmenopausal women (NPW, n=67). In addition, we evaluated the effects of long-term ...
Heilmann L - - 2001
We examined the hemodynamic and hemorheological effects of intravenous volume expansion in women with pre-eclampsia. 20 untreated women with moderate pre-eclampsia were randomized to receive a 500 ml infusion over 4 h of either hydroxyethylstarch (HAES steril 10%, HES) or NaCl 0.9% solution. After completion of the infusion trial all ...
Kristiansson P - - 2001
The mechanisms involved in cardiovasular changes during human pregnancy and the complicated aetiology of gestational hypertension are unclear. Reproductive hormones have known effects on the cardiovascular system in the non-pregnant state and in animal systems, but their effects in human pregnancy are uncertain. In this study of pregnant women, the ...
Taylor R S - - 2001
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the definition of daytime and nighttime on ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) in pregnancy. To determine the prevalence of a <10% decrease in mean arterial pressure with sleep (nondipper) in pregnancy and the consistency of nondipper status throughout pregnancy. In ...
Martins D - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To examine gender differences in age-related blood pressure changes and the prevalence of isolated systolic hypertension. DESIGN: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. SETTING: 89 mobile examination centers and household questionnaire. PARTICIPANTS: 6635 men and 7189 women over the age of 18 years who were not under ...
Weitz G - - 2001
The activity of the sympathetic nervous system shows gender-specific differences with lower sympathoneural activity to the muscle vascular bed in women compared with men, with this difference vanishing after menopause. The present study tested the hypothesis that estrogen exerts regulatory influence on the autonomic nervous system in postmenopausal women. Eleven ...
Harlow F H FH Department of Obstetrics, St. George Hospital and University of New South Wales, Sydney, - - 2001
To document the diversity of definitions and diagnoses of the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy reported in major medical journals as a preliminary step from which future documents may be developed concerning the classification and diagnosis of the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. A systematic review was undertaken of articles published between ...
Nordberg M - - 2000
Concentration of cadmium in blood in an elderly population with a mean age of 87 years was studied in relation to age, blood pressure, BMI, cognitive function, gender and smoking. This population-based study consisted of 804 subjects both men and women. Clinical examination included medical and social history, physical and ...
Webb M S - - 2000
This study examined the efficacy of a worksite-based intervention in reducing blood pressure and personal strain in African-American women. The experimental group (n = 22) was taught a 7-muscle group progressive relaxation intervention. The women, for home practice, used audiocassette tapes and diaries. The control group (n = 21) was ...
Banegas J R - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is a relationship between season of birth and adult blood pressure, as a possible early determinant of later blood pressure. DESIGN: We studied 572 men, aged 45-64 years, whose blood pressure was measured in standardized manner as part of a nation-wide survey in Spain. To ...
Kistner A - - 2000
It has been suggested that children born small for gestational age may develop hypertension and renal dysfunction in adulthood due to impaired fetal kidney development. Very little information on this issue is available on children born preterm. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between birth weight, ...
Ramsey P S - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to evaluate the cardiovascular effects of high-dose intravaginal misoprostol administration by means of transthoracic electrical bioimpedance monitoring. STUDY DESIGN: Healthy women undergoing mid trimester pregnancy interruption with intravaginal misoprostol were eligible for this prospective observational study. Baseline blood pressure was obtained for 1 hour and transthoracic ...
Hayward C S - - 2000
Because premenopausal women have lower cardiovascular morbidity than postmenopausal women, it has been proposed that estrogen may have a protective role. Estrogen is involved in smooth muscle relaxation both through its specific receptor as well as through calcium channel blockade. This study examined the acute effect of estradiol on invasive ...
Onyeka B A - - 2000
All fluid intake and urine output were monitored and measured in 103 consecutive women with normal blood pressure and without a history of pre-existing renal disease during induced labour for various indications. Epidural analgesia was administered in all these women and labour was augmented with oxytocin infusion. All urine specimens ...
Spaanderman M E - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: Early pregnancy is characterized by a fall in total peripheral vascular resistance. In this study we tested the hypothesis that this phenomenon is accompanied by rising compliances of the large arteries and veins. STUDY DESIGN: In 42 women with a history of preeclampsia and 10 healthy parous control subjects ...
Moran V H - - 2000
Variations in cardiovascular functioning during the 'normal' menstrual cycle have been little researched. Resting-blood pressures, resting-heart rate, rate-pressure product (RPP) and a derived index of fitness (Schneider Index) were monitored throughout natural, hormonally defined menstrual cycles. Volunteers were 26 women (20-48 years) who had regular (25-35 days) cycles. Their blood ...
Levine R J - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to compare baseline characteristics and pregnancy outcomes between normotensive women who did and those who did not have a rise in diastolic blood pressure of >/=15 mm Hg in association with proteinuria. STUDY DESIGN: We studied 4302 healthy nulliparous women from the Calcium for Preeclampsia ...
Rosenthal T - - 2000
Hypertension in women has received less attention than hypertension in men, and the major controlled trials of antihypertensive therapy have been carried out in populations made up predominantly of and have emphasised outcomes in men. Recently it has been recognised that women develop high blood pressure, particularly systolic hypertension, at ...
Larry C D - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on the circadian rhythm of blood pressure during pregnancy. DATA SOURCES: Computerized searches on MEDLINE, CINAHL, and MIRLYN. STUDY SELECTION: Selected studies from 1 969 to 1997 were evaluated. DATA EXTRACTION: Data were extracted and information was organized under the following areas: definition of and ...
Martin D R - - 2000
Hypertension is common and leads to increased mortality among adults; yet, one-third of hypertensive adults in the United States are unaware of their condition. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of unrecognized elevated blood pressure (BP) in men accompanying pregnant women to the obstetrician's office. Blood ...
Steyn D W - - 2000
Most agree that antihypertensive medication should be used to treat severe hypertension during pregnancy, but its role in patients with mild to moderate disease is debated. None of the regularly used drugs is completely safe for mother and fetus. Ketanserin decreases systolic and diastolic blood pressure in nonpregnant patients with ...
Hermida R C - - 2000
With the aim to describe the daily pattern of blood pressure during the trimesters of pregnancy in clinically healthy women as well as in pregnant women who developed gestational hypertension or preeclampsia, we analyzed 1494 blood pressure series systematically sampled by ambulatory monitoring for 48 hours every 4 weeks after ...
Mosley J D - - 2000
In many, but not all societies, dark skin color is associated with high blood pressure. Whether the association between skin color and blood pressure is independent of known determinants of blood pressure remains controversial. We examined the association between skin color and blood pressure in 835 Egyptian adults (370 men ...
- - 2000
This report updates the 1990 "National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group Report on High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy" and focuses on classification, pathophysiologic features, and management of the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Through a combination of evidence-based medicine and consensus this report updates contemporary approaches to hypertension control ...
Ekbom P - - 2000
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: To evaluate the value of 24-h blood pressure monitoring compared to office blood pressure and urinary albumin excretion in predicting pre-eclampsia in Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. METHODS: The study included 136 consecutive pregnancies in Caucasian women with Type I diabetes before gestation without diabetic nephropathy, anamnestic hypertension or ...
Sherif K - - 2000
BACKGROUND: African American women have disproportionately high rates of myocardial infarction and stroke. Left ventricular hypertrophy is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Increases in left ventricular mass (LVM) may precede the expression of hypertension. The purpose of this study was to determine whether LVM is related to cardiovascular ...
Hall D R - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether prophylactic magnesium sulphate is necessary to prevent eclampsia and associated complications among women with pre-eclampsia prior to labour. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: Tertiary referral centre. POPULATION: Three hundred and eighteen women with pre-eclampsia (blood pressure > or = 140/90 mmHg and > or = 2+ proteinuria) ...
Besterman E - - 2000
The screening programme of the Heart Foundation of Jamaica has found hypertension in 71% of women and 47% of men. Of these patients, 13% were newly discovered hypertensives. Left ventricular hypertrophy was present in 18% of hypertensive women and in 27% of men. Inadequate control of raised blood pressure was ...
Cicconetti P - - 2000
The aim of this study has been to identify changes of 24-h blood pressure variability, as related to age and sex in hypertensive subjects. As regards this point several international studies have shown the increase of morbidity and mortality caused by cardiovascular diseases in postmenopausal women produced by a lack ...
Klumbiene J - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To assess changes in blood pressure from childhood to adulthood and the ability to predict adult blood pressure. DESIGN: Longitudinal study of a cohort of children with baseline data and a follow-up survey after 20 years. SETTING: Epidemiological survey of schoolchildren and subsequent inhabitants of Kaunas, a town in ...
Kilander L - - 2000
BACKGROUND: previous longitudinal studies have shown an inverse relation between blood pressure and cognitive function. OBJECTIVE: to determine the association between mid-life blood pressure and performance in different areas of cognitive function in late life. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: we recruited 502 men, aged 69-74 years, from a population-based cohort in ...
Matthews K A - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the influence of occupational prestige and work strain on mood, the occurrence of interpersonal conflict, and ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate. METHODS: Participants were 50 men and 50 women matched for occupational prestige who were healthy and middle-aged and who completed measures of mood and ...
Malatyalio─člu E - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To measure the levels of the circulating metabolites of prostacyclin and thromboxane A2 during the antepartum and postpartum periods in severe preeclamptic and eclamptic patients as well as in normotensive pregnant women. METHODS: 6-Keto-prostaglandin F1alpha (6-keto-PGF1alpha) and thromboxane B2 (TxB2) were measured in the plasma of 15 severe preeclamptic, ...
Woisetschläger C - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: Recent data indicate an increased vascular reactivity due to an overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system in women with pre-eclampsia. We therefore evaluated whether this increased vascular reactivity can be detected prior to the clinical manifestation of preeclampsia by the use of a physiological stimulus. DESIGN: Prospective data collection. ...
Menozzi R - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular disease seems to increase after the menopause and is thought to be reduced by estrogen replacement therapy. Among the many studies which have tried to define the multifactorial mechanisms of estrogens cardiovascular prevention, very few have focused on their possible modulation of adrenergic activity. In the present study ...
Whisenhunt B L - - 2000
The Psychosocial Risk Factors Questionnaire (PRFQ) was developed to measure perceived attractiveness, concern about physical appearance, and social pressure for thinness. These variables have been identified as correlates of eating disorder symptoms. The PRFQ has four subscales: Social Pressure for Thinness, Media Pressure for Thinness, Concern for Physical Appearance, and ...
Huber J - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To assess the contraceptive reliability, cycle control and tolerability of a new monophasic oral contraceptive containing 30 g ethinylestradiol plus 3 mg drospirenone (Yasmin, Schering AG, Berlin, Germany), it was compared with an established oral contraceptive containing 30 g ethinylestradiol plus 150 g desogestrel (Marvelon, NV Organon, Oss, The ...
Tormo M J - - 2000
STUDY OBJECTIVE: High blood pressure is a variable related to several chronic conditions whose repeated measurement in large cohort studies is often not feasible having to rely on the self reporting of the subjects. The aim of the study is to validate such self diagnosis in a sample of members ...
Stroup-Benham C A - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: To determine if low blood pressure is associated with a definable constellation of somatic and psychological symptoms in older persons. DESIGN: A population-based study. SETTING: In-home interviews in five southwestern states. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 2723 Mexican Americans aged 65 or older not living in institutions. MEASURES: Blood pressure, ...
Suelto M D - - 2000
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The American College of Obstetricians & Gynecologists has opposed postpartum tubal ligation (PPTL) in patients whose pregnancies have been complicated by a medical condition, including hypertension. A prospective study was conducted to assess the appropriateness of spinal anesthesia for PPTL in patients with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. ...
Ross-McGill H - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To measure recruitment to, compliance with, and the acceptability of a trial designed to test whether a reduced schedule of antenatal visits combined with training in self-measurement of blood pressure at home may improve hypertension screening and save money. To test the specific hypothesis that even after taking into ...
Doyle L W - - 2000
Antenatal corticosteroid therapy substantially improves the survival rate of preterm infants, with few side effects. Higher blood pressure in adulthood has been described in several animal species after exposure to antenatal corticosteroids, but there are no similar reports in humans. The objective of the present study was to determine the ...
Staessen J A - - 2000
This prospective population study investigated in a random sample of 692 subjects (age 20-83 years) how changing environmental exposure to cadmium influenced blood pressure (BP) and the incidence of hypertension. At baseline (1985 to 1989; participation rate, 78%) and follow-up (1991 to 1995; re-examination rate, 81%), blood pressure was measured ...
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