Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 672
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Meiselman H J - - 1999
The serious pathophysiologic consequences of systemic hypertension have prompted numerous basic science and clinical studies related to cardiac or vascular abnormalities. More recently, hemorheologic alterations in hypertension have been explored in an attempt to determine the import of rheologic factors vis-à-vis the elevated total peripheral resistance observed in hypertensive patients. ...
Schubert H D - - 1998
Recent population-based studies suggest that the fundus lesions of hypertension also occur in people without hypertension. In experimental studies, hypertensive lesions, which used to be the backbone of older classifications of the severity of hypertension, did not correlate sufficiently with severity to allow reliable grading. Hypertensive retinopathy, choroidopathy, and optic ...
Hattenbach L O - - 1998
BACKGROUND: A 60 member Turkish kindred with autosomal dominant hypertension, which cosegregates completely with brachydactyly and short stature, was studied. Affected people have severe hypertension and generally die of stroke by the age of 50. The hypertension closely resembles essential hypertension and, accordingly, the mechanisms of blood pressure elevation are ...
Gupta A K - - 1998
Developing countries are going through a demographic transition. Non-communicable diseases like hypertension are emerging in epidemic proportions. Education and awareness among people is the key to reduce the burden of the disease. To see the levels of awareness and characteristic of aware and unaware hypertensives, 7630 employees in Shimla town ...
Hippisley-Cox J - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Studies of couples, who tend to share an environment but are genetically dissimilar, can shed light on the contribution of environmental factors to hypertension. There has been renewed interest in these environmental factors following the re-analysis of the INTERSALT study. AIM: To determine whether patients whose spouses have hypertension ...
Pinto-Sietsma S J - - 1998
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) was discovered 10 years ago. Because it is one of the most potent vasoconstrictors in vivo, a pathophysiological role for the peptide as a mediator of hypertension has been postulated. Several clinical studies, however, have been unable to identify elevated ET levels in the plasma of hypertensive patients, ...
Kubo T - - 1998
Cholinergic neurons in numerous brain regions have been implicated in blood pressure regulation. One of the most important brain regions where cholinergic neurons play a role in the pathogenesis of hypertension is the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVL), an essential source of efferent sympathetic activity. Pharmacological and biochemical studies have revealed ...
Cranney M - - 1998
Hypertension is a common condition almost exclusively managed by general practitioners (GPs), making it an ideal subject for practice-based audit. However, the conduct and interpretation of such audits is complex. Even minor variations in methodology can produce dramatic differences in results obtained. We used a focus group of seven GPs ...
Lubianca-Neto J F - - 1998
Hypertension (HTN) has frequently been cited as a general risk factor for epistaxis. However, studies dealing with this association have yielded equivocal results. In this study, a sample of 121 hypertensives (blood pressure > or = 140/90 mmHg) was selected to evaluate the association between the severity of HTN and ...
Strasser T - - 1998
Some differences (and similarities) between Eastern Europe and the rest of the Continent are presented regarding the treatment of hypertension. Based on data from the WHO Monitoring Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Diseases (MONICA) study, the prevalence of hypertension, and the proportion of uncontrolled hypertension, is clearly higher in Eastern ...
Pardell H - - 1998
Hypertension prevalence is estimated at approximately 30% of the adult population in Spain, using the 140/90 mm Hg cutoff. This represents a heavy public health burden when compared with other European countries, although the direct cost per person is one of the lowest in Europe. The programs implemented regionally since ...
Chalmers J - - 1998
Hypertension is a major risk factor for the development of serious complications affecting the heart, brain, kidneys and the vascular system, leading to death and disability on a huge scale globally. This manuscript deals primarily with the clinical strategy for the control of hypertension and only refers in passing to ...
Aubert L - - 1998
Assessment of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) is a crucial element of hypertension control, but little information is available from developing countries where hypertension has lately been recognized as a major health problem. Therefore, we examined KAP on hypertension in a random sample of 1067 adults aged 25 to 64 ...
Soyannwo M A - - 1998
As part of our studies in prevent nephrology, we have recorded causal blood pressure during a total population cross-sectional survey of the Faizia East Primary Health District of Buraidah (FEPHD), capital of Gassim region of Saudi Arabia. Out of 5671 subjects whose blood pressure could be recorded, 2222 were above ...
Tepel M - - 1998
Hypertensive crisis is a potentially life-threatening complication of nearly all forms of hypertension. Vascular damage causing end-organ failure and direct complications such as intracerebral hemorrhage determine the outcome of hypertensive crisis. In the case of apparent end-organ damage immediate and effective lowering of blood pressure is necessary. In addition to ...
Zimmerman R S - - 1997
This article has discussed the classic hormonal causes of hypertension. Pheochromocytoma and hyperaldosteronism have been discussed, and a clinical approach to evaluation of patients for these problems has been presented. Other humeral factors that influence volume pressure homeostasis have been discussed. It is likely that pharmacologic agents affecting these other ...
Kasparian H - - 1997
METHODS: We measured the 2,3-diphosphoglycerate inraerythrocytic concentration in 24 normal controls and in 24 hypertensives before and following drug therapy. RESULTS: In hypertensives the 2,3-diphosphoglycerate concentration was higher than that of the controls (14.96 mumol/g Hb vs 13.26 mumol/g Hb respectively); the difference is statistically significant (p < 0.001). Following ...
Satish S - - 1997
BACKGROUND: The objective of the study was to identify factors associated with unawareness of hypertension among Mexican Americans age 65 years and older. METHODS: This was a population-based survey of 3,050 older Mexican Americans conducted in five Southwestern states in 1993-1994. An in-home interview included sociodemographics, review of medications, and ...
Dykman R A - - 1997
1. During habituation in 4 dogs to a new environment and attachment of apparatus, the blood pressure was at first high but fell from about 175 systolic the first day to about 135 on the ninth day. 2. In the first group of dogs used two years previously to form ...
Leavitt J A - - 1997
Bilateral disk swelling and marked peripapillary and macular exudates were found on routine ophthalmologic examination in a 12 1/2-year-old girl. Eleven months later, with persistent findings, her blood pressure was found to be extremely elevated. She had an Ask-Upmark kidney, a rare form of segmental renal hypoplasia. The Ask-Upmark kidney ...
Perneger T V - - 1997
OBJECTIVES: To describe patterns of hypertension history in patients with various types of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and in persons with normal kidney function; and to identify risk factors for the diagnosis 'hypertensive ESRD'. DESIGN: A case-control study. SETTING: Population-based. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with ESRD due to hypertension (n = 214), ...
Al-Nozha M M - - 1997
A cross-sectional population-based survey employing a cluster sampling method and household visits by trained health teams investigated hypertension prevalence in the Kingdom among 13,700 individuals of both sexes in all age groups. The World Health Organization (WHO) definition of hypertension of = 160/95 mmHg was used; it was found that ...
Jensen E - - 1997
OBJECTIVES: To relate elevated blood pressure in 80-year-olds to symptoms, life satisfaction and survival. DESIGN: Examinations of medical, psychological and social factors every year between 80 and 86 years of age. SETTING: Primary health care in the city of Lund in southern Sweden. SUBJECTS: Three-hundred and thirty-three persons living in ...
Liao D - - 1996
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesions (WML) may result from cerebral hypoperfusion or ischemia. We investigated the association of WML with blood pressure, hypertension, and its treatment and control. METHODS: A random sample of 1920 participants aged 55 to 72 years in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC) was ...
Julius S - - 1996
Considerable progress has been made in our understanding of the role of the nervous system in human hypertension. The evidence for a widespread autonomic abnormality in the early phases of hypertension is overwhelming and excessive sympathetic activity is consistently present in such patients since their childhood. The enhanced sympathetic tone ...
Kouamé N - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of overestimated and underestimated hypertension in a large sample of Canadians with mild-to-moderate hypertension before and after antihypertensive treatment. DESIGN: Data were retrieved from files of 1019 patients in whom clinic and ambulatory blood pressures had been measured both at the start and at the ...
Aardal S - - 1996
Clinically unsuspected pheochromocytoma is usually discovered either at autopsy or during surgical intervention for unrelated conditions, despite often enormous neoplastic masses producing and storing catecholamine (CA). In order to assess whether these tumours share some common features we have compiled data for six patients admitted to hospital without previous diagnosis ...
Okada T - - 1996
Hypertension has often been observed in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome, and various underlying mechanisms have been implicated. We report the case of a child with the Guillain-Barré syndrome whose hypertension was associated with increases in both renin activity and circulating catecholamines. This case also appeared to be complicated by hypertensive ...
Le Y - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To report two cases of hypertension related to amphotericin B infusion. CASE SUMMARY: A 63-year-old woman with Candida albicans bacteremia and an 84-year-old man with Aspergillus fumigatus pneumonia developed hypertension within minutes of amphotericin B administration. Both patients' blood pressure returned to baseline soon after the infusion of amphotericin ...
Brown M J - - 1996
1. Confusion between the criteria for defining and diagnosing hypertension may have misled the search for the causes of hypertension. 2. The systematic approach of molecular genetics appears to offer the best chance of explaining hypertension, but the attractions are partly offset by the large numbers required, and unproven record ...
Vaillant G E - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: This study was an effort to clarify both the psychological contributions to and the long-term consequences of uncomplicated essential hypertension. METHOD: The subjects were 193 healthy college students selected as sophomores and prospectively followed for over 50 years. Independent assessments of physical and mental health were made. RESULTS: Although ...
Schuster H - - 1996
Finding genes that cause human hypertension is not straightforward, since the determinants of blood pressure in primary hypertension are multifactorial. One approach to identifying relevant genes is to elucidate rare forms of monogenic hypertension. A relevant mutation may provide a rational starting point from which to analyse the pathophysiology of ...
Landsberg L - - 1996
Epidemiologic and clinical studies suggest an association between hyperinsulinemia (and insulin resistance) and hypertension. This relationship is not present in secondary forms of hypertension and may persist despite adequate antihypertensive therapy. Normotensive offspring of hypertensive parents are also, as a group, insulin resistant and hyperinsulinemic. The association of hyperinsulinemia (and ...
Chen Y F - - 1996
A sexually dimorphic pattern of blood pressure, in which the male develops higher blood pressure than the age-matched female, has been observed both in human subjects and in laboratory animals. The mechanism(s) of this sexual dimorphism of blood pressure are not completely understood. This review summarizes sex differences in the ...
Dodson P M - - 1996
With the advent of sophisticated ophthalmological investigations and a better understanding of the pathophysiology and clinical or prognostic correlates of the fundal lesions in hypertension, the limitations of early classification schemes using simple ophthalmoscopic appearances are increasingly apparent. This review describes the existing classification systems for hypertensive retinopathy and their ...
Lackland D T - - 1996
Hypertension is a world-wide public health problem. High blood pressure control efforts have been and are being implemented in order to reduce this burden of unnecessary death and morbidity in most societies. Standard methods of assessment will be developed for the measurement of the goals and strategies of hypertension control ...
Pipe A - - 1996
The significance of smoking in the hypertensive patient may be unappreciated. The risk of hypertension may be tripled in such patients. Tobacco addiction may also compromise the treatment of hypertensives. The importance of smoking cessation for hypertensive smokers cannot be overemphasized and should be seen as fundamental. Nicotine replacement therapy ...
Zampaglione B - - 1996
The prevalence and clinical picture of hypertensive urgencies and emergencies in an emergency department are poorly known. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of hypertensive crises (urgencies and emergencies) in an emergency department during 12 months of observation and the frequency of end-organ damage with ...
Fallo F - - 1996
The effect of a surgical cure of hypercortisolism on hypertension in 54 patients with Cushing's syndrome was assessed. The correlation between preoperative duration of hypertension and posttreatment blood pressure was significant (P < .01). Restoration of normal cortisol was associated with blood pressure normalization in 39 out of 54 cases. ...
Chichibu S - - 1995
1. Electroencephalogram (EEG) of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) and M(malignant)-SHRSP were analysed for excitability changes in the cerebral neuronal circuit using power spectral comparisons. 2. EEG in hypertensive SHRSP and M-SHRSP showed the emergence of slow wave bursts parallel to the development of hypertension. 3. These bursts were composed ...
Fu M L - - 1995
In reviewing the available evidence, the involvement of an immunological mechanism behind hypertension has been proposed. However, whether altered immunological function is a primary factor in the pathogenesis of hypertension or secondary to tissue damage of vascular beds induced by hypertension is still poorly defined. A major difficulty has been ...
Spiro A A - - 1995
Personality predictors of hypertension incidence were studied in 838 community-residing men from the Normative Aging Study. They were followed over a mean of 17 years during which time 38% developed hypertension. Stepwise proportional hazards regression was used to identify scales from the Cattell 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire that predicted hypertension ...
Tomera J F - - 1995
At present, the significance of calcium accumulation in the aetiology of coronary artery disease (CAD) in humans is not known, except only to exacerbate the condition. In an attempt to understand ionic disturbances in vasculature derived from cardiovascular abnormalities, soft tissues from hypertensive models were examined. The study hypothesis was ...
Scragg R - - 1995
Although blood concentrations of the active metabolite 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D are raised in hypertension, concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, the main vitamin D metabolite, do not appear to have been reported in newly detected hypertension. Serum levels of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol were measured in 186 newly detected hypertensive patients (blood pressure > 160/95 mm ...
Fronticelli C M - - 1995
Between 1983 and 1992, 24 patients with primary hyperaldosteronism were operated at our division. Among these, 21 had adrenal adenoma and constituted the subjects of our study. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine risk factors that could potentially lead to persistent arterial hypertension (5 cases or 23.9%). ...
Okeahialam B N - - 1995
Eleven DCM patients who were found to have significant background hypertension from an echocardiographic assessment of the role of hypertension in DCM form the subject of this follow-up study. This was to test the reliability or otherwise of this investigative method which is supposed to identify DCM patients who would ...
Chen C J - - 1995
To examine the association between long-term exposure to inorganic arsenic and the prevalence of hypertension, we studied a total of 382 men and 516 women residing in villages where arseniasis was hyperendemic. Hypertension was defined as a systolic blood pressure of 160 mm Hg or greater, a diastolic blood pressure ...
Ravalico G - - 1995
Oscillatory potentials of the ERG proved to be a sensitive indicator even in mild disturbances of retinal circulation, such as the first stage of hypertensive retinopathy (WHO classification). Oscillatory indexes (OIs) and blood pressure levels of 24 hypertensive patients in stage 1 of the WHO classification, who underwent an antihypertensive ...
Gupta R - - 1994
The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of hypertension (systolic > or = 140 and/or diastolic > or = 90 mmHg) and its subtypes such as borderline isolated systolic hypertension (systolic > or = 140, diastolic < 90 mmHg), definite isolated systolic hypertension (systolic > or = ...
Fletcher A - - 1994
While expenditures for hypertension are on the increase in developed countries, and potentially also in the developing world, resource constraints, even in the most affluent countries, need to consider hypertension control in the context of other demands of society. This position paper sums up the key aspects of the debate: ...
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