Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 1619
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Altunkaya Aykut - - 2006
We examined the role of the nitric oxide (NO) pathway on ischemia-reperfusion injury via the use of isolated perfused guinea pig lungs. We administered both L-Arginine and N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) to the lungs in or after 3 h of ischemia. We observed pulmonary artery pressures as well as tissue ...
Lévy Bernard - - 2006
Experimental and clinical studies have established a link between end-organ damage in hypertensive patients and the severe impairment of tissue perfusion and microcirculation structure and function. Microvascular rarefaction is constantly observed in hypertension, and probably contributes to higher systemic resistance and lower tissue perfusion. Endothelial dysfunction leading to impaired arteriolar ...
Paonessa Damian J - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to determine whether 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17P) has a vasoactive effect on fetoplacental vasculature. STUDY DESIGN: Two cotyledons were obtained from each of 5 placentas. Baseline perfusion was established with Hanks-based solution. One cotyledon from each pair was then infused with perfusate to which U46619 a ...
Bessems M - - 2006
For many years, the isolated perfused rat liver (IPRL) model has been used to investigate the physiology and pathophysiology of the rat liver. This in vitro model provides the opportunity to assess cellular injury and liver function in an isolated setting. This review offers an update of recent developments regarding ...
Mueller Andreas - - 2006
Adequate uterine contractility and periovulatory peristalsis, interpreted as "rapid sperm transport" to the side bearing the dominant follicle, may be a precondition for successful reproduction in humans. Estrogen and progesterone fluctuate characteristically during the menstrual cycle, and their source is the dominant follicle and corpus luteum. The question is, how ...
Soltan Ahmed Ebrahimi and ...
The isolated perfused rat kidney experiment was introduced in 1959 for studying the regulation of renal blood flow and is recognized as a valuable preparation for studying physiological and biochemical aspects of renal function such as hemodynamics, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and overall handling of fluids. Dose-response curves are obtained ...
Murray A K - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the hypothesis that cutaneous microvascular perfusion of the dorsum of the hand (in response to local heating) and distal phalanx (in response to occlusion) is impaired in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) compared with healthy controls. METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with SSc and 29 control subjects were recruited. ...
Skrzypiec-Spring Monika - - 2007
The isolated perfused mammalian heart preparation was established in 1897 by Oscar Langendorff. The method was developed on the basis of the isolated perfused frog heart established by Elias Cyon at the Carl Ludwig Institute of Physiology in Leipzig, Germany in 1866. Observations made using both methods at the end ...
Cabrales Pedro - - 2006
The hamster window chamber model was used to study systemic and microvascular hemodynamic responses to extreme hemodilution with low- and high-viscosity plasma expanders (LVPE and HVPE, respectively) to determine whether plasma viscosity is a factor in homeostasis during extreme anemic conditions. Moderated hemodilution was induced by two isovolemic steps performed ...
Bitsch Rudi Georg - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: A standardized perfused ex vivo bovine liver model was used to evaluate the effect of organ perfusion on coagulation size and energy deposition during radiofrequency ablation (RFA) procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bovine livers were perfused in a tank after rinsing the prepared liver vessels with anticoagulants. Tyrode's solution, oxygenated ...
O'Neill Anne C - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Isolated perfusion models can yield important data regarding metabolism of the skin. An effective model must remain stable during perfusion but respond appropriately to metabolic and vascular stimuli. We describe the design and characterization of a tubed superficial epigastric isolated perfusion flap. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tubed superficial epigastric flaps ...
Babbs Charles F - - 2006
Periodic z-axis acceleration (pGz)-CPR involves an oscillating motion of a whole patient in the head-to-foot dimension on a mechanized table. The method is able to sustain blood flow and long-term survival during and after prolonged cardiac arrest in anesthetized pigs. However, the exact mechanism by which circulation of blood is ...
Bond H - - 2006
Here we present methodology and validation (including measurement of unidirectional maternofetal clearance (Kmf) of (45)Ca and (14)C-mannitol) for in situ perfusion of the mouse placenta. On day 18 of gestation (term=19 days) mice were anaesthetised and the uterus delivered into a saline bath (40 degrees C). A fetus was selected, ...
Stirrat Alison - - 2006
Ascorbate blocks agonist-induced, endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF)-mediated vasodilatation in the bovine perfused ciliary artery and this is associated with a rise in perfusion pressure. We now report the origins of this ascorbate-induced rise in perfusion pressure. In segments of ciliary artery perfused at 2.5 ml/min, the addition of ascorbate (10-150 ...
Nygren Andreas - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the potential differential effects of norepinephrine, an alpha1-, beta1-, and beta2-receptor agonist, to the alpha1-agonist phenylephrine on jejunal mucosal perfusion, gastric-arterial PCO2 gradient, and the global splanchnic oxygen demand-supply relationship after cardiac surgery. DESIGN: A randomized, prospective, interventional crossover study. SETTING: A university cardiothoracic intensive care unit. ...
Staudt Y - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Cardiac autoantibodies may play a pathophysiological role in cardiac dysfunction of patients suffering from dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Immunoadsorption (IA), which removes antibodies from patients' plasma, may consequently improve cardiac function in DCM. The functional effects of DCM antibodies are only partly understood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DCM patients (n = ...
Ishiyama N - - 2006
The influence of coronary perfusion pressure on neonatal heart function has not been evaluated. We compared the coronary perfusion pressure-cardiac function relationship between neonatal and adult hearts. Neonatal and adult rabbit hearts were examined. The coronary perfusion pressure was changed in increments of 10 mmHg. Coronary blood flow and left ...
Krouzecky A - - 2006
Limited information is available about selection of the threshold for arterial blood pressure in critically ill patients, particularly in sepsis when normal organ blood flow autoregulation may be altered. The present experimental study investigated whether increasing perfusion pressure using norepinephrine in normotensive hyperdynamic porcine bacteremia affects intestinal macro- and microcirculation. ...
Phillips Oludotun A - - 2006
The effects of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Tribulus terrestris on rat blood pressure (BP) and the perfused mesenteric vascular bed were investigated. The extracts dose-dependently reduced BP in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) with the aqueous fraction being more potent than the methanolic fraction at all doses tested. In vitro, ...
Stocchetti Nino - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The authors propose that for a moderate reduction of perfusion during progressive irreversible ischemia, oxygen extraction increases to maintain aerobic metabolism, and arteriojugular oxygen difference (AJDo2) increases. Because of reduced carbon dioxide washout, venoarterial difference in carbon dioxide tension (DPco2) increases, with no change in the DPco2/AJDo2 ratio. With ...
Kjaer Andreas - - 2005
Myocardial perfusion (MP) may differ in physiologic and pathologic left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). We compared MP in LVH in elite athletes and patients with hypertension with healthy, age-matched subjects. We included 12 rowers with LVH, 19 patients with hypertension with LVH, and 2 age-matched groups of healthy subjects (n = ...
Richter O N - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Perfusion of the isolated uterus has been shown to be a feasible experimental system for studies of the human endometrium and myometrium. Utilizing our established experimental perfusion model we perfused 20 uteri for 27 h and investigated the contractile reactivity of the myometrium in response to 17beta-estradiol (E2) and ...
Kitagawa Kazuo - - 2005
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neurons acquire tolerance to ischemic stress when preconditioning ischemia occurs a few days beforehand. We focused on collateral development after mild reduction of perfusion pressure to find an endogenous response of the vascular system that contributes to development of ischemic tolerance. METHODS: After attachment of a probe, ...
Woolley Graham M - - 2005
PURPOSE: To determine whether transducers could provide a convenient method of measuring dentine permeability and to investigate the effects of removal of pulp tissue and perfusion time on the pressure increase across human dentine after low-pressure perfusion. METHOD: Human premolar teeth that had been stored for 1-2 months were prepared ...
Navar L Gabriel - - 2005
The devastating long-term consequences of high blood pressure include stroke, heart disease, atherosclerosis, renal disease, and other end-organ damage. From a physiologic perspective, it is not apparent why the propensity for hypertension is so widespread in the general population. Clearly, an adequate arterial pressure is essential for perfusion of the ...
Bochmann Rolf P - - 2005
Application of compression stockings to the lower extremities is a widely used therapeutic intervention to improve venous return, but there is little information about the effects of compression on local arterial perfusion. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that a positive external pressure increases forearm perfusion. The relation of increasing external ...
Brodmann Marianne - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The vasoactive effect of nicorandil on coronary arteries is well known. Nicorandil exerts its vasodilatory effect through a dual mechanism of action: involving on the one hand cyclic guanosine monophosphate (c GMP) as a nitrovasodilatator, and on the other hand, acting as a potassium channel opener. OBJECTIVE: To address ...
Li Gang - - 2005
PURPOSE: To determine whether tissue edema changes gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA)-enhanced T1 relaxation times of the viable myocardium. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 16 isolated pig hearts were divided into four groups (N=4/group) and perfused in a Langendorff apparatus. Gd-DTPA was injected into the aortic perfusion line. Tissue edema ...
Wierup Per - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different perfusion pressures on edema formation during cold flush perfusion with the 2 most commonly used preservation solutions in clinical lung transplantation: Euro-Collins and Perfadex solutions. METHODS: Isolated rat and porcine lungs were perfused for 3 minutes at ...
Brell Bernhard - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Increased microvascular permeability and perfusion mismatch are hallmarks of sepsis or septic shock. The intestinal mucosa is very sensitive to tissue hypoxia. Intestinal mucosa dysfunction may allow translocation of bacteria and their products, thereby perpetuating sepsis and inflammation. Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin is a major pathogenicity determinant of this bacterium, ...
Streif Jörg U G - - 2005
The absolute perfusion and the intracapillary or regional blood volume (RBV) in murine myocardium were assessed in vivo by spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging. Pixel-based perfusion and RBV maps were calculated at a pixel resolution of 469 x 469 mum and a slice thickness of 2 mm. The T(1) imaging ...
Hancock S M - - 2005
The role of vascular tone in determining cerebral perfusion pressure is increasingly being appreciated. It has been suggested that zero flow pressure, the arterial pressure at which blood flow ceases, represents the effective downstream pressure of the cerebral circulation. Nitrous oxide is a cerebral vasodilator and may therefore decrease zero ...
An Ding - - 2005
Given the importance of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in cardiac and vascular pathology, the objective of the present study was to investigate whether the beta-agonist isoproterenol (Iso) influences cardiac LPL. Incubation of quiescent cardiomyocytes with Iso for 60 min had no effect on basal, intracellular, or heparin-releasable (HR)-LPL activity. Similarly, Iso ...
Southworth R - - 2005
The buffer-perfused Langendorff heart is significantly vasodilated compared with the in vivo heart. In this study, we employed ultrasound to determine if this vasodilation translated into changes in left ventricular wall thickness (LVWT), and if this effect persisted when these hearts were switched to the "working" mode. To investigate the ...
Yalcin Ozlem - - 2005
The role of red blood cell (RBC) aggregation as a determinant of in vivo blood flow is still unclear. This study was designed to investigate the influence of a well-controlled enhancement of RBC aggregation on blood flow resistance in an isolated-perfused heart preparation. Guinea pig hearts were perfused through a ...
Wang Qingtian - - 2005
Artificial heart (AH) and ventricular assist devices (VAD) are widely used in the clinical setting to assist severe heart failure patients. The concept of direct cardiac compression (DCC) has been in use for several decades and has advantages over intravascular VAD. The process involves compressing the dysfunctional heart from its ...
't Hart N A - - 2005
Hypothermic machine perfusion (HMP) provides better protection against cold ischemic injury than cold storage in marginal donor kidneys. Also, in liver transplantation a switch from static cold storage to HMP could be beneficial as it would allow longer preservation times and the use of marginal donors. A critical question concerning ...
Holst Uffe - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of endoluminal norepinephrine (NE) on transport pressures of the normal upper urinary tract of the pig and on plasma levels of NE in relation to possible systemic effects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Six anaesthetized pigs weighing approximately 39 kg were studied. Transparenchymally, two 6-F catheters were ...
Heintz Anke - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: The mechanisms underlying hypercapnic coronary dilation remain unsettled. This study tests the hypothesis that flow dependent NO production is obligatory for the hypercapnic flow response. METHODS/RESULTS: In isolated, constant pressure (CP) perfused guinea pig hearts a step change of arterial pCO(2) from 38.6 to 61.4 mm Hg induced a ...
Habib M M - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Organs retrieved from marginal and non-heart-beating donors (NHBDs) have sustained variable degrees of preretrieval damage that result in an increased incidence of complications. Normothermic extracorporeal liver perfusion (NELP) provides an opportunity to evaluate and resuscitate such organs. The aim of this study was to identify markers of ischemic injury ...
Gürtler Ulrich - - 2004
Although a few experimental approaches to isolated limb perfusion (ILP) are described in the literature, none of these animal models mimics the clinical perfusion techniques adequately to improve the technique of ILP on the basis of valid preclinical data. Therefore, we developed an ILP setup in rats allowing online monitoring ...
Wang Qingtian - - 2004
Artificial hearts and ventricular assist devices have been widely used clinically to assist patients with severe heart failure. Unfortunately, direct contact between the device and the patient's blood leads to thromboembolic events, and then the need for anticoagulation and infections contribute significantly to complication and mortality. Compressing the dysfunctional heart ...
Adolphs Jörn - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether sympathetic blockade by means of thoracic epidural anaesthesia (TEA) increases intestinal perfusion during normotensive endotoxaemia. DESIGN: A prospective, randomised and controlled animal study. SETTING: Animal laboratory in a university hospital. SUBJECTS: Sprague-Dawley male rats. INTERVENTIONS: The rats were anaesthetised with urethane and ketamine, mechanically ventilated and ...
Schmidt B - - 2004
Chemonociception in the human small intestine has not been studied extensively. Although capsaicin can cause intestinal sensations, it is not known if this is due to stimulation of chemoreceptors or to motor changes. Our aims were to evaluate motor activity during capsaicin induced nociception and to compare qualities of jejunal ...
Itti Emmanuel - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The assessment of lung ventilation by radionuclide imaging has proved useful for the optimization of aerosol therapy in children with cystic fibrosis. Further analysis of lung perfusion may provide additional information. METHODS: Quantitative analysis of regional lung aerosol distribution (Tc phytates) and perfusion (Tc macroaggregates) homogeneity was performed in ...
Huang Lei - - 2004
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In settings of cardiac arrest, reestablishing vital organ perfusion plays an important role in initial CPR. As a pharmacologic intervention, vasopressor agents aim to improve aortic diastolic pressure and, consequently, coronary and cerebral perfusion pressures. RECENT FINDINGS: Historically, adrenergic agonists such as epinephrine have been suggested for ...
Wittek Thomas - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To compare abomasal luminal gas pressure and volume and perfusion of the abomasum in dairy cows with a left displaced abomasum (LDA) or abomasal volvulus (AV). ANIMALS: 40 lactating dairy cows (25 with an LDA and 15 with an AV). PROCEDURE: Abomasal luminal gas pressure and volume and pulse ...
Durand S - - 2004
Previous investigations of autoregulatory mechanisms in the control of skin blood flow suffer from the possibility of interfering effects of the autonomic nervous system. To address this question, in 11 subjects cutaneous vascular responses were measured during acute changes in perfusion pressure (using Valsalva maneuver; VM) before and after ganglionic ...
Kanetaka T - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: In the assessment of Raynaud's phenomenon, objective evaluation of digital microcirculatory flow is important, and so we investigated whether the measurement of laser Doppler skin perfusion pressure could be of use. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten fingers of five patients with secondary Raynaud's phenomenon due to systemic sclerosis, 22 fingers ...
van der Plaats Arjan - - 2004
To overcome the present shortage of liver donors by expansion of the existing donor pool and possibly lengthening of the storage time, hypothermic machine perfusion of the liver as a dynamic preservation method is revisited. The three most important aspects are defined to be the type of preservation solution, the ...
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