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Results 201 - 250 of 1563
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Posthuma Leo - - 2012
Species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) quantify fractions of species potentially affected in contaminated environmental compartments using test species sensitivity data. The present study quantitatively describes associations between predicted and observed ecological impacts of contaminant mixtures, based on monitoring data of benthic macroinvertebrates. Local mixture toxic pressures (multi-substance potentially affected fraction of ...
Martinelli N - - 2012
Previous studies reported the effect of flatfoot deformity on tibiotalar joint contact characteristics. The lateral shift of the load which occurred in flatfeet may be responsible for degenerative changes in the ankle joint. The purpose was to assess the pattern of joint contact stress of the tibiotalar joint in intact, ...
Lin Tony - - 2012
BACKGROUND: The active compression test has been described to detect superior labrum anterior and posterior (SLAP) lesions. Some have speculated that contact between the lesser tuberosity and the superior glenoid in the testing position causes a positive test. This study evaluated the location of peak glenohumeral contact pressures during a ...
Guo Jing - - 2012
We report a finding of a pressure-induced quantum critical transition in K_{0.8}Fe_{x}Se_{2} (x=1.7 and 1.78) superconductors through in situ high-pressure electrical transport and x-ray diffraction measurements in diamond anvil cells. Transitions from metallic Fermi liquid behavior to non-Fermi liquid behavior and from antiferromagnetism to paramagnetism are found in the pressure range ...
Terry B - - 2012
The intraluminal pressures and traction forces associated with the Migrating Motor Complex are well understood; however, the contact forces directly exerted by the bowel wall on a solid, or near solid, bolus have not previously been measured. Quantifying contact forces is an important component to understanding the net force experienced ...
Elguizaoui Sameh - - 2012
PURPOSE: To determine whether proud synthetic and proud osteochondral plugs conform to native surrounding cartilage after cyclical loading and if there are differences in height and contact pressure after loading. METHODS: Sixteen bovine knees were used. Each received one osteochondral plug and one of two types of synthetic plugs (Smith ...
Choi Cheol - - 2012
Multi-component oil-based nanofluids were prepared by dispersing two different carbons and silver nanoparticles in lubricating oil; then, their tribological properties were investigated using a four-ball tribotester and FZG machine. Each nanofluid demonstrated excellent wear resistance or extreme pressure (EP) properties, but not both properties simultaneously. Therefore, a new concept of ...
Davies Kate E - - 2012
Postoperative or pressure alopecia (PA) is an infrequently reported group of scarring and non-scarring alopecias. It has been reported after immobilization of the head during surgery and following prolonged stays on intensive care units, and may be analogous to a healed pressure ulcer. This review presents a summary of cases ...
Cheema Tahseen - - 2012
PURPOSE: Radial subluxation and cartilage thinning have been associated with initiation and accelerated development of osteoarthritis of the trapeziometacarpal joint. Few investigators have reported on the benefits of opening wedge trapezial osteotomy for altering the contact mechanics of the trapeziometacarpal joint as a possible deterrent to the initiation or progression ...
Xu Feng - - 2012
We present a fiber-optic extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer pressure sensor based on a nanothick silver diaphragm. The sensing diaphragm, with a thickness measured in a few hundreds of nanometers, is fabricated by the electroless plating method, which provides a simple fabrication process involving a high-quality diaphragm at a low cost. The ...
Højlund Jakob - - 2012
Background. The prone position is applied to facilitate surgery of the back and to improve oxygenation in the respirator-treated patient. In particular, with positive pressure ventilation the prone position reduces venous return to the heart and in turn cardiac output (CO) with consequences for cerebral blood flow. We tested in ...
Liu Hai - - 2012
This study was conducted to characterize the intracranial pressure response to non-penetrating ballistic impact using a "scalp-skull-brain" pig physical head model and live pigs. Forty-eight ballistic tests targeting the physical head model and anesthetized pigs protected by aramid plates were conducted with standard 9 mm bullets at low (279-297 m/s), ...
Eide Per Kristian - - 2012
We recently reported that in an experimental setting the zero pressure level of solid intracranial pressure (ICP) sensors can be altered by electrostatics discharges. Changes in the zero pressure level would alter the ICP level (mean ICP); whether spontaneous changes in mean ICP happen in clinical settings is not known. ...
Lima Wildberg Alencar - - 2011
Positive intrathoracic pressure may cause hemodynamic changes, which can be transmitted to the cranial compartment, changing intracranial pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure. This can be increased when high positive end-expiratory pressure values are used. To measure the impact of different positive end-expiratory pressure levels on intracranial pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure ...
Lange Matthias - - 2011
Different isoforms of nitric oxide (NO) synthase are critically involved in the development of pulmonary failure secondary to acute lung injury. Here we tested the hypothesis that simultaneous blockade of inducible and neuronal NO synthase effectively prevents the pulmonary lesions in an ovine model of acute respiratory distress syndrome induced ...
Ng Tien M H TM University of Southern California School of Pharmacy, Los Angeles, CA 90033, - - 2012
Acute renal insufficiency is associated with poorer outcomes in heart failure. Data regarding the renal effects of vasodilatory therapy in acute heart failure are inconclusive. Nesiritide and nitroglycerin are associated with differing effects on the incidence of acute renal injury and glomerular filtration rate changes. A retrospective cohort study of ...
Patel Jayesh - - 2011
Spinal deformity, a common problem in children with myelodysplasia, is associated with alterations in pulmonary function and sitting balance. Sitting imbalance causes areas of high pressure in patients already at high risk for developing pressure ulcers due to insensate skin. We asked: Does spinal deformity affect pulmonary function tests in ...
Dorfman Jon D - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Intracranial hypertension is a crucial modifiable risk factor for poor outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Limited evidence suggests that decompressive laparotomy may be an effective treatment for refractory ICH in patients who have elevated intra-abdominal pressure. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: We present a multi-trauma patient who sustained severe ...
Zafar Syed Nabeel - - 2011
BACKGROUND:: Recent research explores the relationship between vital signs on arrival to the emergency department and early outcomes. This work has not included traumatic brain injury (TBI). We aimed to evaluate the relationship of the initial emergency department systolic blood pressure (EDSBP) with outcome. METHODS:: By using the National Trauma ...
Yokobori Shoji - - 2011
BACKGROUND:: The aim of this study was to evaluate the time course of recovery from cerebral vulnerability, using microdialysis (MD) technique and cerebral vascular autoregulation measurement, to clarify the appropriate timing of subsequent major surgical procedures, and to minimize the possibility of secondary brain injury in patients with severe traumatic ...
Shahsavari S - - 2011
Myogenic autoregulation of cerebral blood ow is one of the mechanisms affecting cerebral hemodynamics. Short or long-lasting changes in intracranial pressure are believed to reveal the responses of the cerebral system to myogenic stimuli. Through the incorporation of a theoretical model into the experimental measurements of cerebrovascular distensibility and compliance ...
Fedorowski Artur - - 2011
Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is associated with increased total mortality but contribution of specific death causes has not been thoroughly explored. In this prospective study, authors followed up 32,068 individuals without baseline history of cancer or cardiovascular disease (69% men; mean age, 46 years; range, 26-61 years) over a period of ...
Carrera Emmanuel E Academic Neurosurgery Unit, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom. - - 2011
The benefit of induced hyperventilation for intracranial pressure (ICP) control after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is controversial. In this study, we investigated the impact of early and sustained hyperventilation on compliances of the cerebral arteries and of the cerebrospinal (CSF) compartment during mild hyperventilation in severe TBI patients. We ...
Polly Derek M - - 2011
Severe hypertension is a frequent condition among patients presenting to emergency departments. Historically, this has been referred to as a hypertensive crisis. In addition, these hypertensive crises have been further divided into either hypertensive emergencies or urgencies depending on the presence or absence of target organ damage, respectively. The management ...
Esparza F - - 2011
Background Lower extremities injuries caused by non-body contact are highly prevalent in sports. Repetitive high loads on the foot could cause these injuries. Plantar pressure refers to the pressure measured on the plantar surface of the foot. Objective To measure the plantar pressure in soccer and basketball players. Design Descriptive ...
Harbeck-Seu Anja - - 2011
Traumatic brain injury is the leading cause of death in young patients and stroke is the leading cause of major disability in elderly patients. Both injuries are often followed by cerebral plasticity changes and increased intracerebral pressure (ICP). Aim of the review is to present current knowledge about amphetamines and ...
Lawson Lauren - - 2011
High blood pressure is one of the most common chronic medical conditions in this country, occurring in about 1 of every 3 adults. It is not uncommon for nurses to see individuals in the emergency room, hospital, home, or other settings who have severely elevated blood pressure readings. Extremely elevated ...
Johnson Ulf - - 2011
: Cerebral pressure autoregulation (CPA) is defined as the ability of the brain vasculature to maintain a constant blood flow over a range of different systemic blood pressures by means of contraction and dilatation. : To study CPA in relation to physiological parameters, treatment, and outcome in a series of ...
Shellington David K - - 2011
Resuscitation of hemorrhagic hypotension after traumatic brain injury is challenging. A hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier may offer advantages. The novel therapeutic hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier, polynitroxylated pegylated hemoglobin (PNPH), may represent a neuroprotective hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier for traumatic brain injury resuscitation. 1) PNPH is a unique non-neurotoxic hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier in neuronal ...
Citak Mustafa - - 2011
Study Design: Retrospective chart reviewObjective: The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between necrotizing fasciitis and pressure ulcers, as well as the mortality and complication rate, in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI).Summary of Background Data: Pressure ulcers represent a challenging problem, especially in immobilized patients. Necrotizing ...
Bourdeaux Chris P - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Hypertonic sodium chloride solutions are routinely used to control raised intracranial pressure (ICP) after traumatic brain injury but have the potential to cause a hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. Sodium bicarbonate 8.4% has previously been shown to reduce ICP and we have therefore conducted a randomized controlled trial to compare these ...
Chavanne Albert - - 2011
ABSTRACT: Study Design. In vitro cadaveric study of cervical spinal cord intramedullary pressure (IMP) in kyphotic deformity.Objective: To define the relationship between cervical spinal kyphotic deformity and spinal cord intramedullary pressure.Summary of Background Data. Previous studies of asymptomatic volunteers have revealed that the greatest variation in regional sagittal neutral upright ...
Jiang Li-Ping - - 2011
Pressure ulcers (PU) are caused by the interplay of multiple factors including skin microcirculation. Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is considered a significant mechanism in the early stages of pressure ulcer development. The objective of this controlled, single-blinded in vivo study was to create a pressure-induced injury rat animal model and explore ...
Kirkman E - - 2011
Blast injuries are an increasing problem in both military and civilian practice. Primary blast injury to the lungs (blast lung) is found in a clinically significant proportion of casualties from explosions even in an open environment, and in a high proportion of severely injured casualties following explosions in confined spaces. ...
Hutchison James S - - 2011
Hypotension and low cerebral perfusion pressure are known to be associated with unfavorable outcome in children and adults with traumatic brain injury. Using the database from a previously published, randomized controlled trial of 24 h of hypothermia therapy in children with severe traumatic brain injury, we compared the number of ...
Batchelor Peter Egerton - - 2011
Most cases of human spinal cord injury (SCI) are accompanied by continuing cord compression. Experimentally, compression results in rapid neurological decline over hours, suggesting a rise in intracanal pressure local to the site of injury. The aim of this study was to measure the rise in local intracanal pressure accompanying ...
Giesbrecht E M - - 2011
Study design:This study was a repeated measures study.Objectives:The objective was to systematically measure the relative reduction in interface pressure (IP) at the ischial tuberosities (IT) and sacrum through 10° increments of tilt in a manual wheelchair among individuals with motor complete spinal cord injury (SCI).Setting:This study was carried out in ...
Timofeev Ivan I Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge, - - 2011
Secondary insults can adversely influence outcome following severe traumatic brain injury. Monitoring of cerebral extracellular chemistry with microdialysis has the potential for early detection of metabolic derangements associated with such events. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the fundamental biochemical markers and neurological outcome in ...
Agbeko Rachel S - - 2011
OBJECTIVES:: To determine the effect of and dynamic interaction between head elevation on intracranial pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure in severe pediatric traumatic head injury. DESIGN:: Prospective, randomized, interventional cohort study. SETTING:: Two tertiary pediatric critical care referral units. PATIENTS:: Ten children admitted with severe traumatic brain injury defined as ...
Idowu O K - - 2011
Study design:Pressure ulceration and other complications constitute an encumbrance in the management of spinal cord injury in many services with limited resources in developing countries. These services undertake patients' care without adequate prehospital care, limited modern infrastructure and limited number of trained staff.Objectives:To evaluate the associated risk factors for pressure ...
Melo José Roberto Tude - - 2011
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of emergency Transcranial Doppler (TCD) to predict intracranial hypertension and abnormal cerebral perfusion pressure in children with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A descriptive and retrospective cross-sectional study was designed through data collected from medical records ...
Leonardi Alessandra Dal Cengio - - 2011
Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) caused by improvised explosive devices (IEDs) affect a significant percentage of surviving soldiers wounded in Iraq and Afghanistan. The extent of a blast TBI, especially initially, is difficult to diagnose, as internal injuries are frequently unrecognized and therefore underestimated, yet problems develop over time. Therefore it ...
Utrobicić I - - 2011
High-pressure injection injuries to the hand are work-related injuries that can take a devastating toll on the functionality of the affected extremity. We present two cases of high-pressure injection hand injuries due to paint and sand. The patients were managed operatively and switch to intensive physiotherapeutic training, with excellent outcome.
Gura Melek - - 2011
In traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients, it is desired to monitor the intracranial pressure (ICP) to assess the cerebral haemodynamics and guide the therapy. The study was designed to see if the pulsatility index (PI) measured by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) predicts information about ICP values. In 52 TBI patients ...
Haavind Anniken - - 2011
Pneumonia, severe sepsis, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are frequent complications after head trauma. Recombinant human activated protein C (APC) reportedly improves circulation and respiration in severe sepsis, but is contraindicated after head injury because of increased risk of intracranial bleeding. A 21-year-old man with severe head injury after ...
Rabadi Meheroz Hoshang - - 2011
The overall goal of this observational study was to determine whether modifiable vascular risk factors contribute to the prevalence of pressure ulcers (PrU) in veterans with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). Given the increasingly limited financial resources in hospitals and clinics, identifying risk factors associated with the development of PrU ...
Rice Todd W - - 2011
Conservative fluid management in patients with acute lung injury (ALI) increases time alive and free from mechanical ventilation. Vascular pedicle width (VPW) is a non-invasive measurement of intravascular volume status. The VPW was studied in ALI patients to determine the correlation between VPW and intravascular pressure measurements and whether VPW ...
Nelson David W - - 2011
Cerebral microdialysis (MD) is used to monitor local brain chemistry of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Despite an extensive literature on cerebral MD in the clinical setting, it remains unclear how individual levels of real-time MD data are to be interpreted. Intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) ...
Peace Kaitlin - - 2010
Object Follow-up head CT scans are important in neurocritical care but involve intrahospital transport that may be associated with potential hazards including a deleterious effect on brain tissue oxygen pressure (PbtO(2)). Portable head CT (pHCT) scans offer an alternative imaging technique without a need for patient transport. In this study, ...
Sonenblum Sharon E - - 2011
The overall goal of this research was to improve the use of seated tilt to increase function, health and quality of life for people using power wheelchairs. Specifically, the objective of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical responses to seated full body tilt in persons with spinal cord injury ...
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