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Asgari Shadnaz - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Although abnormally high Lactate/Pyruvate ratio (LPR) could indicate cerebral ischemia for brain injury patients, there is a debate on what is primary factor responsible for LPR increase. METHODS: A data analysis experiment is taken to test whether any association between cerebral vasodilatation/vasoconstriction and LPR increase exists. We studied 4,316 ...
Selvan Veera - - 2013
Blast waves generated in the field explosions impinge on the head-brain complex and induce mechanical pressure pulses in the brain resulting in traumatic brain injury. Severity of the brain injury (mild to moderate to severe) is dependent upon the magnitude and duration of the pressure pulse, which in turn depends ...
Metheny Norma A NA Saint Louis University School of Nursing, St Louis, MO 63104, USA. - - 2013
Clinicians are confused by conflicting guidelines about the use of head-of-bed elevation to prevent aspiration and pressure ulcers in critically ill patients. Research-based information in support of guidelines for head-of-bed elevation to prevent either condition is limited. However, positioning of the head of the bed has been studied more extensively ...
Ahmad Rufa'i Adamu A Department of Physiotherapy, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, - - 2013
Movement dysfunction may be expressed in terms of symptoms experienced in non-physiological postures, and head-down crooked kneeling (HDCK) is a posture frequently assumed by Muslims during prayer activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cardiovascular responses in the HDCK posture. Seventy healthy volunteers, comprising 35 males and ...
Jaeger Matthias - - 2013
BACKGROUND: To investigate the relationship between cerebrovascular pressure reactivity and cerebral oxygen regulation after head injury. METHODS: Continuous monitoring of the partial pressure of brain tissue oxygen (PbrO2), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and intracranial pressure (ICP) in 11 patients. The cerebrovascular pressure reactivity index (PRx) was calculated as the ...
Kiehna Erin N - - 2013
Object The intrathoracic pressure regulator (ITPR) is a novel noninvasive device designed to increase circulation and blood pressure. By applying negative pressure during the expiratory phase of ventilation it decreases intrathoracic pressure and enhances venous return, which increases cardiac output. It is possible that the ITPR may both decrease intracranial ...
Eskandari Ramin R Department of Neurosurgery, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, - - 2013
Normal intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) have been identified as favorable prognostic factors in the outcome of patients with traumatic brain injuries (TBIs). Osmotic diuretics and hypertonic saline (HTS) are commonly used to treat elevated ICP in patients with TBI; however, sustained effects of repeated high-concentration HTS ...
Jiang Xue - - 2013
Pressure-induced bond type switching and phase transformation in glassy carbon (GC) has been simulated by means of Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations and the Stochastic Quenching method (SQ) in a wide range of pressures (0-79 GPa). Under pressure, the GC experiences a hardening transition from sp- and sp(2)-type to sp(3)-type bonding, ...
Facchini Alberto - - 2013
INTRODUCTION: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a largely reversible disease with long-term favorable outcome. A minority of patients, however, may develop progressive cerebral edema and ischemia resulting in severe disability or death. We report a case of severe intracranial hypertension associated with PRES that was successfully treated according to ...
Fortrat Jacques-Olivier - - 2013
Heart rate spontaneously fluctuates despite homeostatic regulatory mechanisms to stabilize it. Harmonic and fractal fluctuations have been described. Non-harmonic non-fractal fluctuation has not been studied because it is usually thought that it is caused by apparatus noise. We hypothesized that this fluctuation looking like apparatus noise (that we call "noisy ...
Lazaridis Christos - - 2013
: Intracranial hypertension and cerebral edema are known contributors to secondary brain injury and to poor neurologic outcomes. Small volume solutions of exceedingly high osmolarity, such as 23.4% saline, have been used for the management of intracranial hypertension crises and as a measure to prevent or reverse acute brain tissue ...
Pelisch Nicolas - - 2013
Recent studies have suggested that blood-brain barrier (BBB) abnormalities are present from an early stage in patients exhibiting mild symptoms of cognitive impairment during the development of hypertension. There is also growing body of evidence suggesting the potential role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the pathogenesis of small-vessel disease ...
Gocze Ivan - - 2013
INTRODUCTION: Adopting the 45degrees semirecumbent position in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients is recommended, as it has been shown to reduce the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Although the benefits to the respiratory system are clear, it is not known whether elevating the head of the bed results in hemodynamic instability. ...
Yuan Qiang Q Department of Neurosurgery, Huashan Hospital, affiliated to Fudan University , Shanghai , PR - - 2013
Abstract Objective: To prospectively investigate the predictive value of initial intracranial pressure (ICP) for refractory intracranial hypertension and outcomes in persons with diffuse traumatic brain injury (TBI). A prospective observational study was conducted in 107 adult persons with diffuse TBI (Marshall CT Class II-IV). Initial ICP was defined as the ...
Schmutzhard Joachim - - 2013
Intracranial pressure usually is measured with invasive techniques. The usability of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions as non-invasive approach has been evaluated only once by Frank et al. This article presents the case of a Kenyan boy with tuberculous meningitis and an active malresorptive hydrocephalus. At this stage, the otoacoustic emissions ...
Faes Luca - - 2013
The transition from the supine to the upright position requires a reorganization of the mechanisms of cardiovascular control that, if not properly accomplished, may lead to neurally mediated syncope. We investigated how the patterns of causality between systolic arterial pressure (SAP) and cardiac RR interval were modified by prolonged head-up ...
Freimann Florian Baptist - - 2013
BACKGROUND: A standardized large animal model for controlled ICP manipulation within a relevant range and repetitive ICP measurements is missing. We sought to develop such a model on the base of controlled IPP changes induced by capnoperitoneum. METHODS: We utilized six female pigs (mean body weight 59.5 ± 18.4 kg) for experiments. A ...
Lavery W J - - 2013
In humans, changing from upright to supine elicits an approximately 10 mmHg increase in cephalic venous pressure caused by the hydrostatic column effect, but episcleral venous pressure (EVP) and intraocular pressure (IOP) rise by only a few mmHg. The dissociation of the small increases in IOP and EVP compared to ...
Chen Li - - 2013
Objective: To assess zero drift of intraventricular and subdural intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring systems. Methods: A prospective study was conducted in patients who received Codman ICP monitoring in the neurosurgical department from January 2010 to December 2011. According to the location of sensors, the patients were ca- tegorized into two ...
Perkins Zane B - - 2013
The acutely injured brain is sensitive to fluctuations in blood pressure. During tracheal intubation, airway stimulation provokes acute surges in blood pressure that have the potential to cause further harm in patients with intracranial pathology. Although reduced consciousness is thought to suppress airway reflexes, its influence on these hemodynamic reflexes ...
Kail Jochem - - 2013
River biota are influenced by anthropogenic pressures that operate at different spatial scales. Understanding which pressures at which spatial scales affect biota is essential to manage and restore degraded rivers. In Europe, many river reaches were designated as Heavily Modified Water Bodies (HMWB) according to the European Water Framework Directive ...
Varsos Georgios V - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Critical closing pressure (CCP) denotes a threshold of arterial blood pressure (ABP) below which brain vessels collapse and cerebral blood flow ceases. Theoretically, CCP is the sum of intracranial pressure (ICP) and arterial wall tension (WT). The aim of this study is to describe the behavior of CCP and ...
Pulitanò Silvia - - 2013
BACKGROUND:: Positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) improves oxygenation by optimizing alveolar recruitment and reducing intrapulmonary shunt. Unfortunately, PEEP can interfere with intracranial pressure (ICP) by increasing intrathoracic pressure. We hypothesized that the use of different PEEP levels could have an effect on intracranial and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), gas exchange, ...
Stein Deborah M - - 2013
BACKGROUND: We asked whether continuous intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring data could provide objective measures of the degree and timing of intracranial hypertension (ICH) in the first week of neurotrauma critical care and whether such data could be linked to outcome. METHODS: We enrolled adult (>17 years old) patients admitted to our ...
Akanyeti Otar - - 2013
In underwater locomotion, extracting meaningful information from local flows is as desirable as it is challenging, due to complex fluid-structure interaction. Sensing and motion are tightly interconnected; hydrodynamic signals generated by the external stimuli are modified by the self-generated flow signals. Given that very little is known about self-generated signals, ...
Biedler Andreas - - 2013
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of the laryngeal tube (LT) size 2 and the classical laryngeal mask airway (LMA) size 2 in different head-neck positions under positive pressure ventilation in children by measuring leak pressures, peak pressures and the achievable tidal volumes under positive ...
Lazaridis Christos - - 2013
Cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP)-oriented therapy and the Lund concept lie on opposite ends of the CPP scale, in the management of head injury. Optimization of CPP by monitoring cerebral vascular pressure reactivity is an alternative approach that may reconcile these two divergent approaches, preventing both injurious hypotension and hypertension with ...
Chan Samuel H H - - 2013
Significance: There is now compelling evidence to substantiate the notion that, by depressing baroreflex regulation of blood pressure and augmenting central sympathetic outflow through their actions on the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) and rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), brain stem nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important ...
Tikkakoski Antti J - - 2013
OBJECTIVE:: Hypertension is characterized by increased vascular resistance and arterial stiffness, but information about upright hemodynamics is scarce. We compared hemodynamics in hypertensive versus normotensive patients at rest and during passive head-up tilt. METHODS:: Volunteers (n = 387, 19-72 years) without antihypertensive medication were recorded using continuous tonometric pulse wave analysis and ...
Yokote Akiyoshi - - 2013
INTRODUCTION: One of the goals of cranial vault expansion performed in patients with craniosynostosis (CS) is to reduce the harmful effects associated with elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). Until now, clear guidelines on when cranial vault expansion should take place have not been established except in unacceptable cosmetic deformities. MATERIALS AND ...
Mellion Sarah A - - 2013
OBJECTIVES:: To evaluate high-dose barbiturates as a second-tier therapy for pediatric refractory intracranial hypertension complicating severe traumatic brain injury. DESIGN:: This is a retrospective cohort study of children with refractory intracranial hypertension treated with high-dose barbiturates. SETTING:: A single center level I pediatric trauma from 2001 to 2010. PATIENTS:: Thirty-six ...
Giacometti Paolo P Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth, 14 Engineering Drive, Hanover, NH 03755, USA. - - 2013
A noninvasive head probe that combines near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and electroencephalography (EEG) for simultaneous measurement of neural dynamics and hemodynamics in the brain is presented. It is composed of a compliant expandable mechanism that accommodates a wide range of head size variation and an elastomeric web that maintains uniform sensor ...
Zuj K A - - 2013
Syncope from sustained orthostasis results from cerebral hypoperfusion associated with reductions in arterial pressure at the level of the brain (BPMCA) and reductions in arterial CO2 as reflected by end-tidal values (PetCO2). It was hypothesized that reductions in PetCO2 increase cerebrovascular tone before a drop in BPMCA that ultimately leads ...
Taibbi Giovanni - - 2013
Ocular structural and functional changes, including optic disk edema and reduction of near visual acuity, have been recently described in some astronauts returning from long-duration space travels. It is hypothesized that ocular changes related to spaceflight may occur, in predisposed individuals, as a result of cephalad shift of body fluids, ...
Takagi Hisato - - 2013
A previous meta-analysis of six randomized head-to-head trials suggests that the blood pressure (BP)-lowering capabilities of telmisartan may be comparable to those of valsartan. We performed an updated meta-analysis of telmisartan vs. valsartan therapy for the reduction of BP in hypertensive patients. MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of ...
Poli Sven - - 2013
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Therapeutic hypothermia improves clinical outcome after cardiac arrest and appears beneficial in other cerebrovascular diseases. We conducted this study to investigate the relationship between surface head/neck cooling and brain temperature. METHODS: Prospective observational study enrolling consecutive patients with severe ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke undergoing intracranial pressure (ICP) ...
Zhu Haitao - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Specific pathophysiological mechanism in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) at high altitude is unclear, and at present, there is no relevant and suitable animal model. METHODS: A hypobaric chamber was used to simulate an altitude of 4,000 m. Autologous arterial blood (3 ml) was slowly infused into the right basal ganglia of minipigs ...
Soehle Martin - - 2013
Physiological parameters, such as intracranial pressure (ICP), are regulated by interconnected feedback loops, resulting in a complex time course. According to the decomplexification theory, disease is characterised by a loss of feedback loops resulting in a reduced complexity of the time course of physiological parameters. We hypothesized that complexity of ...
Griesdale Donald Eg - - 2013
ABSTRACT: The observational literature suggests that hypernatremia is associated with worse outcomes in patients with traumatic brain injury. In a previous issue of Critical Care, Wells and colleagues add to this literature by failing to show an association between hypernatremia and reduced intracranial pressure. However, we must bear in mind ...
Kocan Mary Jo - - 2013
Patients with neurologic illness or injury benefit from early interventions to increase physical activity and mobility, but they also have special needs related to hemodynamic stability and intracranial pressure dynamics. After brain injury, moving paralyzed limbs-even passively-helps promote neural plasticity, "rerouting" signals around the injured area and forming new connections, ...
Akutsu Nobuyuki - - 2013
In cases of severe uncontrollable brain swelling, simple skin closure often increases intracranial pressure. This study examined the efficacy of a new technique of decompressive skinplasty to decrease intracranial pressure following decompressive craniectomy in cases of severe traumatic brain injury with uncontrollable brain swelling. In our technique, we use artificial ...
Zhang Yin-Gang - - 2013
Because negative pressure can stimulate vascular proliferation, improve blood circulation and promote osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells, we investigated the therapeutic effect of negative pressure on femoral head necrosis (FHN) in a rabbit model. Animals were divided into four groups (n = 60/group): [1] model control, [2] core decompression, [3] ...
Harrigan T P - - 2013
The skull-brain complex is typically modeled as an integrated structure, similar to a fluid-filled shell. Under dynamic loads, the interaction of the skull and the underlying brain, cerebrospinal fluid, and other tissue produces the pressure and strain histories that are the basis for many theories meant to describe the genesis ...
Hamlyn John M - - 2013
Endogenous cardiotonic steroids (CTS) exert long-term effects on salt and blood pressure homeostasis. Here we discuss recent observations on mechanisms of salt sensitivity that involve endogenous ouabain and novel pathways in the brain and discuss their possible relationship to arterial and renal function in hypertension. Chronic elevation of brain sodium ...
Aung Thein - - 2013
The baroreceptors in the neck and aortic arch are important regulators of sudden blood pressure changes. They are innervated by CN IX and X and synapse in the brainstem. Baroreceptor failure is an under-recognized cause of recurrent syncope, orthostatic hypotension, and volatile hypertension, which is refractory to and may in ...
Stuebner Eva - - 2013
Non-motor symptoms are now commonly recognized in Parkinson's disease (PD) and can include dysautonomia. Impairment of cardiovascular autonomic function can occur at any stage of PD but is typically prevalent in advanced stages or related to (anti-Parkinsonian) drugs and can result in atypical blood pressure (BP) readings and related symptoms ...
Schoon Yvonne - - 2013
Carotid sinus hypersensitivity has a high prevalence in the elderly and is a possible cause of falls. In carotid sinus hypersensitivity, external triggers cause sudden reductions in blood pressure, leading to dizziness or syncope, resulting in falls. Turning of the head is considered an important example of such an external ...
Rangamani Padmini - - 2013
We present here a procedure for growing lipid tubules in vitro. This method allows us to grow tubules of consistent shape and structure, and thus can be a useful tool for nano-engineering applications. There are three stages during the tubule growth process: initiation, elongation and termination. Balancing the forces that ...
Aleksandrowicz M - - 2013
Hyponatremia is a common disorder of water-electrolyte balance characterized by the decrease of plasma sodium ions concentration below 135 mM. Although water-electrolyte balance is regulated by a kidney, symptoms of hyponatremia are related to the disturbances of intracranial homeostasis and are attributed to brain swelling. Despite the importance of blood ...
Krbila S - - 2013
 Objective: The aim of the study was to assess (i) a group of patients with established intracranial pressure (ICP) sensor in severe brain injuries scoring 3 points of Glasgow Coma Scale, (ii) mortality and survival of the patients within periods of 7, 30, 180 and 270 days; and (iii) predictive value ...
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