Search Results
Results 551 - 600 of 1639
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Yamamoto Y - - 2001
The effects of hypercapnia (CO(2)) confined to either the alveolar space or the intravascular perfusate on exhaled nitric oxide (NO), perfusate NO metabolites (NOx), and pulmonary arterial pressure (Ppa) were examined during normoxia and progressive 20-min hypoxia in isolated blood- and buffer-perfused rabbit lungs. In blood-perfused lungs, when alveolar CO(2) ...
Brilakis H S - - 2001
PURPOSE: A quantitative study was conducted to estimate the survival time of giant vacuoles of the endothelial wall of Schlemm's canal once perfusion pressure has dropped to zero. Vacuoles are known to be sensitive to intraocular pressure and could serve as real-time markers of aqueous pressure in the juxtacanalicular tissue ...
Gibbons S - - 2001
The effects of an aqueous extract of Zygophyllum coccineum L. on rat blood pressure (BP) and on the mesenteric vascular bed were investigated. The extract dose-dependently reduced BP and heart rate in normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). It also reduced BP in pithed SHRs. In vitro, the extract had ...
Daryanani D - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Continuous measurement of perfusate leakage into the systemic circulation is of the utmost importance and can be performed with the help of radioactive tracers. The purpose of this study was to assess changes in the perfusion leakage rate between two periods: 1977-1990 and 1991-2000, and to determine the factors ...
Ay T - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Recent experimental data indicate that ultrasound-induced destruction of ultrasound contrast microbubbles can cause immediate rupture of the microvessels in which these microbubbles are located. METHODS AND RESULTS: To examine the functional and morphological significance of these findings in the heart, isolated rabbit hearts were perfused retrogradely with buffer containing ...
Bitner J B - - 2001
Barnacle muscle cells regulate their volume when exposed to anisotonic conditions. Due to their large size, these cells can be internally perfused. Interestingly, perfused cells maintain their volume regulatory properties (17,21). Thus, the osmotic properties of barnacle muscle cells can be studied under conditions in which the intracellular and extracellular ...
Peyton P J - - 2001
Ventilation-perfusion (VA/Q) inhomogeneity was modeled to measure its effect on overall gas exchange during maintenance-phase N(2)O anesthesia with an inspired O(2) concentration of 30%. A multialveolar compartment computer model was used based on physiological log normal distributions of VA/Q inhomogeneity. Increasing the log standard deviation of the distribution of perfusion ...
Mailman D - - 2001
The objective of this research was to determine the amount and timing of nitric oxide (NO, nitrogen monoxide) gas produced by the lungs, intestinal mucosa, and organ surfaces facing the peritoneal cavity after iv injection of a bacterial toxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Some of the deleterious effects of LPS on organ ...
Cattel L - - 2001
BACKGROUND: The kinetics of melphalan leakage from extracorporeal fluid to the peripheral blood was studied in ten patients undergoing hyperthermic isolation perfusion of the lower limbs as an adjuvant treatment in high-risk melanoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Systemic leakage was monitored by a new technique using 99mTc-albumin microcolloid. Serial samples were ...
Szczesny G - - 2001
Prolonged immobilization of severely ill, bed-ridden patients results in formation of pressure ulcers following inappropriate tissue blood perfusion, and local activation of leukocyte - endothelial cell interactions (L/EC). Various treatment modalities were implemented to improve local microcirculation with controversial results. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence ...
Le Duc G - - 2001
Long-distance effects of a superparamagnetic contrast agent (AMI227) were investigated by phosphorus-31 NMR spectroscopy at 7.05 Tesla. In an initial methodological approach, the effects observed on phantoms were compared to the results of theoretical calculations. In a second step, the particles were administered to excised and perfused rat livers (N ...
Waller C - - 2001
INTRODUCTION: A MR imaging (MRI) method has been developed to determine quantitatively myocardial perfusion (P) in the rat heart in vivo. This method has the potential to non-invasively measure cardiac perfusion without the use of a contrast agent by exploiting the endogenous contrast from flowing blood itself. METHOD AND RESULTS: ...
Deem S - - 2001
Free hemoglobin (Hb) augments hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV), ostensibly by scavenging nitric oxide (NO). However, recent evidence suggests that Hb that is S-nitrosated may act as an NO donor and vasodilator. We studied the effects of oxyHb, Hb that is chemically modified to prevent heme binding or oxidation of NO ...
Jones A T - - 2001
Acute respiratory distress syndrome is characterized by alterations in the ventilation-perfusion ratio. Present techniques for studying regional pulmonary perfusion are difficult to apply in the critically ill. Electron-beam computed tomography was used to study the effects of prone positioning on regional pulmonary perfusion in six healthy subjects. Contrast-enhanced sections were ...
Hillis A E - - 2001
Longitudinal clinical and imaging data from a patient who sustained a left frontal-temporal stroke with hypoperfusion of the adjacent Wernicke's area are reported. His language deficits were partially ameliorated by pharmacologically increasing his blood pressure, and were exacerbated when blood pressure dropped. There was a striking temporal and statistical correlation ...
Fonteles C S - - 2001
Adult male guinea pigs from both sexes were anaesthetized with pentobarbital (40mg/Kg). After tracheotomy the lungs were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution at 37 degrees C in a non recirculated system composed of a perfusion pump, a transducer to measure pressure and another one to measure bronchial resistance. In all groups ...
Khatib S Y - - 2001
Allopurinol, a competitive inhibitor of xanthine oxidase, was found to have a protective effect on ischemic myocardium. Its mechanism of action is still controversial. We used Langendorff isolated rat heart preparation to test the hypothesis that allopurinol could maintain a level of the adenine nucleotide pool (ATP, ADP, and AMP) ...
Armour J - - 2001
Septic patients have low plasma ascorbate concentrations and compromised microvascular perfusion. The purpose of the present experiments was to determine whether ascorbate improves capillary function in volume-resuscitated sepsis. Cecal ligation and perforation (CLP) was performed on male Sprague-Dawley rats. The concentration of ascorbate in plasma and urine, mean arterial blood ...
Orihashi K - - 2001
BACKGROUND: We evaluated clinical relevance of orbital ultrasound (OUS) monitoring to neurological events in aortic surgery associated with selective cerebral perfusion (SCP). METHODS: In 24 consecutive cases, blood flow was monitored at central retinal artery (CRA) and retrobulbar vessels. The threshold perfusion pressure for detecting CRA flow in the color ...
Davidson G W - - 2001
Administration of exogenous Ach to isolated in situ saline-perfused hearts of Anguilla australis via the perfusate, resulted in reduction in cardiac frequency (F). This reduction in F became significant at Ach concentrations of 10(-11) M or greater. A weak inotropic effect of Ach at the lowest concentration tested (10(-13) M) ...
Tominaga R - - 2001
The changes in systemic circulation during hyperthermic isolated lower limb perfusion with carboplatin and interferon-beta were investigated in 19 patients with malignant melanoma. The cardiac output (CO) increased significantly (p < 0.01) from 3.81 +/- 0.22 L/min before the procedure to 5.30 +/- 0.49 L/min 1 h after hyperthermic perfusion. ...
Yang T - - 2000
The effect of cerebral and spinal cord protection by a modified perfusion technique during the elephant trunk procedure was assessed. Between 1997 and 1998, six patients underwent selective cerebral perfusion (SCP) and lower half of the body perfusion (LBP), in which the right subclavian and left femoral arteries were separately ...
Gustafson L A - - 2000
The purpose of this study was to develop a technique for determination of the dynamic regulation of oxidative myocardial metabolism in the mouse. The response time of myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO(2)) to a step in heart rate was determined in Langendorff-perfused mouse hearts. We examined the effect of glucose-only perfusate ...
Hoeldtke N J - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to determine whether adrenomedullin, a hypotensive peptide, decreases vasomotor tone in fetoplacental vasculature that has been constricted with the thromboxane sympathomimetic U46619. STUDY DESIGN: The fetoplacental vascular beds of 20 perfused human placental cotyledons were vasoconstricted with a continuous infusion of U46619 (10(-8) mol/L). The ...
Zhang X Y - - 2000
Convective transport of therapeutic agents in solid tumors can be improved through intratumoral infusion. To optimize the convection, we investigated the dependence of the hydraulic conductivity on tissue deformation induced by interstitial fluid pressure gradient during the infusion. Two experimental systems were used in the investigation: 1) one-dimensional perfusion through ...
Wagner R K - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To determine if lipopolysaccharide (LPS) alters production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) or vascular tone in perfused placental cotyledons. METHODS: Control and study cotyledons from nine placentas were perfused for 3 h. Study cotyledons received LPS in concentrations of 0.01 mcg/ml (n = 3), 0.1 mcg/ml (n = 3), or 1.0 ...
Jahr J S - - 2000
The effects of heparinase I and protamine sulfate on the mean arterial pressure and hindlimb perfusion pressure in the male rat were studied. With institutional approval, 21 male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized, and the carotid artery and abdominal aorta were cannulated by cutdown. To isolate the hindlimb, a semi-closed peristaltic ...
Nolte D - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Perfluorocarbon-based oxygen carriers have been proposed as an adjunct to autologous blood conservation techniques during elective surgery. To date, the effects of perfluorocarbon emulsions at the microcirculatory level have not been studied extensively. In this study the effects of perflubron emulsion on the microcirculation after acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) ...
Herrera B - - 2000
The main goal of this work was to study the influence of perfusion pressure and flow waveform during kidney perfusion, and the relationship between renal vascular resistance (RVR) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) concentration in the perfusate. Simultaneous constant pressure kidney perfusions were performed with either pulsatile or continuous flow at ...
Tanabe N - - 2000
Perfusion of the pulmonary acinus has been shown to be generally homogeneous, but there is a significant component that is heterogeneous. To investigate the contribution of the alveolar septal capillary network to acinar perfusion heterogeneity, the passage of fluorescent dye boluses through the subpleural microcirculation of isolated dog lung lobes ...
Yu P K - - 2000
Endothelial cell function is often evaluated by the assessment ofendothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine. The purpose of this study was to characterize the acetylcholine-induced vasodilator responses in the intact ocular vasculature tree in isolated perfused rat eyes. At a fixed perfusion flow rate (5 microl/min), the resultant perfusion pressure reflected the ...
Pierce B T - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to determine whether exposure of the isolated, perfused human placental cotyledon to different fetal circuit perfusion rates, and to concomitant pressure differences, alters placental production of interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha. STUDY DESIGN: The maternal and fetal circulations of 2 cotyledons from 5 placentas ...
Craig A G - - 2000
Manometric assembly diameter is a major limitation on the number of perfused manometric recording points for recordings from the sphincter of Oddi (SO). We evaluated novel polyimide manometric assemblies whereby four recording channels were incorporated in an overall assembly diameter of 0.8 mm. Over the very low range of perfusion ...
Ujiie H - - 2000
Two cases with huge arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) who developed haemorrhagic complications after surgery are described. The cause of the postoperative haemorrhage was considered to be the normal perfusion pressure breakthrough phenomenon and/or occlusive hyperaemia. These two haemodynamic insults possibly occur simultaneously and induce life-threatening haemorrhage. It was concluded that a ...
Mruck S - - 2000
The aim of this study was to assess whether an in vitro preparation of force-generating human atrial trabeculae driven by external electrical stimulation is a suitable model for determining myocardial uptake of cardiotropic radiopharmaceuticals. METHODS: Human atrial trabeculae were excised from specimens removed during cardiac surgery for insertion of heart-lung ...
Serna D L - - 2000
Efforts to extend myocardial preservation for transplantation by crystalloid perfusion have been limited by edema and compromised function. We hypothesized that hypothermic perfusion preservation with a polyethylene glycol (PEG) conjugated hemoglobin solution may extend preservation times. The purpose of this study was to compare cardiac function after continuous perfusion by ...
Harada Y - - 2000
We investigated the roles of endothelium-derived vasodilative factors in rat hindquarter perfusion using a system for the direct measurement of nitric oxide (NO). Acetylcholine (ACh) induced the dose-dependent release of NO with a concomitant decrease in perfusion pressure. Under the influence of N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA), NO release in response to ACh ...
Fruhwald S - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: Catecholamines are frequently used in critically ill patients to restore stable hemodynamics and to improve organ perfusion. One effect of short-term or long-term administration of catecholamines may be inhibition of propulsive motility in the intestine. We therefore analyzed the effect of dopexamine, dobutamine, and dopamine on ileal peristalsis and ...
Margreiter J - - 2000
Neopterin is known in humans as a sensitive marker for diseases associated with increased activity of the cellular immune system. Recent studies report neopterin also to exhibit distinct effects: neopterin induces inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in rat vascular smooth muscle cells and activates translocation of nuclear factor- kappa B. ...
Szabó G - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Although hemodynamic instability and cardiac dysfunction after brain death are reported in the potential organ donor, the underlying mechanisms, for example, neurohumoral changes, myocardial injury, and altered loading conditions, have not been differentiated in clinical and experimental settings. In the present study, we performed a load-independent analysis of cardiac ...
Tanhehco E J - - 2000
Both free radicals and complement activation can injure tissue. Our study determined whether free radicals alter complement production by the myocardium. Isolated hearts from New Zealand White rabbits were perfused on a Langendorff apparatus and exposed to xanthine (X; 100 microM) plus xanthine oxidase (XO; 8 mU/ml) (X/XO). The free ...
Linakis J G - - 2000
To determine if lithium exerts direct cardiac toxicity, using an isolated, perfused rat heart model, paced and unpaced beating rat hearts were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate solution and left ventricular pressures were measured via a balloon-tipped catheter positioned in the left ventricle via the mitral valve. Following a stabilization period, ...
Keevil V L - - 2000
Changes in cardiac gap junction expression, such as those following myocardial infarction and produced in connexin knockout mice, are associated with a predisposition to arrhythmias. The present experiments investigated the effects of heptanol, a reversible gap junction inhibitor, on isolated Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts. The introduction and withdrawal of heptanol inhibited ...
Richter O - - 2000
Experimental perfusion of various organs has primarily been used in transplantation medicine to study the physiology, pathophysiology and metabolism of tissues and cells. The purpose of this study was to establish an experimental model for the extracorporeal perfusion of the human uterus with recirculation of a modified, oxygenated Krebs-Henselait solution, ...
Gerbino A J - - 2000
Endotoxin increases ventilation-to-perfusion ratio (VA/Q) heterogeneity in the lung, but the precise changes in alveolar ventilation (VA) and perfusion that lead to VA/Q heterogeneity are unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine how endotoxin affects the distributions of ventilation and perfusion and the impact of these changes on ...
Suchkova V N - - 2000
BACKGROUND: We have shown previously that 40-kHz ultrasound (US) at low intensity accelerates fibrinolysis in vitro with little heating and good tissue penetration. These studies have now been extended to examine the effects of 40-kHz US on thrombolysis and tissue perfusion in a rabbit model. METHODS AND RESULTS: Treatment was ...
Garlick P B - - 2000
NMR spectroscopy is an invaluable technique in metabolic investigations of isolated, perfused hearts. Most studies employ global perfusion methods together with an NMR coil that surrounds the heart and thus detects signals from its entirety. The present report describes the construction and testing of a novel, two surface-coil probe, in ...
Sjögren L S - - 2000
We recently discovered that patients with essential hypertension have a markedly impaired capacity for stimulated release of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) from vascular endothelium. This defect may reduce the chance of timely spontaneous thrombolysis in case of an atherothrombotic event. We now investigated whether increased intraluminal pressure as such may ...
Ehinger A M - - 2000
In vivo, tissue distribution of intra-mammarily administered antibiotics is mostly only assessed by sampling milk and blood. Therefore, the described study analysed whether measurement of tissue concentrations makes sense in vitro instead. Isolated bovine udders were perfused with gassed and warmed Tyrode solution. To four front and rear quarters each, ...
Nankervis C A - - 2000
Newborn intestine is uniquely prone to vasoconstriction in response to a wide variety of perturbations. To test the hypothesis that endothelin (ET)-1 is an important factor in this process, we determined the effects of exogenous ET-1 administration and blockade of endogenous ET-1 in vivo and in vitro in 3- and ...
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