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Results 351 - 400 of 968
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Steppan Jochen - - 2011
Aging leads to a multitude of changes in the cardiovascular system, including systolic hypertension, increased central vascular stiffness, and increased pulse pressure. In this paper we will review the effects of age-associated increased vascular stiffness on systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, augmentation index, and cardiac workload. Additionally we will describe ...
Kshatriya Shilpa - - 2011
Leptin is a 16-kDa-peptide hormone that is primarily synthesized and secreted by adipose tissue. One of the major actions of this hormone is the control of energy balance by binding to receptors in the hypothalamus, leading to reduction in food intake and elevation in temperature and energy expenditure. In addition, ...
Huang Lei - - 2011
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public health issue. The complexity of TBI has precluded the use of effective therapies. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) has been shown to be neuroprotective in multiple neurological disorders, but its efficacy in the management of TBI remains controversial. This review focuses on HBOT ...
Warnock James N - - 2011
The study aimed to identify mechanosensitive pathways and gene networks that are stimulated by elevated cyclic pressure in aortic valve interstitial cells (VICs) and lead to detrimental tissue remodeling and/or pathogenesis. Porcine aortic valve leaflets were exposed to cyclic pressures of 80 or 120 mmHg, corresponding to diastolic transvalvular pressure in ...
Michell Danielle L - - 2011
Essential hypertension is the leading risk factor for mortality worldwide, accountable for 13% of deaths globally. Despite numerous therapies available uncontrolled hypertension is still very prevalent today and a large subset are shown to have treatment resistant hypertension. Several cardiovascular diseases including hypertension result in endothelial dysfunction and inflammation. Once ...
Mahmoud Ramadan A - - 2011
Noninvasive ventilation is increasingly used in newborns, but intubation and mechanical ventilation remain important lifesaving tools for neonatal intensive care. New lung-protective mechanical ventilation technologies were developed in the last few decades and are now commercially available. Nevertheless, a recent survey (van Kaam et al. J Pediatr 2010) reported that ...
Schweda F - - 2011
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is critically involved in the regulation of the salt and volume status of the body and blood pressure. The activity of the RAS is controlled by the protease renin, which is released from the renal juxtaglomerular epithelioid cells into the circulation. Renin release is regulated in ...
van Kaam Anton - - 2011
Ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) is considered an important risk factor in the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and is primarily caused by overdistension (volutrauma) and repetitive opening and collapse (atelectrauma) of terminal lung units. Lung-protective ventilation should therefore aim to reduce tidal volumes, and recruit and stabilize atelectatic lung units ...
Shah Rajiv - - 2011
Glaucoma is characterised by progressive optic neuropathy and peripheral visual field loss. It affects 1% to 2% of white people aged over 40 years and accounts for 8% of new blind registrations in the UK. The main risk factor for glaucoma is raised intraocular pressure, but 40% of people with ...
Papademetriou Vasilios - - 2011
Interventional activation of the carotid baroreflex has been an appealing idea for the management of resistant hypertension for several decades, yet its clinical application remained elusive and a goal for the future. It is only recently that the profound understanding of the complex anatomy and pathophysiology of the circuit, combined ...
Coffman Thomas M - - 2011
High blood pressure, or hypertension, is a very common disorder with a substantial impact on public health because of its associated complications. Despite the high prevalence of essential hypertension and years of research, the basic causes remain obscure. Here I review recent advances in understanding the pathophysiology of hypertension. I ...
Tabassum Nahida - - 2011
Hypertension (HTN) is the medical term for high blood pressure. It is dangerous because it makes the heart work too hard and contributes to atherosclerosis (hardening of arteries), besides increasing the risk of heart disease and stroke. HTN can also lead to other conditions such as congestive heart failure, kidney ...
Forni Valentina - - 2011
In this review, we discuss the pharmacological and clinical properties of irbesartan, a noncompetitive angiotensin II receptor type 1 antagonist, successfully used for more than a decade in the treatment of essential hypertension. Irbesartan exerts its antihypertensive effect through an inhibitory effect on the pressure response to angiotensin II. Irbesartan ...
Palatini Paolo - - 2011
This review summarizes several scientific contributions at the recent Satellite Symposium of the European Society of Hypertension, held in Milan, Italy. Arterial stiffening and its hemodynamic consequences can be easily and reliably measured using a range of noninvasive techniques. However, like blood pressure (BP) measurements, arterial stiffness should be measured ...
Hammami Sonia - - 2011
Hypertension is a cardiovascular disorder rapidly emerging as a major public health problem in developing countries. However, the acknowledgement of the prevalence and the significant impact of hypertension in elderly are very important for health policy. The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate the prevalence, awareness and treatment ...
Xin Xiaorong - - 2011
Meningothelial cells (MECs) are the cellular components of the meninges enveloping the brain. Although MECs are not fully understood, several functions of these cells have been described. The presence of desmosomes and tight junctions between MECs hints towards a barrier function protecting the brain. In addition, MECs perform endocytosis and, ...
Fenger Mogens - - 2011
Several attempts to decipher the genetics of hypertension of unknown causes have been made including large-scale genome-wide association analysis (GWA), but only a few genes have been identified. Unsolved heterogeneity of the regulation of blood pressure and the shortcomings of the prevailing monogenic approach to capture genetic effects in a ...
Atkinson Jeffrey - - 2011
This review considers whether a case can be made for a protective effect of inhibitors and blockers of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) on the cerebral circulation. It first looks at whether there exists a preferential effect on the cerebral circulation during a drug-induced lowering of high arterial blood pressure and ...
Schipke Kimberly J - - 2011
The aortic valve, located between the left ventricle and the aorta, allows for unidirectional blood flow, preventing backflow into the ventricle. Aortic valve leaflets are composed of interstitial cells suspended within an extracellular matrix (ECM) and are lined with an endothelial cell monolayer. The valve withstands a harsh, dynamic environment ...
Ellison David H DH Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA. - - 2011
The distal convoluted tubule (DCT) plays a central role in blood pressure and potassium homeostasis, as evidenced by diseases that occur when its function is modified. The paper by van der Lubbe and colleagues makes clear that angiotensin II itself increases the activity and abundance of the thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl cotransporter ...
McGinnis Elizabeth E Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, c/o 2nd Floor Stable Block, Old Trust HQ, Leeds General Infirmary, Great George St, Leeds, UK, LS1 - - 2011
Pressure ulcers are areas of localised damage to the skin and underlying tissue caused by pressure or shear. Pressure redistribution devices are used as part of the treatment to reduce the pressure on the ulcer. The anatomy of the heel and the susceptibility of the foot to vascular disease mean ...
Harrington John P JP Department of Chemistry, State University of New York, New Paltz, NY 12561, USA. - - 2011
OxyVita Hb is a new generation hemoglobin based oxygen carrier (HBOC) produced through modification of a zero-linked polymerization mechanism using activators which incorporate cross-linked bovine tetramer hemoglobin into "super-polymeric" macromolecules (Average molecular weight = 17 MDa) for the purpose of oxygen delivery when whole blood or packed red cells are ...
Cymberknop Leandro L Electronic Department, Buenos Aires Regional Faculty, National Technological University, Medrano 951, C1179AAQ Buenos Aires, Argentina. - - 2011
Gender-related difference in cardiovascular diseases is one of the most investigated and still unsolved issues. Finding an explanation to this topic might have important implications for the understanding of the differences between men and women in diseases and possibly lead to the development of gender-specific strategies for its management. Recent ...
Hosokawa Kazuya K Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Kyushu University Graduate School of MedicalSciences, 8128582 Higashi-ku, Maidashi 3-1-1, Fukuoka, Japan. - - 2011
The arterial baroreflex stabilizes arterial pressure by modulating the mechanical properties of cardiovascular system. We previously demonstrated that the baroreflex impairment makes the circulatory system extremely sensitive to volume overload and predisposes to pulmonary edema irrespective of left ventricular systolic function. To overcome the volume intolerance, we developed an artificial ...
Wang Yu Y Department of Bioengineering , University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA. - - 2011
This paper proposes an adaptive neuro-fuzzy model to study the pathophysiology of essential hypertension. Using diverse inputs such as risk factors, physical relations and medical interventions, and states that include both transient and resting states for key physiological variables (blood pressure, total peripheral resistance), it can roughly predict both real-time ...
Leuenberger Kaspar K Rehabilitation Engineering Lab, ETH Zurich, Switzerland. - - 2011
Wearable sensor modules are a promising approach to collecting data on functional motor activities, both for repeated and long-term assessments, as well as to investigate the transfer of therapy to activities of daily living at home, but have so far either had limited sensing capabilities, or were not laid out ...
Bia Daniel D Physiology Department, School of Medicine, Centro Universitario de Investigación, Innovación y Diagnóstico Arterial, Republic University, General Flores 2125, Montevideo, Uruguay. - - 2011
Study of humans aging has presented difficulties in separating the aging process from concomitant disease and/or in defining normality and abnormality during its development. In accordance with this, aging associates structural and functional changes evidenced in variations in vascular parameters witch suffer alterations during atherosclerosis and have been proposed as ...
Koeppen Michael M Department of Anesthesiology, University of Colorado, - - 2011
Murine models are extensively used to investigate acute injuries of different organs systems. Acute lung injury (ALI), which occurs with prolonged mechanical ventilation, contributes to morbidity and mortality of critical illness, and studies on novel genetic or pharmacological targets are areas of intense investigation. ALI is defined by the acute ...
Nantel Pierre - - 2010
Dysregulation of the renin-angiotensin system is implicated in many cardiovascular and renal pathologies. Discovery of the renin-angiotensin system represents a major advance in the understanding of hypertension and cardiovascular disease, leading to the development of the anti-angiotensin medications: angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers and direct renin inhibitors. Clinical trials ...
Jorge Jorge - - 2010
The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the position (upright vs. supine) in the intraocular pressure (IOP) measured with a non-contact portable tonometer. Fifty university students with a mean age of 22.3±4.2 years (mean±SD) were recruited to participate in this study. IOP was measured with the ...
Lan Chou-Chin - - 2010
Positional changes are thought to affect hemodynamics, respiratory mechanics, and gas exchange after pneumonectomy. The objective of this study was to compare hemodynamic and respiratory parameters and gas exchange in different positions before and after pneumonectomy. Twenty pigs were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated. Seven received right-side pneumonectomy, seven received left-side ...
Gomez Max A - - 2010
Over the past year, Toyota has come under harsh scrutiny as a result of several recalls. These well publicized mishaps have not only done damage to Toyota's otherwise sterling reputation for quality but have also called into question the assertions from a phalanx of followers that Toyota's production system (generically ...
Takada Jun-Ichi - - 2011
Although it has been suggested that an imbalance in buccolingual pressure may play a role in dental compensation of the molars and asymmetry in the mandibular dental arch in subjects with facial asymmetry, it is still unclear whether buccolingual pressure is associated with this phenomenon. Thus, the purpose of this ...
Moon Jee Y - - 2010
BACKGROUND: The hanging drop technique is used for identifying the cervical epidural space, using its negative pressure. However, it is doubtful whether the epidural space intrinsically exhibits a negative pressure. We designed this study to test the hypothesis that the cervical epidural pressure (CEP) is significantly higher in the prone ...
Jeon Young-Tae - - 2010
BACKGROUND: We investigated whether preoperative positional arterial blood pressure change predicted hypotension and ephedrine requirement during spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery. METHODS: Arterial blood pressure was measured in 66 women undergoing cesarean delivery in the supine and the right lateral positions. Positional blood pressure change was defined as the difference ...
Hughes Samantha Jane - - 2010
Bioindicators are essential for detecting environmental degradation and for assessing the success of river restoration initiatives. River restoration projects require the identification of environmental and pressure gradients that affect the river system under study and the selection of suitable indicators to assess habitat quality before, during and after restoration. We ...
Martell María - - 2010
In liver cirrhosis, the circulatory hemodynamic alterations of portal hypertension significantly contribute to many of the clinical manifestations of the disease. In the physiopathology of this vascular alteration, mesenteric splanchnic vasodilation plays an essential role by initiating the hemodynamic process. Numerous studies performed in cirrhotic patients and animal models have ...
Guillas Serge - - 2010
We present statistical evidence for a temporal link between variations in the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the occurrence of earthquakes on the East Pacific Rise (EPR). We adopt a zero-inflated Poisson regression model to represent the relationship between the number of earthquakes in the Easter microplate on the EPR ...
Mekis Dusan - - 2010
INTRODUCTION: The cardiovascular response to decreased or increased preload in high-risk patients with ischemic heart disease enables us to understand the physiologic response to hemorrhage and its treatment. Although numerous studies have failed to show its effectiveness, the head-down position is still widely used to treat patients with hypotension and ...
George Thomas - - 2010
Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) particularly in hypertensive patients is a strong predictor of adverse cardiovascular events. Identifying LVH not only helps in the prognostication but also in the choice of therapeutic drugs. The prevalence of LVH is age linked and has a direct correlation to the severity of hypertension. Adequate ...
Fougères Emilie - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: The hemodynamic impact of positive end-expiratory pressure in acute respiratory distress syndrome and the underlying mechanisms have not been extensively investigated during low stretch ventilation. Our aim was to evaluate the hemodynamic effect of increasing positive end-expiratory pressure when tidal volume and the plateau pressure are limited and to ...
Li Jin - - 2010
Photoplethysmography (PPG) is an optical method for detecting blood volume changes in tissue. Respiratory-induced intensity, frequency and amplitude variations are contained in the PPG signal; thus, an understanding of the relationships between all of these variations and respiration is essential to advancing respiration monitoring based on PPG. This study investigated ...
Corno Antonio F - - 2010
Fontan connection with intermittent compression by wrapped latissimus dorsi (LD) was tested in vivo, in vitro and by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Experimental study: LD was conditioned in four pigs for three weeks before Fontan connection by valved conduit wrapped with LD. Mock circuit: Inflatable cuff wrapped around ...
Ros-Mar Ricardo - - 2011
This study examines, for the first time, the differences of interface pressure in different positions on a standard hospital bed and a double-regression hospital bed. For both beds, the interface pressure was recorded in four supine positions and three lateral positions in 49 healthy volunteers (30 men and 19 women). ...
Cheriyan Joseph - - 2010
Hypertension (persistent diastolic blood pressure of 90 mm Hg or greater and systolic blood pressure 140 mm Hg or greater) affects 20% of the world's adult population, and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, end-stage renal disease, and retinopathy. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical ...
Tanaka Yoshitaka - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Thoracic outlet syndrome is thought to be caused by compression of the brachial plexus or subclavian artery in the interscalene, costoclavicular, or subcoracoid space. Some provocative tests are widely used for diagnosing thoracic outlet syndrome. However, whether provocative positions actually compress the neurovascular bundle in these spaces remains unclear. ...
Burnier Michel - - 2010
A majority of hypertensive patients need more than one antihypertensive drug to control their blood pressure. For this reason, most guidelines have introduced the possibility of prescribing fixed-dose combination therapies as first-line treatment in hypertension. Today, the concept of fixed-dose combinations has evolved and the term single pill combination might ...
Rashid Haroon-Ur - - 2010
Hypertension (HTN) is an important factor in progressive loss of renal function. The kidney can be both a contributor to and a target of HTN. The functional integrity of the kidney is vital for the maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis. Chronic activation of the renin system causes HTN and, ultimately, end-organ ...
Machado Calixto - - 2010
Brain death (BD) should be understood as the ultimate clinical expression of a brain catastrophe characterized by a complete and irreversible neurological stoppage, recognized by irreversible coma, absent brainstem reflexes, and apnea. The most common pattern is manifested by an elevation of intracranial pressure to a point beyond the mean ...
Urban Frantisek - - 2010
This paper describes steps involved in the design and realization of a new type of pressure sensor based on the optical fiber Bragg grating. A traditional pressure sensor has very limited usage in heavy industrial environments, particularly in explosive or electromagnetically noisy environments. Utilization of optics in these environments eliminates ...
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