Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 971
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Rao Ganne S Umamaheswara - - 2011
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cerebral ischemia forms the pathophysiological basis of several acute neurological conditions. Successful management of these conditions depends on early and accurate identification of ischemia and prompt treatment. Several techniques of assessing ischemia have evolved over decades. But their importance in the management of neurological patients remains ambiguous. ...
Noro Kageyu - - 2011
This paper describes the application of an alternative seating concept for surgeons that reflects the research of Zen sitting postures, which require Zazen meditators to maintain fixed postures for long durations. The aim of this alternative approach is to provide sitters with a seat pan with sacral support(1) that provides ...
Khaliullin Rustam Z - - 2011
Graphite and diamond have comparable free energies, yet forming diamond from graphite in the absence of a catalyst requires pressures that are significantly higher than those at equilibrium coexistence. At lower temperatures, the formation of the metastable hexagonal polymorph of diamond is favoured instead of the more stable cubic diamond. ...
Chandar Jayanthi - - 2011
Hypertensive crisis is rare in children and is usually secondary to an underlying disease. There is strong evidence that the renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in the genesis of hypertensive crisis. An important principle in the management of children with hypertensive crisis is to determine if severe hypertension is ...
Morganti Alberto - - 2011
The idea of blocking the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) with the inhibition of the enzymatic activity of renin has been pursued for half a century, but it became a reality only recently, with the synthesis of aliskiren, the first direct renin inhibitor available for clinical use. The upstream blockade of the ...
Moore Zena - - 2011
Aims and objectives.  The aim of this study was to establish pressure ulcer prevalence and prevention in the long-term care setting. Background.  There is no information on pressure ulcers prevalence in care of the older person in Ireland; therefore, a prevalence study was undertaken to investigate key aspects related to ...
Fisher J P JP School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, College of Life & Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK. - - 2012
A neurogenic component to primary hypertension (hypertension) is now well established. Along with raised vasomotor tone and increased cardiac output, the chronic activation of the sympathetic nervous system in hypertension has a diverse range of pathophysiological consequences independent of any increase in blood pressure. This review provides a perspective on ...
Taylor Rod S - - 2011
Although meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of salt reduction report a reduction in the level of blood pressure (BP), the effect of reduced dietary salt on cardiovascular disease (CVD) events remains unclear. We searched for RCTs with follow-up of at least 6 months that compared dietary salt reduction (restricted ...
Beda Alessandro - - 2011
Abstract The vast majority of the available literature regarding cardiovascular oscillations refers to spontaneously breathing subjects. Only a few studies investigated cardiovascular oscillations, and especially respiration-related ones (RCVO), during intermittent positive pressure mechanical ventilation (IPPV) under anaesthesia. Only a handful considered assisted IPPV, in which spontaneous breathing activity is supported, ...
Bains Jujhar - - 2011
This review focuses on the role of the fixed-dose combination (FDC) drug valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) in the treatment of hypertension. Effective blood pressure control often is not achieved with monotherapy and, instead, requires combinations of drugs with different mechanisms of action to produce additive or synergistic effects. FDC valsartan/HCTZ enhances not ...
Rahmouni Kamal K Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, - - 2011
Obesity and hypertension are strongly associated, and neural dysfunction has been implicated in both. The hypothalamus integrates signals regulating blood pressure and energy homeostasis. A recent paper in Nature Medicine (Purkayastha et al., 2011) suggests that obesity and hypertension are caused by inflammation in distinct hypothalamic neuronal populations.
Ravenni Roberta - - 2011
Hypertension (HT) is considered the main classic vascular risk factor for stroke and the importance of lowering blood pressure (BP) is well established. However, not all the benefit of antihypertensive treatment is due to BP reduction per se, as the effect of reducing the risk of stroke differs among classes ...
Rabi Doreen M - - 2011
We updated the evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis, assessment, prevention, and treatment of hypertension in adults for 2011. The major guideline changes this year are: (1) a recommendation was made for using comparative risk analogies when communicating a patient's cardiovascular risk; (2) diagnostic testing issues for renal artery stenosis were ...
Grände Per-Olof - - 2011
Two different main concepts for the treatment of severe traumatic brain injury have been established during the last 15 years, namely the more conventional concept recommended in well-established guidelines (eg, the US Guideline, European Guideline, Addelbrook's Guideline from Cambridge) on the one hand, and the Lund concept from the University ...
Marshall Debra - - 2011
This study assesses the impact of a year long lifestyle intervention program on carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) in 60 subjects, at-risk for or with coronary artery disease. We calculated mean CIMT at baseline (0.731 +/- 0.151 mm) and 1 year (0.720 +/- 0.129 mm), overall CIMT change and the ...
Bruno Rosa Maria - - 2011
Physical exercise is known to lower blood pressure and reduce cardiovascular risk through a wide range of mechanisms. Nevertheless, hypertension is the most prevalent cardiovascular disease among athletes and physically active subjects. This article reviews the state of the art in practical approaches to this issue, focusing on special aspects ...
Banerjee Ashis - - 2011
Postural changes in blood pressure are a commonly elicited vital sign. It is important that the measurements are reproducible in order to be clinically meaningful. This article makes recommendations about how and what to document as part of the technique of recording, on the basis of the literature.
Young Colin N - - 2011
A growing body of evidence indicates that a number of common complex diseases, including hypertension, heart failure, and obesity, are characterized by alterations in central neurocardiovascular regulation. However, our understanding of how changes within the central nervous system contribute to the development and progression of these and other diseases remains ...
Spieth P M - - 2011
BACKGROUND: /st> Setting and strategies of mechanical ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in acute lung injury (ALI) remains controversial. This study compares the effects between lung-protective mechanical ventilation according to the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network recommendations (ARDSnet) and the open lung approach (OLA) on pulmonary function and inflammatory ...
Kurtz Armin - - 2011
The kidneys are centrally involved in the regulation of blood pressure. Kidney function requires the coordinated actions of a number of different vascular and tubular cell types in the renal vasculature and in the renal tubular system. The intrarenal coordination of these actions is not well understood. Since gap junctions ...
Purkayastha Sudarshana S Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, New York, - - 2011
Obesity-related hypertension has become an epidemic health problem and a major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Recent research on the pathophysiology of obesity has implicated a role for the hypothalamus in the pathogenesis of this condition. However, it remains unknown whether the often-seen coupling of hypertension ...
Billecke S S - - 2011
The challenge of managing hypertension is exemplified by the limited success of monotherapy and necessity for multiple drug regimens targeting complimentary pathways. Recent evidence suggests that combination therapy including angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and calcium channel blockers (CCBs) provides blood pressure control while reducing cardiovascular mortality and morbidity over ACE ...
Fearn Cindy L - - 2011
This pilot study assessed knowledge of blood pressure among employees in a midwestern manufacturing plant. The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7) guidelines were used to define blood pressure categories. The Roy Adaptation Model served as the ...
Handler Joel - - 2011
Compared with the history of national guideline development, the science attached to implementation of guidelines is relatively new. Effectiveness of a highly evidence-based guideline, such as the 8th Joint National Committee recommendations on the treatment of high blood pressure, depends on successful translation into clinical practice. Implementation relies on several ...
Peinemann Frank - - 2011
In negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT), a wound is covered with an airtight dressing, and negative pressure is applied. This is thought to promote healing. We evaluated NPWT with an updated, systematic review of the literature. We systematically searched the PubMed and Cochrane Library databases for randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) of ...
Jelin Eric B EB Surgery, Division of Pediatric Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, - - 2011
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is associated with significant neonatal morbidity and mortality. Although prenatal complete tracheal occlusion (cTO) causes hypoplastic CDH lungs to enlarge, improved lung function has not been demonstrated. Furthermore, cTO interferes with the dynamic pressure change and fluid flow associated with fetal breathing. The purpose of the ...
Vaishampayan Ashwini A Division of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, - - 2011
The objectives of the study were to sensitize practitioners working with individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) to the complex life circumstances that are implicated in the development of pressure ulcers (PrUs) and to document the ways that interventions can be adapted to target individual needs. This study was a ...
Sukor Norlela - - 2011
Hypertension is a very common disease, leading to significant morbidity with reduction in quality of life. In addition to being a major cause of morbidity and mortality, hypertension places a heavy burden on health care systems, families, and society as a whole. In patients with hypertension, the ability to identify ...
Pintérová M - - 2011
Essential hypertension is a multifactorial disorder which belongs to the main risk factors responsible for renal and cardiovascular complications. This review is focused on the experimental research of neural and vascular mechanisms involved in the high blood pressure control. The attention is paid to the abnormalities in the regulation of ...
Axelsson Michael - - 2011
In 1960, C.G. Wilber in a laboratory-based study described for the first time the changes in heart rate with submergence in the American alligator noting in particular the marked bradycardia that occurred during forced dives. This short review summarizes the major advances in our understanding of diving and the responses ...
Balmert Stephen C - - 2011
For the development and implementation of primary human cell- and stem cell-based applications in regenerative medicine, large amounts of cells with well-defined characteristics are needed. Such cell quantities can be obtained with the use of hollow fiber-based bioreactors. While the use of such bioreactors generally requires a perfusion circuit, the ...
Heeringa Rhea - - 2011
AIMS: To describe the bladder sensations experienced during non-invasive rapid bladder filling in a controlled setting in healthy volunteers. METHODS: Three groups of healthy volunteers, total 11 subjects (4 men, 7 women), participated in three consecutive focus group sessions. Before each session a strict water loading protocol was given. The ...
Li Zong-Ming ZM Departments of Biomedical Engineering, Orthopaedic Surgery, and Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue, ND20, 44195 Cleveland, Ohio, USA. - - 2011
Carpal tunnel mechanics is relevant to our understanding of median nerve compression in the tunnel. The compliant characteristics of the tunnel strongly influence its mechanical environment. We investigated the distensibility of the carpal tunnel in response to tunnel pressure. A custom balloon device was designed to apply controlled pressure. Tunnel ...
Sit Arthur J - - 2011
Episcleral venous pressure (EVP) is an important determinant of intraocular pressure (IOP) and can be measured by using various techniques. It has been measured non-invasively by estimating the pressure required to compress an episcleral vein to a predetermined endpoint. However, the lack of objective endpoints makes EVP measurement in humans ...
Chen Yun-Yun - - 2011
This research proposes an issue that has previously been omitted in flow field temperature reconstruction by optical computerized tomography (OCT). To prove that it is not reasonable to always assume an isobaric process occurs when OCT is adopted to obtain the temperature distributions of flow fields, a propane-air flame and ...
Wang Jing - - 2011
To examine whether there were long-term (between 1988-1994 and 2001-2008) and recent (between 2001-2004 and 2005-2008) changes in blood pressure (BP) levels among U.S. adults with diagnosed diabetes. Using data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), we examined changes in BP distributions, mean BPs, and proportion with BP<140/90 ...
McMahon Malcolm I - - 2011
The ability of pressure to change inter-atomic distances strongly leads to a wide range of pressure-induced phenomena at high pressures: for example metallisation, amorphisation, superconductivity and polymerisation. Key to understanding these phenomena is the determination of the crystal structure using x-ray or neutron diffraction. The tools necessary to compress matter ...
Gor Gennady Yu - - 2011
We present a theoretical study of the deformation of mesoporous solids during adsorption. The proposed thermodynamic model allows one to link the mechanical stress and strain to the solvation pressure exerted by the adsorbed molecules on the pore wall. Two approaches are employed for calculation of solvation pressure as a ...
Seekins Megan B - - 2011
Objective - To review the use of impedance threshold devices (ITD) during CPCR, their proposed mechanism of action, and their application in veterinary medicine. Data Sources - Data sources include scientific reviews and original research publications using the PubMed search engine with the following keywords: 'impedance threshold device' and 'resuscitation' ...
Corrêa Ana Paula - - 2011
This study aimed to investigate the impact of seven environmental stressors (role conflict, work overload, interpersonal difficulties, work-family conflict, work instability, lack of autonomy and pressure of responsibility) and the nature of the employment contract (permanent or atypical) on three psychological reactions to occupational stress (job satisfaction, positive emotions, and ...
Ogunyankin Kofo O - - 2011
Abnormal diastolic function portends a poor prognosis regardless of any associated systolic dysfunction. There is controversy regarding the precision with which diagnosis of diastolic dysfunction can be made non-invasively. Clinical studies show that non-invasive evaluation of the severity of diastolic function predicts the risk of cardiac death and heart failure ...
Helton Kristen L - - 2011
This article is the second part of a two-part review in which we explore the biomechanics of the sensor-tissue interface as an important aspect of continuous glucose sensor biocompatibility. Part I, featured in this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, describes a theoretical framework of how biomechanical factors ...
Mecoli Christopher A - - 2011
Symptomatic dermatographism reflects an exaggerated cutaneous response to the physical stimulus of pressure. Some consider it a common type of childhood physical urticaria. Its etiology can vary widely from drug reactions and infectious agents to systemic diseases and genetic inheritance. The mechanism is thought to be related to histamine degranulation ...
Gurley Susan B SB Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Duke University and Durham, VA Medical Centers, Durham, NC 27710, - - 2011
Hypertension affects more than 1.5 billion people worldwide but the precise cause of elevated blood pressure (BP) cannot be determined in most affected individuals. Nonetheless, blockade of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) lowers BP in the majority of patients with hypertension. Despite its apparent role in hypertension pathogenesis, the key cellular ...
Boulogne F - - 2011
We simulate quasistatic flows of an ideal two-dimensional monodisperse foam around different obstacles, both symmetric and asymmetric, in a channel. We record both pressure and network contributions to the drag and lift forces and study them as a function of obstacle geometry. We show that the drag force increases linearly ...
Giday Araya - - 2011
Hypertension is an important public health challenge in both economically developed and developing countries. To asses the magnitude of hypertension in rural and urban southern Ethiopia. A cross sectional survey was conducted on 979 study participants in Sidama Zone, South Ethiopia from November 1-30, 2008. Data were collected using a ...
Nelson Mark - - 2011
Should you be using that new blood pressure device on your desk - or is it still in its box? Feedback from focus group sessions suggested that general practitioners were suspicious of the oscillometric blood pressure devices distributed by the High Blood Pressure Research Council of Australia (HBPRCA) as they ...
Parshad O - - 2011
Yoga improves cardiovascular health in both healthy individuals and those with diagnosed heart disease. This study compares changes in some cardiovascular parameters before and after the practice of Yoga in healthy medical students. Sixty-four healthy medical students (57 females and 7 males), mean age 21.3 +/- 2.6 years, attending a ...
He Zheng - - 2011
Although intraocular pressure (IOP) remains an important risk factor for glaucoma, it is clear that other factors can also influence disease development and progression. More recently, the role that blood pressure (BP) has in the genesis of glaucoma has attracted attention, as it represents a clinically modifiable risk factor and ...
Wood Benjamin C - - 2011
Subatmospheric pressure (SAP) therapy has evolved as a mainstay in the treatment of acute and chronic wounds over the past 20 years. The significant improvement in wound healing upon application of a SAP therapy system such as the Vacuum Assisted Closure (V.A.C.; KCI, San Antonio, TX) device, historically has been ...
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