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Results 251 - 300 of 964
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Schroer Martin A - - 2011
Marine organisms have evolved a surprising mechanism to counteract the deleterious effects of urea by trimethylammonium N-oxide (TMAO). The effect of pressure on the structure and intermolecular interactions of lysozyme in urea and TMAO solutions was studied. These findings help to understand the compensatory effect of urea-TMAO mixtures in deep-sea ...
Altman Alon D - - 2011
Vacuum assisted closure and negative pressure (NP) dressings are innovative forms of wound management used in multiple fields of medicine, including surgery. We review here the current literature in this area relevant for the gynaecologist. Negative pressure dressings increase blood flow to the wound, decrease bacterial counts, decrease tension on ...
Grände Per-Olof - - 2011
Two different main concepts for the treatment of a severe traumatic brain injury have been established during the last 15 years, namely the more conventional concept recommended in well-established guidelines (eg, U.S. Guideline, European Guideline, Addelbrook's Guideline from Cambridge), on the one hand, and the Lund concept from the University ...
Chewter Michelle - - 2011
I am an operating department practitioner (ODP) who routinely applies cricoid pressure under the direction of an anaesthetist in order to prevent gastric aspiration. This article examines the current use of cricoid pressure in anaesthetics.
Sharma Deepak - - 2011
The "Lund concept" involving a "volume-targeted" strategy for intracranial pressure control originated in the University of Lund, Sweden, more than 20 years ago and has remained controversial ever since. It is based on the premise that the blood-brain barrier is disrupted after traumatic brain injury and cerebral autoregulation is impaired; ...
Shadle Christine H - - 2011
The relationship between the physiological parameters and the acoustic output of the voice source is complex, and even more so when voiced obstruents are considered. Standard models assume that the subglottal pressure is divided across the glottis and the supraglottal constriction, which explains both the weaker noise source of voiced ...
Hamilton A R - - 2012
An emerging strategy for creating self-healing materials relies on embedded vascular networks of microchannels to transport reactive fluids to regions of damage. Here we investigate the use of active pumping for the pressurized delivery of a two-part healing system, allowing a small vascular system to deliver large volumes of healing ...
Perlmuter Lawrence C - - 2011
AIMS: This paper will review literature that examines the psychological and neuropsychological correlates of orthostatic blood pressure regulation. RESULTS: The pattern of change in systolic blood pressure in response to the shift from supine to upright posture reflects the adequacy of orthostatic regulation. Orthostatic integrity involves the skeletal muscle pump, ...
West John B - - 2011
Abstract2011 marks the 100th anniversary of one of the most important early research expeditions to high altitude. The principal participants were J.S. Haldane and C.G. Douglas from Oxford, Y. Henderson from Yale, and E.C. Schneider from Colorado College. Pikes Peak just outside Colorado Springs proved to be an excellent venue ...
Mazza Alberto - - 2012
Arterial hypertension (HT) is age dependent and, with the prolongation of life expectancy, affects more and more elderly people. In the elderly, HT is a risk factor for organ damage and cardiovascular (CV) events. Both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic reduction of blood pressure (BP) is associated with a corresponding decrease in ...
Wongviriyawong C - - 2012
Heterogeneity in narrowing among individual airways is an important contributor to airway hyperresponsiveness. This paper investigates the contribution of longitudinal heterogeneity (the variability along the airway in cross-sectional area and shape) to airway resistance (R(aw)). We analyzed chest high-resolution computed tomography scans of 8 asthmatic (AS) and 9 nonasthmatic (NA) ...
Jacobsen Jens Christian Brings - - 2011
Micro-vessels live "a life under pressure" in several ways. In a literal sense, vessels of the microcirculation are exposed to high levels of stress caused primarily by the intravascular pressure head. In a figurative sense, the individual vessel and the microvascular network as a whole must continuously strive to meet ...
Nakano Daisuke - - 2011
Hypertension is a major risk factor of cardiovascular events. Although the scientific understanding of hypertension and therapeutic tools for its treatment have dramatically progressed since the middle of the 20(th) century, we have not fully understood the disease and it is difficult to halt the clinical course of disease in ...
- - 2011
Blood pressure is a heritable trait influenced by several biological pathways and responsive to environmental stimuli. Over one billion people worldwide have hypertension (≥140 mm Hg systolic blood pressure or  ≥90 mm Hg diastolic blood pressure). Even small increments in blood pressure are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. This genome-wide association ...
Ferrante T - - 2011
Cough headache may be the clinical manifestation, sometimes isolated, of an intracranial disease. There are several possible causes of secondary cough headache. The hypothesis that cough headache may be the expression of spontaneous intracranial hypotension has been advanced only recently. In fact, this would represent an exception to the rule ...
Davis Michael J - - 2011
The vascular myogenic response is an inherent property of vascular smooth muscle in the walls of small arteries and arterioles, allowing these principle resistance segments of the microcirculation to respond to changes in transmural pressure. Elevated intraluminal pressure leads to myogenic constriction, whereas reduced pressure leads to myogenic dilation. This ...
Khan Bobby V - - 2011
Biomarkers are being increasingly used in the study of cardiovascular disease because they provide readily quantifiable surrogate endpoints and allow accurate assessment of the effects of therapy on particular pathological processes. However, in order to be useful, biomarkers must be relevant, predictable, accurate, and reproducible. There is compelling evidence from ...
Kurukulasuriya L Romayne - - 2011
Hypertension and obesity are major components of the cardiometabolic syndrome and are both on the rise worldwide, with enormous consequences to global health and the economy. The relationship between hypertension and obesity is multifaceted; the etiology is complex and it is not well elucidated. This article reviews the current knowledge on ...
Turjanica Mary Ann - - 2011
Skin prevalence audits revealed annual increases in incidence of pressure ulcers of the ear. A research study was conducted to assess correlates of the problem. Study results guided clinical practice changes that reduced the incidence to zero.
Parnham A - - 2011
This paper discusses the developmental process, outcome and delivery of an innovative approach to standardising tissue viability documentation across two sites within Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, following the results of benchmarking pressure ulcer preventive care strategies and recommendations from pressure ulcer root cause analysis. It reflects upon the process, ...
Greene Jan - - 2011
Delivery system transformation brings a new urgency to the strategic planning process. Trustees will need to make quicker decisions and embrace far shorter timelines.
Izzo Joseph L JL - - 2011
Antihypertensive medications are used to lower blood pressure (BP) but, ultimately, their true value lies in reductions in morbidity and mortality (cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and renal diseases). Hypertension is defined discreetly (generally 140/90 mmHg) but the actual relationship between BP and adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular outcomes is continuous. Observational studies have ...
Stephen-Haynes Jackie - - 2011
This article identifies the increasing importance of pressure ulceration in health care in the UK and the important role of pressure, shear, friction and moisture. The categoriZation of pressure ulcers is highlighted including images as categorised by the EPUAP (2009). The impact of pressure ulcers on quality of life is ...
Yang Yuan-Han - - 2011
Relationship between late-life hypertension and Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains less clear. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal methods were used to examine whether systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), pulse pressure (PP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and self-reported hypertension (S-HTN) in late life were associated with having and developing AD. ...
Knash Michael E - - 2011
This article describes a single case of migraine headaches misdiagnosed as idiopathic intracranial hypertension in a young woman. The implications of such a diagnosis are discussed. Literature regarding normal intracranial pressure is reviewed.
May Christian Albrecht - - 2012
Since the pathomechanisms of primary open angle glaucoma are still not defined, different aspects related to this topic have to be discussed and further investigated. Possible candidates are the mineralocorticoids, which are known to lower intraocular pressure. A data search and personal investigations assume a limited role of mineralocorticoids for ...
Flynn Joseph T - - 2011
There has been increasing emphasis on hypertension and early cardiovascular disease in the pediatric age group over the past decade as a result of various factors, including the obesity epidemic and publication of new clinical guidelines. A key component of identifying children and adolescents with definite or potential hypertension is ...
Armani C - - 2011
Hypertension is a complex, multifactorial disease; genetic factors represent one third to half of the inter-individual variability of blood pressure values. Among the causes of secondary hypertension are a group of disorders with a Mendelian inheritance pattern. Recent advances in molecular biology have revealed the pathogenesis of hypertension in many ...
Toorop R J - - 2011
Treatment of hypertension is challenging. Despite current optimal pharmacological treatment, blood pressure control remains disappointingly unsatisfactory in many patients. As hypertension accounts for substantial morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease, it is crucial to explore non-pharmacological blood pressure-lowering strategies. In the complex pathophysiology of high blood pressure, the autonomic nerve ...
Birke-Sorensen H - - 2011
Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is becoming a commonplace treatment in many clinical settings. New devices and dressings are being introduced. Despite widespread adoption, there remains uncertainty regarding several aspects of NPWT use. To respond to these gaps, a global expert panel was convened to develop evidence-based recommendations describing the ...
Bell Cynthia S - - 2011
The American Heart Association has included alternate ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) limits for children published by Wühl in 2002. These updated limits employ the same pediatric cohort data as the previous ABP limits published by Soergel in 1997 but differ in analysis technique. The implications of changing ABP limit source ...
Pirodda Antonio - - 2011
Despite the lack of clear evidence for their effectiveness in treating vertigo, tinnitus, hearing loss and aural fullness, diuretics, represent a common treatment for Meniere disease (MD), as they are supposed to decrease volume and pressure in the endolymphatic partition of the labyrinth. Our group have outlined the possibility of ...
Plexico Laura W - - 2011
PURPOSE: To describe the origins of the task elicitation procedure for determining phonation threshold pressure (PTP) and, through a literature review and on-line survey, describe published procedural, environmental, and participant variable departures from the original methodology. METHOD: Literature search terms included phonation threshold pressure, subglottal pressure and phonation, pressure measurement ...
Dorresteijn J A N - - 2011
Obesity-related hypertension is increasingly recognized as a distinct hypertensive phenotype requiring a modified approach to diagnosis and management. In this review rapidly evolving insights into the complex and interdependent mechanisms linking obesity to hypertension are discussed. Overweight and obesity are associated with adipose tissue dysfunction, characterized by enlarged hypertrophied adipocytes, ...
Schwentner Lukas - - 2011
The renin-angiotensin system is well known as a systemic endocrine pathway that regulates blood pressure and salt-water metabolism. In addition to the systemic renin-angiotensin system there is evidence in different species for the presence of a local tissue renin-angiotensin system, which allows local production of the bioactive peptides angiotensin II ...
Santamaría-Pérez D - - 2011
The high-pressure behaviour of cesium sulphide Cs(2)S has been studied up to 19 GPa at room temperature using angle-dispersive x-ray powder diffraction in a diamond-anvil cell. X-ray results show that the initial anticotunnite-type structure (S.G. Pnma) seems to undertake a continuous transformation to a distorted Ni(2)In-type structure (also with S.G. ...
Gallego Nidia C - - 2011
In-situ small angle neutron scattering (SANS) studies of hydrogen confined in small pores of polyfurfuryl alcohol-derived activated carbon (PFAC) at room temperature have provided for the first time its phase behavior in equilibrium with external H2 at pressures up to 200 bar. The data were used to evaluate the density ...
Kacmarek Robert M - - 2011
The use of ventilatory assistance can be traced back to biblical times. However, mechanical ventilators, in the form of negative-pressure ventilation, first appeared in the early 1800s. Positive-pressure devices started to become available around 1900 and today's typical intensive care unit (ICU) ventilator did not begin to be developed until ...
Sumikura Hirohito - - 2011
Recent progress in the development of implantable rotary blood pumps realized long-term mechanical circulatory support (MCS) for bridge to transplant, bridge to recovery, or a destination therapy. Meanwhile, a short-term MCS system is becoming necessary for bridge to decision. We developed a novel inflow cannula for the short-term MCS system, ...
Middleton P M - - 2011
Emergency department patients are frequently undifferentiated, need accurate risk assessment and stratification, and are time-critical in their need for diagnosis and resuscitation. Valid, noninvasive hemodynamic monitoring modalities are essential to differentiate high from low risk patients, and to perform goal-directed management. This review analyses recent literature, which describes innovation in ...
Green P - - 2011
Pressure volume (PV) based analysis, using classic hemodynamic principles, has served as a basis for our understanding of cardiac physiology and disease states for decades. However, PV analysis has been restricted to primarily the basic research setting and for preclinical testing and has not be widely applied in part because ...
Mujtaba Syed Hasnain - - 2011
The objective of this study was to evaluate enhancement in the knowledge of general practitioners (GPs), from the urban cities in the province of Sindh, Pakistan, regarding blood pressure measurement through workshop. This was a quasi-experimental study that involved GPs from 5 cities of Sindh province, Pakistan. The GPs were ...
Schutte Aletta E - - 2011
The prognostic significance of blood pressure (BP) variability has lately enjoyed considerable attention. The need for early markers of cardiovascular dysfunction is imperative in black South Africans who have a significant risk for cardiovascular disease. We therefore compared 24-h BP variability with various traditional and advanced BP measurements, regarding their ...
Rao Ganne S Umamaheswara - - 2011
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cerebral ischemia forms the pathophysiological basis of several acute neurological conditions. Successful management of these conditions depends on early and accurate identification of ischemia and prompt treatment. Several techniques of assessing ischemia have evolved over decades. But their importance in the management of neurological patients remains ambiguous. ...
Noro Kageyu - - 2011
This paper describes the application of an alternative seating concept for surgeons that reflects the research of Zen sitting postures, which require Zazen meditators to maintain fixed postures for long durations. The aim of this alternative approach is to provide sitters with a seat pan with sacral support(1) that provides ...
Khaliullin Rustam Z - - 2011
Graphite and diamond have comparable free energies, yet forming diamond from graphite in the absence of a catalyst requires pressures that are significantly higher than those at equilibrium coexistence. At lower temperatures, the formation of the metastable hexagonal polymorph of diamond is favoured instead of the more stable cubic diamond. ...
Chandar Jayanthi - - 2011
Hypertensive crisis is rare in children and is usually secondary to an underlying disease. There is strong evidence that the renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in the genesis of hypertensive crisis. An important principle in the management of children with hypertensive crisis is to determine if severe hypertension is ...
Morganti Alberto - - 2011
The idea of blocking the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) with the inhibition of the enzymatic activity of renin has been pursued for half a century, but it became a reality only recently, with the synthesis of aliskiren, the first direct renin inhibitor available for clinical use. The upstream blockade of the ...
Moore Zena - - 2011
Aims and objectives.  The aim of this study was to establish pressure ulcer prevalence and prevention in the long-term care setting. Background.  There is no information on pressure ulcers prevalence in care of the older person in Ireland; therefore, a prevalence study was undertaken to investigate key aspects related to ...
Fisher J P JP School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, College of Life & Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK. - - 2012
A neurogenic component to primary hypertension (hypertension) is now well established. Along with raised vasomotor tone and increased cardiac output, the chronic activation of the sympathetic nervous system in hypertension has a diverse range of pathophysiological consequences independent of any increase in blood pressure. This review provides a perspective on ...
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