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Results 201 - 250 of 942
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Cuspidi C - - 2011
Left-ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a cardinal manifestation of hypertensive organ damage associated with an increased cardiovascular (CV) risk. We reviewed recent literature on the prevalence of LVH, as assessed by echocardiography, in order to offer an updated information on the magnitude of subclinical alterations in LV structure in contemporary human ...
Elmarakby Ahmed A - - 2012
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality worldwide, and it is well known that end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is a profound consequence of the progression of CVD. Present treatments only slow CVD progression to ESRD, and it is imperative that new therapeutic strategies are developed to prevent the ...
Guerra Miguel - - 2011
To describe left ventricular (LV) function comprehensively, it is crucial to characterize precisely transmitral, intraventricular and transaortic pressure-flow relations. The site of measurement is important; as the measurement location is moved from the mitral valve toward the apex and the outflow tract, important regional pressure differences are recorded inside the ...
Habib Ashraf S - - 2011
Phenylephrine is effective for the management of spinal anesthesia-induced hypotension in parturients undergoing cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia. While ephedrine was previously considered the vasopressor of choice in obstetric patients, phenylephrine is increasingly being used. This is largely due to studies suggesting improved fetal acid-base status with the use of ...
Rios Amelia - - 2011
Cyclooxygenase (COX)-dependent prostaglandins are necessary for normal kidney function. These prostaglandins are associated with inflammation, maintenance of sodium and water homeostasis, control of renin release, renal vasodilation, vasoconstriction attenuation, and prenatal renal development. COX-2 expression is regulated by the renin-angiotensin system, glucocorticoids or mineralcorticoids, and aldosterone, supporting a role for ...
McInnes Elizabeth - - 2011
OBJECTIVES: To undertake a systematic review of the effectiveness of pressure redistributing support surfaces in the prevention of pressure ulcers. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Cochrane Wound Group Specialised Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE and EBSCO CINAHL. The reference sections of ...
Rietveld Ivo B - - 2011
In pharmacy, racemic compounds are often problematic, because generally only one of the enantiomers possesses therapeutic activity and it is often difficult to separate them. Even though this problem is likely as old as the pharmaceutical industry, one thermodynamically obvious way of separating racemic crystals has never been studied experimentally, ...
Wilson Mark H - - 2011
Abstract Wilson, Mark H., C.H.E. Imray, A.R. Hargens. The headache of high altitude and microgravity?similarities with clinical syndromes of cerebral venous hypertension. High Alt. Med. Biol. 12:xxx?xxx.?Syndromes thought to have cerebral venous hypertension as their core, such as idiopathic intracranial hypertension and jugular foramen outlet obstruction, classically result in headaches. ...
Karnak Ibrahim - - 2011
AIM: To investigate the effect of increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) on the fetal urinary system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pregnant rabbits (15-day gestation) were used. Control (n = 5) and experimental (EG, n = 4) groups underwent intraperitoneal catheter placement. The IAP was increased by intraperitoneal air insufflations during the third trimester in the EG. ...
Clarke Nicola E - - 2012
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a critical regulator of hypertension, primarily through the actions of the vasoactive peptide Ang II, which is generated by the action of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) mediating an increase in blood pressure. The discovery of ACE2, which primarily metabolises Ang II into the vasodilatory Ang-(1-7), has ...
Hosick Peter A - - 2012
Heme oxygenase (HO) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the metabolism of heme-releasing bioactive molecules carbon monoxide (CO), biliverdin, and iron, each with beneficial cardiovascular actions. Biliverdin is rapidly reduced to bilirubin, a potent antioxidant, by the enzyme biliverdin reductase, and iron is rapidly sequestered by ferritin in the cell. Several ...
Covelli Maureen McCormick - - 2011
Globally, the health disparity of hypertension is disproportionately greater within the African American population and develops at an earlier age. Elevated and continuous interaction of biologic measures during adolescence may be precursors and indicators of risk for blood pressure changes and the subsequent development of adult essential hypertension. The purpose ...
Arhant-Sudhir Kanish - - 2011
1. It is widely believed that pet ownership is beneficial to humans and that some of this benefit is through favourable effects on cardiovascular risk. In the present review, we critically examine the evidence in support of this hypothesis and present the available data with respect to major cardiovascular risk ...
Pall Denes - - 2011
There has been a steady increase in the prevalence of adolescent hypertension in recent years. In order to prevent target organ damages, it is important to determine the group of hypertensive adolescents. If repeatedly elevated blood pressure values are observed, with special emphasis on white coat hypertension, which is particularly ...
Weingart Scott D - - 2011
Patients requiring emergency airway management are at great risk of hypoxemic hypoxia because of primary lung pathology, high metabolic demands, anemia, insufficient respiratory drive, and inability to protect their airway against aspiration. Tracheal intubation is often required before the complete information needed to assess the risk of periprocedural hypoxia is ...
Crawford Paul - - 2011
Insufficient evidence exists to determine which specific combinations most effectively decrease cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, although combinations of hypertension medications at lower doses generally reduce cardiovascular outcomes (stroke, coronary heart disease) more than monotherapy.
Die-Kacou Henri - - 2011
In the pathophysiology of hypertension, the profile hemodynamic is modified by the relation between the increased sodium intake and blood pressure (BP) level. An increased sodium diet is related not only on the amount of fluid volume within the organism but also to the elasticity of the cardiovascular system. In ...
Taylor Christopher J - - 2011
Complex hand injuries can be difficult to dress effectively and achieve adequate splintage of the hand in a functional position. During the past 7 years, we have had a great deal of success with topical negative-pressure dressings in the management of complex blast-related extremity war injuries. We have more recently ...
Sukor Norlela - - 2011
Primary aldosteronism is now thought to be the commonest potentially curable and specifically treatable form of hypertension. The detection of primary aldosteronism is of utmost importance not only because it provides an opportunity for a targeted treatment, but also because it has been demonstrated that patients with primary aldosteronism are ...
Ernst Michael E - - 2011
Diuretics are powerful agents that impair sodium reabsorption in renal tubules. Their ability to alter long-term sodium balance induces important hemodynamic changes that result in a reduction in peripheral resistance and sustained reduction in blood pressure. A pharmacologically diverse group of drugs, they remain a mainstay in the therapy of ...
Bolouri H - - 2011
Bolouri H, Säljö A, Viano DC, Hamberger A. Animal model for sport-related concussion; ICP and cognitive function. Acta Neurol Scand: DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2011.01594.x. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Background -  We have recently developed and characterized a rat model of mild traumatic brain injury which simulates the concussive injuries frequently ...
Zacharia Brad E - - 2012
Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are vascular lesions characterized by direct connections between feeding arteries and draining veins without an intervening capillary network. Two hypotheses, normal perfusion pressure breakthrough (NPPB) and occlusive hyperemia, prevail in the literature regarding the occasional development of hemorrhage and edema following AVM resection. The NPPB hypothesis was ...
Mateos-Cáceres Petra J - - 2012
Hypertension is a widely prevalent and important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases that increase with aging. The hallmark of hypertension in the elderly is increased vascular dysfunction. However, the molecular mechanisms by which increased blood pressure leads to vascular injury and impaired endothelial function are not well defined. In the ...
Cacciapuoti Federico - - 2011
Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) induced by systemic hypertension (SH) represents a maladaptive response to the increased overload. It is known that the LV pathological remodeling is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Secretion and production of vasoactive peptides, such as angiotensin II, endothelin-1, norepinephrine, and Rho ...
Brook Robert D - - 2011
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2011;13:836-842. ©2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Blood pressure (BP) is affected by many environmental factors including ambient temperature, altitude, latitude, noise, and air pollutants. Given their pervasiveness, it is plausible that such factors may also have an impact on hypertension prevalence and control rates. Health care providers ...
- - 2011
The following articles are being highlighted as part of Circulation's Topic Review series. This series will summarize the most important manuscripts, as selected by the editors, published in Circulation and the Circulation subspecialty journals. The studies included in this article represent the most read manuscripts published on the topic of ...
McAllister Ian L - - 2011
Central retinal vein occlusion remains a common cause of unilateral visual loss. Until recently our treatment options for this condition were limited only to laser photocoagulation for the devastating end sequelae of anterior segment neovascularisation. Over the last two years a number of randomised controlled trials have given us significant ...
Rivalain Nolwennig - - 2011
For the past 30years, pressure inactivation of microorganisms has been developed in biosciences, in particular for foods and more recently for biological products, including pharmaceutical ones. In many past studies, the effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processes on pathogens focused mainly on the effect of an increase of the ...
Laurent J - - 2011
We study the slippage of a gas along mobile rigid walls in the sphere-plane confined geometry and find that it varies considerably with pressure. The classical no-slip boundary condition valid at ambient pressure changes continuously to an almost perfect slip condition in a primary vacuum. Our study emphasizes the key ...
Abdel-Hamid Sameh - - 2011
With high-speed compaction cycles as applied in pharmaceutical industrial presses, robust tools like radial die-wall pressure (RDWP) are required to monitor the deformation behavior of formulations under pressure and to avoid common problems such as capping. In this study, the effects of common formulation factors such as lubricant, binder, and ...
Schroer Martin A - - 2011
Marine organisms have evolved a surprising mechanism to counteract the deleterious effects of urea by trimethylammonium N-oxide (TMAO). The effect of pressure on the structure and intermolecular interactions of lysozyme in urea and TMAO solutions was studied. These findings help to understand the compensatory effect of urea-TMAO mixtures in deep-sea ...
Altman Alon D - - 2011
Vacuum assisted closure and negative pressure (NP) dressings are innovative forms of wound management used in multiple fields of medicine, including surgery. We review here the current literature in this area relevant for the gynaecologist. Negative pressure dressings increase blood flow to the wound, decrease bacterial counts, decrease tension on ...
Grände Per-Olof - - 2011
Two different main concepts for the treatment of a severe traumatic brain injury have been established during the last 15 years, namely the more conventional concept recommended in well-established guidelines (eg, U.S. Guideline, European Guideline, Addelbrook's Guideline from Cambridge), on the one hand, and the Lund concept from the University ...
Chewter Michelle - - 2011
I am an operating department practitioner (ODP) who routinely applies cricoid pressure under the direction of an anaesthetist in order to prevent gastric aspiration. This article examines the current use of cricoid pressure in anaesthetics.
Sharma Deepak - - 2011
The "Lund concept" involving a "volume-targeted" strategy for intracranial pressure control originated in the University of Lund, Sweden, more than 20 years ago and has remained controversial ever since. It is based on the premise that the blood-brain barrier is disrupted after traumatic brain injury and cerebral autoregulation is impaired; ...
Shadle Christine H - - 2011
The relationship between the physiological parameters and the acoustic output of the voice source is complex, and even more so when voiced obstruents are considered. Standard models assume that the subglottal pressure is divided across the glottis and the supraglottal constriction, which explains both the weaker noise source of voiced ...
Hamilton A R - - 2012
An emerging strategy for creating self-healing materials relies on embedded vascular networks of microchannels to transport reactive fluids to regions of damage. Here we investigate the use of active pumping for the pressurized delivery of a two-part healing system, allowing a small vascular system to deliver large volumes of healing ...
Perlmuter Lawrence C - - 2011
AIMS: This paper will review literature that examines the psychological and neuropsychological correlates of orthostatic blood pressure regulation. RESULTS: The pattern of change in systolic blood pressure in response to the shift from supine to upright posture reflects the adequacy of orthostatic regulation. Orthostatic integrity involves the skeletal muscle pump, ...
West John B - - 2011
Abstract2011 marks the 100th anniversary of one of the most important early research expeditions to high altitude. The principal participants were J.S. Haldane and C.G. Douglas from Oxford, Y. Henderson from Yale, and E.C. Schneider from Colorado College. Pikes Peak just outside Colorado Springs proved to be an excellent venue ...
Mazza Alberto - - 2012
Arterial hypertension (HT) is age dependent and, with the prolongation of life expectancy, affects more and more elderly people. In the elderly, HT is a risk factor for organ damage and cardiovascular (CV) events. Both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic reduction of blood pressure (BP) is associated with a corresponding decrease in ...
Wongviriyawong C - - 2012
Heterogeneity in narrowing among individual airways is an important contributor to airway hyperresponsiveness. This paper investigates the contribution of longitudinal heterogeneity (the variability along the airway in cross-sectional area and shape) to airway resistance (R(aw)). We analyzed chest high-resolution computed tomography scans of 8 asthmatic (AS) and 9 nonasthmatic (NA) ...
Jacobsen Jens Christian Brings - - 2011
Micro-vessels live "a life under pressure" in several ways. In a literal sense, vessels of the microcirculation are exposed to high levels of stress caused primarily by the intravascular pressure head. In a figurative sense, the individual vessel and the microvascular network as a whole must continuously strive to meet ...
Nakano Daisuke - - 2011
Hypertension is a major risk factor of cardiovascular events. Although the scientific understanding of hypertension and therapeutic tools for its treatment have dramatically progressed since the middle of the 20(th) century, we have not fully understood the disease and it is difficult to halt the clinical course of disease in ...
- - 2011
Blood pressure is a heritable trait influenced by several biological pathways and responsive to environmental stimuli. Over one billion people worldwide have hypertension (≥140 mm Hg systolic blood pressure or  ≥90 mm Hg diastolic blood pressure). Even small increments in blood pressure are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. This genome-wide association ...
Ferrante T - - 2011
Cough headache may be the clinical manifestation, sometimes isolated, of an intracranial disease. There are several possible causes of secondary cough headache. The hypothesis that cough headache may be the expression of spontaneous intracranial hypotension has been advanced only recently. In fact, this would represent an exception to the rule ...
Davis Michael J - - 2011
The vascular myogenic response is an inherent property of vascular smooth muscle in the walls of small arteries and arterioles, allowing these principle resistance segments of the microcirculation to respond to changes in transmural pressure. Elevated intraluminal pressure leads to myogenic constriction, whereas reduced pressure leads to myogenic dilation. This ...
Khan Bobby V - - 2011
Biomarkers are being increasingly used in the study of cardiovascular disease because they provide readily quantifiable surrogate endpoints and allow accurate assessment of the effects of therapy on particular pathological processes. However, in order to be useful, biomarkers must be relevant, predictable, accurate, and reproducible. There is compelling evidence from ...
Kurukulasuriya L Romayne - - 2011
Hypertension and obesity are major components of the cardiometabolic syndrome and are both on the rise worldwide, with enormous consequences to global health and the economy. The relationship between hypertension and obesity is multifaceted; the etiology is complex and it is not well elucidated. This article reviews the current knowledge on ...
Turjanica Mary Ann - - 2011
Skin prevalence audits revealed annual increases in incidence of pressure ulcers of the ear. A research study was conducted to assess correlates of the problem. Study results guided clinical practice changes that reduced the incidence to zero.
Parnham A - - 2011
This paper discusses the developmental process, outcome and delivery of an innovative approach to standardising tissue viability documentation across two sites within Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, following the results of benchmarking pressure ulcer preventive care strategies and recommendations from pressure ulcer root cause analysis. It reflects upon the process, ...
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