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Results 801 - 850 of 2050
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Wang Hao H Department of Nephrology, Nanjing University School of Medicine, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, - - 2005
To investigate the potential role of continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) in hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in pigs with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). SAP model was produced by intraductal injection of sodium taurocholate (4%, 1 mL/kg body weight (BW)) and trypsin (2 U/kg BW). Animals were allocated either to untreated controls ...
Schears Gregory - - 2005
This study examined the effect of repetitive apnea on brain oxygen pressure in newborn piglets. Each animal was given 10 episodes of apnea, initiated by disconnecting them from the ventilator and completed by reconnecting them to the ventilation circuit. The apneic episodes were ended 30 sec after the heart rate ...
Groves A M - - 2005
Blood pressure, heart rate, and oxygen saturation were monitored prospectively during 40 echocardiography recordings on 17 preterm infants (25-29 weeks; 510-1430 g), to examine whether echocardiography can be performed without disturbing cardiorespiratory status in preterm infants. There was no impact on absolute blood pressure. Heart rate increased by a mean ...
Johnston Andrew J - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: In this study we have used O positron emission tomography, brain tissue oxygen monitoring, and cerebral microdialysis to assess the effects of cerebral perfusion pressure augmentation on regional physiology and metabolism in the setting of traumatic brain injury. DESIGN: Prospective interventional study. SETTING: Neurosciences critical care unit of a ...
Schwarte Lothar A - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: The effect of levosimendan, a novel inotropic vasodilator (inodilator), on the microvascular gastric mucosal hemoglobin oxygenation (muHbo(2)) is unknown. A possible effect could thereby be selective for the splanchnic region or could primarily reflect changes in systemic oxygen transport (Do(2)) and/or oxygen consumption (Vo(2). We compared systemic and regional ...
Wilson David F DF Department of Biochemistry & Biophysics, University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. - - 2005
High altitude and the decreased environmental oxygen pressure have both immediate and chronic effects on the carotid body. An immediate effect is to limit the oxygen available for mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, and this leads to increased activity on the afferent nerves leading to the brain. In the isolated carotid body ...
Knoll Arnd - - 2005
This study focuses on the enhancement of oxygen transfer in aerobic fermentation processes through the use of the reactor headspace pressure as a process variable. Our investigation was performed using an example 5 m3 fermentor, and by applying the mass transfer (sorption) characteristics obtained from measurements with Pseudomonas putida CA-3 ...
Smani Y - - 2005
The hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOC), like dextran-benzene-tetracarboxylate-hemoglobin (Dex-BTC-Hb), which are present at high concentrations in plasma disturb arterial pressure and induce hypertension. To study if the increase of mean arterial pressure (MAP) is due to the presence of cell-free hemoglobin (Hb) inside abdominal aortic wall, we followed on a model ...
Wilson David F - - 2005
The phosphorescence lifetime imaging system previously used to image oxygen in the retina of the cat eye was modified to allow imaging of phosphorescence lifetimes in the much smaller mouse eye. Following the lead of Shonat and coworkers, a frequency domain approach was used in which the excitation light source ...
Bein B - - 2005
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of arginine vasopressin (AVP), a drug currently under investigation for use during cardiopulmonary resuscitation, on cerebral oxygenation and cerebral blood volume (CBV) in pigs with intact systemic circulation using near infrared spectroscopy. METHODS: Nine healthy pigs ...
Komatsu Teruyuki - - 2004
Recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA) incorporating the synthetic heme "albumin-heme" is an oxygen-carrying plasma protein that has the potential to be a red blood cell substitute. The physiological responses to a 30% exchange transfusion with two types of albumin-heme (rHSA-FecycP, rHSA-FepivP) solutions after 70% isovolemic hemodilution with 5 g/dL rHSA ...
Jiang Jianwen - - 2004
The adsorption of a nitrogen and oxygen mixture (air) on two types of single-walled carbon nanotube bundles at both sub- and supercritical temperatures is studied using grand canonical Monte Carlo molecular simulation. On an infinite periodic hexagonal bundle without an external surface, adsorption at a subcritical temperature is of type ...
Willigers H M M - - 2004
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The beta-adrenergic blocker esmolol and the alpha 2-adrenergic agonist dexmedetomidine have the potential to decrease perioperative myocardial ischaemia. The pathophysiological mechanisms involved in these anti-ischaemic properties have not been thoroughly studied. We compared the effects of esmolol and dexmedetomidine on two indices of overall myocardial oxygen demand ...
Jakobsen Marianne - - 2004
Carbon dioxide is commonly used in modified atmosphere packaging of meat and the gas is highly soluble in meat. Both intrinsic (pH, water and fat content) and extrinsic (CO(2) partial pressure, headspace to meat volume ratio and storage temperature) factors affect the amount of CO(2) absorbed in meat. A multi ...
Sharma K R - - 2004
A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the characteristics of an aerobic upflow sludge blanket reactor (AUSB) treating synthetic wastewater at a high organic loading. The response of the system was evaluated at different operating conditions, such as pressurization, extent of flow recirculation, and hydraulic retention time. Aeration shear to ...
Wang W - - 2004
Tissue oxygenation is a key factor ensuring normal tissue functions and viability. Continuous real-time monitoring of the partial pressure of oxygen, pO(2), in tissues gives insight into the dynamic fluctuations of O(2) supplies to tissues by blood circulation. Small oxygen sensors enable investigations of the spatial variation of pO(2) in ...
Körtzinger Arne - - 2004
Deep convection is the major mechanism for replenishing oxygen in the deep interior of the world ocean, and its variability affects the use of atmospheric oxygen to monitor the global carbon cycle. Sensors mounted on autonomous floats allow this episodic breathing of the ocean to be monitored in near real ...
Belo I - - 2005
Increase in air or oxygen pressure in microbial cell cultures can cause oxidative stress and consequently affect cell physiology and morphology. The behaviour of Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown under hyperbaric atmospheres of air and pure oxygen was studied. A limit of 1.0 MPa for the air pressure increase (i.e. 0.21 MPa ...
Hinokuchi Tsutomu - - 2004
In order to cultivate plants under low pressure in closed environment, the germination rate of seeds of white radish was investigated under low pressure, low oxygen partial pressure and condition of pure oxygen. The result of these experiments showed that the germination rate was affected by the oxygen partial pressure. ...
Torres Filho Ivo P - - 2005
Systemic variables were evaluated with respect to O(2) delivery to test the hypothesis that critical O(2) delivery and critical Hb can be estimated by multiple variables collected simultaneously. Rats were subjected to transfusion with either fresh or stored blood and then subjected to stepwise isovolemic hemodilution. Critical levels were measured ...
MemiƟ Dilek - - 2004
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of intravenous lornoxicam on haemodynamic and biochemical parameters, serum cytokine levels and patient outcomes in severe sepsis. METHODS: A total of 40 patients with severe sepsis were included, and were randomly assigned (20 per group) to receive either ...
Maciel Alexandre Toledo - - 2004
Increases in tissue partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO(2)) can reflect an abnormal oxygen supply to the cells, so that monitoring tissue PCO(2) may help identify circulatory abnormalities and guide their correction. Gastric tonometry aims at monitoring regional PCO(2) in the stomach, an easily accessible organ that becomes ischemic quite ...
Vagts D A - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Xenon is a narcotic gas that might be able to replace volatile anaesthetics or nitrous oxide due to its favourable pharmacological properties, such as providing haemodynamic stability. Intestinal oxygenation is affected by most volatile anaesthetics as a result of cardiodepressive effects. Reducing oxygenation of the gut might be a ...
Kamler M M Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, West German Heart Center Essen, University Hospital of Essen 45147 Essen, Germany. - - 2004
Clinical complications arising from extracorporeal circulation (ECC) have been linked to disturbances in the microcirculation. Hyperoxia, a mainstay of supportive treatment, is clinically used for a variety of pathological states. In previous in vivo animal experiments we found increased leukocyte/endothelial (L/E) cell interaction following ECC due to oxygen derived free ...
Morrow Brenda - - 2004
Our objective was to determine whether a simple method of maintaining positive pressure ventilation during nonbronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage (NB-BAL) would successfully reduce the incidence and/or severity of desaturation events. Our design was a clinical trial with historical controls. Seventy ventilated pediatric patients undergoing diagnostic NB-BAL participated. Two NB-BAL techniques were ...
Winslow Robert M - - 2004
A new hemoglobin derivative, MP4, for use as a temporary oxygen-carrying plasma expander, has been prepared. The design of the molecule is based on novel criteria for optimized efficacy and safety, which include increased molecular radius, increased viscosity, increased oncotic pressure, and reduced p50. The chemical entity, MalPEG-Hb, is formulated ...
Torossian Alexander - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effects of mild hypothermia (32 degrees C), established before experimental intra-abdominal sepsis, on outcome, cytokine pattern, and muscle tissue oxygenation. DESIGN: Clinic modeling randomized laboratory trial. SETTING: University laboratory. SUBJECTS: Ninety-six male rats. INTERVENTIONS: In a group-sequential design, using 42 rats per group, we compared mild ...
Westphal M - - 2004
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Since the moribund hypodynamic phase of septic shock has primarily been studied in small animal models, the objective of this study was to investigate the usefulness of infusing Salmonella typhosa endotoxin at incrementing doses to establish an ovine model of hypodynamic endotoxaemia. METHODS: In a prospective laboratory ...
Bandali K S - - 2004
Newborn children can be exposed to high oxygen levels (hyperoxia) for hours to days during their medical and/or surgical management, and they also can have poor myocardial function and hemodynamics. Whether hyperoxia alone can compromise myocardial function and hemodynamics in the newborn and whether this is associated with oxygen free ...
Romano Michael J - - 2004
A 3-month-old infant of 33 weeks' gestation was hospitalized with pneumonia caused by Bordetella pertussis. Respiratory insufficiency worsened, and on hospital day 3, there was severe pulmonary dysfunction (arterial oxygen pressure/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio: 120), extreme leukocytosis (white blood cell count 104,000/mm3), and severe pulmonary hypertension as assessed by ...
Kohnert Stefan - - 2004
The aquatic larvae of anisopteran dragonflies possess tracheal gills located in the rectum. Using stereological methods, we estimated the morphometric diffusing capacity for oxygen (D(MO2)) across the gill epithelium, i.e., from rectal water to the gill tracheoles, in the larvae of Aeshna cyanea. A 271-mg larva has a total branchial ...
Ratnaraj Jebadurai - - 2004
Oxidative killing by neutrophils, a primary defense against surgical pathogens, is directly related to tissue oxygenation. We tested the hypothesis that supplemental inspired oxygen or mild hypercapnia (end-tidal PCO2 of 50 mm Hg) improves intestinal oxygenation. Pigs (25 +/- 2.5 kg) were used in 2 studies in random order: 1) ...
Aghajani Ebrahim - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO) in the septic myocardium is comparatively high in relation to the sepsis-induced reduction in ventricular work. Our previous studies indicate that this energetic inefficiency is due to increased energy consumption in excitation-contraction (EC) coupling, i.e. myocardial calcium handling. DESIGN: To further confirm this observation, we ...
Klemenzson Gudmundur K - - 2004
PURPOSE: Anesthesia ventilators use oxygen or oxygen/air mixtures to drive the bellows during controlled ventilation. As a practitioner may find himself in a situation that the only available oxygen source is a compressed oxygen cylinder, it is important to know the oxygen consumption of anesthesia ventilators during controlled ventilation. METHODS: ...
Mitra Soumya - - 2004
We report results of experiments that evaluated the influence of oxygenation on the penetration of red light in tissue, with particular emphasis on 630 and 650 nm laser wavelengths commonly used in photodynamic therapy (PDT) of solid tumours. Direct measurements in tissue-simulating phantoms comprised of intact human erythrocytes suspended in ...
Schwarte Lothar A - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Perioperative disturbances of microvascular blood flow and oxygenation in the intestinal tract have been hypothesized to play an important role in development of the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Herein, increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) has been identified as a key factor in the initiation of the pathophysiologic cascade. The authors ...
Suh John H - - 2004
Efaproxiral (RSR13) is a synthetic allosteric modifier of haemoglobin that reduces its oxygen binding affinity. By facilitating the release of oxygen from haemoglobin, efaproxiral causes an increase in whole blood P 50 (partial pressure of oxygen which results in 50% haemoglobin saturation) and an increase in the PO2 (partial pressure ...
Leipälä Jaana A - - 2004
The aim of the study was to assess the short-term cardiorespiratory effects of a standard red cell transfusion in very low birth weight (< 1500 g) infants undergoing intensive care. A total of 37 infants (birth weight 920 +/- 230 g, gestational age 27.8 +/- 2.1 weeks, age at study ...
Wang Yong-chun - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of different degrees of denitrogenation on decompression sickness. METHOD: Twenty-four rabbits were randomly divided into control group, 100% oxygen inhalation 30 min group, 60 min group and 120 min group. The rabbits were anesthetized and ventilated by mechanical ventilator. After 0, 30, 60, and 120 ...
Allegaert K - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was the evaluation of the effect of methohexital during chest tube removal (CTR) in neonates. METHODS: Evaluation was based on the degree of sedation (grades 1-4) and relaxation (grades 1-4) and trends in vital signs heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), oxygen saturation ...
Kudnig Simon T - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of an open-chest condition on oxygen delivery in anesthetized dogs. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, controlled experimental study. ANIMALS: Eight clinically normal adult Walker Hound dogs weighing 25.6-29.2 kg. METHODS: Eight anesthetized dogs underwent an open-chest operation after the insertion of thoracoscopy cannulae in the lateral chest ...
Kjaergaard S - - 2004
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical application of a mathematical model of pulmonary gas exchange, which ascribes hypoxaemia to shunt and ventilation/perfusion mismatch. Ventilation/perfusion mismatch is quantified by deltaPO2, which is the drop in oxygen pressure from alveoli to lung capillaries. Shunt and deltaPO2 were used to describe changes ...
Schwartz Andrew R - - 2004
INTRODUCTION: Portable pressure ventilators, or bi-level ventilators, do not typically have an oxygen control, and thus supplemental oxygen is usually administered by adding it into the mask or the circuit. We conducted this study to test the hypothesis that delivered oxygen concentration using this configuration is affected by the choice ...
Yoder Elizabeth A - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the effects of various factors that might influence the fraction of oxygen in inspired air (FiO (2)) in a human and in a model system during nasal positive pressure treatments. DESIGN AND METHODS: A healthy male volunteer and a mannequin head were each outfitted with a ...
Rokyta Richard R - - 2004
BACKGROUND: A number of haemodialysis studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of cooler dialysates on global haemodynamics in chronic dialysis patients. However, the effects of continuous venovenous haemofiltration (CVVH)-induced cooling on regional perfusion and energy metabolism in critically ill septic patients have not been well defined. METHODS: Nine septic mechanically ventilated ...
El-Khatib Mohamad F MF Department of Anesthesiology, School of Medicine, American University of Beirut, PO Box 11-0236, Riad El Solh, Beirut 1107 2020, Lebanon. - - 2004
To assess the reliability of new and traditional oxygenation measurements in reflecting intrapulmonary shunt. Prospective study. Cardiac surgery unit at a university hospital. Fifty-five patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Simultaneous blood samples were collected from an indwelling arterial line and a catheter for determination of blood gases. Standard accepted ...
Gavilanes A W D - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Neonates are commonly exposed to isolated hypoxemic episodes. In order to identify the risk of this, we correlated cerebral oxygen delivery and electrocortical brain activity during isolated graded and repetitive hypoxemia in 1-week-old piglets. METHODS: Six halothane-anesthetized piglets were subjected to two episodes of graded hypoxemia of 45 min ...
Anzai Yoshimi - - 2004
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Oxygen has a known paramagnetic effect and increases CSF signal intensity on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MR images. The purposes of this study were to investigate the effect of supplemental oxygen on CSF signal intensity and the arterial partial pressure of oxygen and to determine the possible ...
Maurice Christian - - 2004
Methane oxidation capacity of three soil matrices was assessed using a new method based on the pressure fall resulting from methane oxidation. The effects of incubation temperature, moisture and methane content on the oxidation capacity were studied. Parameters observed were non-methanotrophic oxygen consumption, methane assimilation, length of the lag period ...
Kirkeby-Garstad Idar - - 2004
We investigated the physiological reaction to mobilization the first and second day after aortic valve replacement in an open, prospective study. Hemodynamic and oxygenation variables were recorded in 15 patients using a pulmonary artery oximetry catheter and bench oximetry. Serious intraoperative events occurred in 3 patients, but all patients began ...
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