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Results 501 - 550 of 2051
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Bonett Steven - - 2010
Background: Pressure support ventilation (PSV) should be applied so that the inspiratory muscles are unloaded appropriately. We developed a computerized PSV advisory system that assesses the load on the inspiratory muscles to spontaneously inhale, reflected by work of breathing per minute that is measured automatically and non-invasively, and tolerance for ...
Solis Leandro R - - 2011
The overall goal of this project is to develop effective methods for the prevention of deep tissue injury (DTI). DTI is a severe type of pressure ulcer that originates at deep bone-muscle interfaces as a result of the prolonged compression of tissue. It afflicts individuals with reduced mobility and sensation, ...
Qiu Feng - - 2010
A series of studies performed at our center demonstrates that gaseous microemboli (GME) remain a challenge in cardiac surgical procedures. Evaluation of novel oxygenators must address hemodynamic parameters and microemboli capture capability. The objective of this study is to compare two neonatal membrane oxygenators, the Quadrox-i (MAQUET Cardiopulmonary AG, Hirrlingen, ...
Wang Haikuo - - 2010
An anvil-preformed gasket system has been developed to extend the pressure range for the widely used large volume cubic press without sacrificing the sample volume. The relationship of the sample chamber pressure versus press load for this system was calibrated at room temperature using transitions in Bi, Tl, and Ba. ...
Byström A - - 2010
Saddle fit is well recognised as an important factor for the health and performance of riding horses. However, only few studies have addressed general effects of different saddle construction details within a group of horses. To assess the influence of girth strap placement, traditional vs. v-system, and panel flocking material, ...
Goplen Gordon - - 2010
To compare the intramedullary pressures developed during reaming of cadaveric femurs with the Synthes Reamer/Irrigator/Aspirator (RIA) reamer and the Zimmer Pressure Sentinel (PS) reamer, controlling for the force and speed of reaming. Fifteen matched pairs of frozen unpreserved femurs were used in the study. Two pressure transducers and two thermocouples ...
Kraayvanger Ryan J - - 2010
Regional measurement of alveolar oxygen partial pressure can be obtained from the relaxation rates of hyperpolarized noble gases, (3) He and (129) Xe, in the lungs. Recently, it has been demonstrated that measurements of alveolar oxygen partial pressure can be obtained using the spin-spin relaxation rate (R(2) ) of (3) ...
Ho Min-Chieh - - 2010
The ability of ultrasound transducers to operate over a wide and varying pressure range is essential in applications such as ultrasonic flow metering (UFM) of flare gas. We propose a new operational mode for capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs), in which the plate is in permanent contact with the bottom ...
Ganushchak Y M - - 2011
The hollow-fibre oxygenator is a key component of any extracorporeal circuit used to provide cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) during open-heart surgery. Since the oxygenator is placed downstream of the pump, the energy losses over it have a direct impact on the quality of pulsatile pressure and flow waveforms. The objective of ...
Berg Gina - - 2010
Immobilization of patients utilizing rigid spine boards (RSBs) is standard practice in the management of trauma patients. Pressure ulcers have been associated with prolonged immobilization, and the possibility exists that formation may begin when the patient is initially immobilized on the RSB. The effects may not be fully recognized because ...
Gyawali Selina - - 2011
Deep tissue injury (DTI) is a severe form of pressure ulcer that originates at the bone-muscle interface. It results from mechanical damage and ischemic injury due to unrelieved pressure. Currently, there are no established clinical methods to detect the formation of DTI. Moreover, despite the many recommended methods for preventing ...
Bronicki Ronald A - - 2010
Following corrective surgery for tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), approximately one-third of these patients develop low cardiac output (CO) due to right ventricular (RV) diastolic heart failure. Extubation is beneficial in these patients because the fall in intrathoracic pressure that occurs with conversion from positive pressure breathing to spontaneous breathing improves ...
Yancey Jeremy A - - 2010
When performing molecular dynamics simulations for a system with constrained (fixed) atoms, traditional isobaric algorithms (e.g., NPT simulation) often cannot be used. In addition, the calculation of the internal pressure of a system with fixed atoms may be highly inaccurate due to the nonphysical nature of the atomic constraints and ...
Kędziora-Kornatowska Kornelia - - 2010
An increase in oxidative stress is strongly documented in hypertensive patients. In blood vessels, oxidative stress increases the production of superoxide anion (O(2) (•-)) that reacts with nitric oxide (NO) and impairs the ability of endothelium to relax. Many reports indicate a beneficial effect of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) in hypertension. ...
Bellani Giacomo - - 2010
The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that, during weaning from mechanical ventilation, when the pressure support level is reduced, oxygen consumption increases more in patients unable to sustain the decrease in ventilatory assistance (weaning failure). Patients judged eligible for weaning were enrolled. Starting from 20 cm ...
Bhattarai M D - - 2010
There is no controversy regarding the current clinical method of examination of waveform of jugular vein pulse. However there are limitations of clinical assessment of central venous pressure by jugular vein pressure measurement from the level of sternal angle. There are variations in the reported distances from sternal angle to ...
Kimura Fletcher - - 2010
Using the technique of modified rapid lifetime determination, pressure-sensitive microspheres, known as PrSBeads, were used to make quantitative oxygen measurements over two-dimensional areas within gaseous flows. Aerosolized PrSBeads in carrier gases of varying oxygen concentrations demonstrated point measurement precisions on the order of 0.1%-1%. A charge-coupled device featuring a double ...
Grainge C - - 2010
Phosgene is a chemical widely used in the plastics industry and has been used in warfare. It produces life-threatening pulmonary edema within hours of exposure; no antidote exists. This study examines pathophysiological changes seen following treatment with elevated inspired oxygen concentrations (Fi(O2)), in a model of phosgene-induced acute lung injury. ...
Edwards Melissa L - - 2010
Review the historical development and physiologic principles of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) based on human and veterinary experimental literature and current equipment in use. Review of basic physiologic concepts. Data from human and veterinary journals were reviewed through Pubmed and Veterinary Information Network database searches as well as reference searches ...
Ghanei Mostafa - - 2011
Exposure to sulfur mustard (SM) causes a variety of respiratory symptoms, such as chronic bronchitis and constrictive bronchiolitis. This study assessed the effectiveness of noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation, adjunct with 79:21 helium:oxygen instead of 79:21 air:oxygen, in 24 patients with a previous exposure to SM presenting with acute respiratory failure. Both ...
Shanklin D Radford - - 2010
Oxygen is central to the development of neonatal lung injury. The increase in oxygen exposure of the neonatal lung during the onset of extrauterine air breathing is an order of magnitude, from a range of 10-12 to 110-120Torr. The contributions of oxygen and the volume and pressure relationships of ventilatory ...
Scholz Alexander-Wigbert K - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of fluorine-19 allows for the mapping of oxygen partial pressure within perfluorocarbons in the alveolar space (Pao(2)). Theoretically, fMRI-detected Pao(2) can be combined with the Fick principle approach, i.e., a mass balance of oxygen uptake by ventilation and delivery by perfusion, to quantify the ...
Federspiel Mary Clay - - 2010
Congenital heart defects are not uncommon among neonatal patients. Although most are benign, the prompt identification of a life-threatening anomaly is essential for rapid intervention and a positive treatment outcome. Cardiac defects may be identified in the newborn nursery with thorough and systematic physical assessment, including inspection, palpation, auscultation, and ...
Esan Adebayo - - 2010
Approximately 16% of deaths in patients with ARDS results from refractory hypoxemia, which is the inability to achieve adequate arterial oxygenation despite high levels of inspired oxygen or the development of barotrauma. A number of ventilator-focused rescue therapies that can be used when conventional mechanical ventilation does not achieve a ...
Ahmed Faizan - - 2010
To compare the effects of manual hyperinflation (MHI) and ventilator hyperinflation (VHI) delivered to completely sedated and paralyzed patients undergoing mitral valve replacement (MVR) while maintaining minute ventilation. This was a randomized study with a 2-group, pre-test, post-test experimental design. Effects of hyperinflation were studied on static compliance (C(stat)), dynamic ...
Simons Antoine P - - 2010
In this study, the hypothesis was tested that a low-resistant, high-compliant oxygenator provides better pulse conductance and less hemolysis than a high-resistant, low-compliant oxygenator during pulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass. Forty adults undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery were randomly divided into two groups using either an oxygenator with a relatively low hydraulic ...
Ma Xiaoxuan - - 2010
The effects of different methods for elevating the OTR (oxygen transfer rate) during foreign gene expression and the cell growth of recombinant Escherichia coli BL21 were investigated. Two strategies were introduced to control DO (dissolved oxygen) levels in the fermentation broth: (i) increasing fermentor pressure and (ii) supplying oxygen-enriched air. ...
Rajappan Mahesh - - 2010
A novel IR method for measuring the kinetics of N(2)O photodecomposition has been devised and used to calibrate the flux of Lyman-alpha (10.2 eV) radiation from a H(2)/Ar microwave discharge lamp. The photodecomposition of N(2)O occurs with a weak pressure dependence due to the operation of a wall effect consuming ...
Joynt Chloë - - 2010
BACKGROUND: After resuscitation, asphyxiated neonates often develop poor cardiac function with hypotension, pulmonary hypertension and multiorgan ischemia. In a swine model of neonatal hypoxia-reoxygenation, effects of epinephrine, dobutamine and milrinone on systemic, pulmonary and regional hemodynamics and oxygen transport were compared. DESIGN: Controlled, block-randomized study. SETTING: University research laboratory. SUBJECT: ...
Larsson Agneta - - 2010
To evaluate the possibility of using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to measure tissue oxygenation (StO(2)) during hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy. Nine healthy volunteers (1 female) age 25-37 years, breathed air or oxygen. Tissue oxygenation was measured using NIRS on the thumb. Subjects were blinded to breathing gas. A range of partial ...
Saied A - - 2010
A test system has been developed that can be used to calibrate and determine the time response, linearity and temperature sensitivity of a fibre optic oxygen sensor. The simple system obviates the need for precision gas standards and the requirement to generate a true square wave step response, which is ...
Allan Patrick F - - 2010
We present a case of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome pursuant to inhalation of a compressed gas computer keyboard cleaner. Despite the use of multimodal therapy to include empiric antibiotics, intravenous paralytics, intravenous concentrated albumin, high-dose corticosteroids as well as sustained high mean airway pressure mechanical ventilation by airway pressure ...
Petermeier K - - 2010
Cataract formation is one of the most common complications after vitrectomy and cataract extraction in such cases will have to be performed under more difficult conditions. A knowledge of the different types of cataract, their frequency and causes may help to develop strategies to prevent this complication. In addition to ...
Naruke Takashi - - 2010
Although extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is widely used as temporary circulation support, there are no reports of direct parameters indicating cardiac recovery to determine the timing of weaning off. Twenty-five patients supported by ECMO due to hemodynamic deterioration were divided into 2 groups according to their outcome: weaned ECMO (W: ...
Cabrales Pedro - - 2010
Maintenance of postsurgical tissue oxygenation depends on the ability of the specific tissue to recruit perfusion and oxygen (O(2)) supply. When native O(2)-carrying capacity is lacking, fluids to improve O(2)-carrying capacity based in hemoglobin (Hb) could prevent partially ischemic tissue hypoxia by increasing O(2) release from the remaining red blood ...
Doppelbauer Günther - - 2010
We have investigated the self-assembly scenario of patchy colloidal particles in a two-dimensional system. The energetically most favourable ordered particle arrangements have been identified via an optimization tool that is based on genetic algorithms. Assuming different simple models for patchy colloidal particles, which include binary mixtures as well as attraction ...
Sukhotinsky Inna - - 2010
Spreading depression (SD) is a slowly propagating wave of transient neuronal and glial depolarization that develops after stroke, trauma and subarachnoid hemorrhage. In compromised tissue, repetitive SD-like injury depolarizations reduce tissue viability by worsening the mismatch between blood flow and metabolism. Although the mechanism remains unknown, SDs show delayed electrophysiological ...
Engström Joakim - - 2010
Endotracheal intubation in critically ill patients is associated with severe life-threatening complications in about 20%, mainly due to hypoxemia. We hypothesized that apneic oxygenation via a pharyngeal catheter during the endotracheal intubation procedure would prevent or increase the time to life-threatening hypoxemia and tested this hypothesis in an acute lung ...
Floerchinger Bernhard - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is an effective rescue tool to treat cardiopulmonary failure. Pumpless systems treat lung failure only; they require adequate cardiac output. METHODS: We report on 18 patients initially provided with venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and then downgraded to a pumpless arteriovenous shunt with a membrane oxygenator by ...
Negroni Jorge A - - 2010
Use of a majority of structural variables (age, sex, height) to estimate oxygen consumption in the calculation of cardiac output (CO) by the Fick principle does not account for changes in physiological conditions. To improve this limitation, oxygen consumption was estimated based on the left ventricular pressure-volume area. A pilot ...
Sawhney J P S - - 2010
Hypertension is a major public health problem and leading cause for diseases involving cardiovascular & renal system. It is fourth largest contributor for premature deaths in developed countries and seventh largest in developing world. The major pharmacological strategies currently utilized for hypertension management include volume control with diuretics, suppression of ...
Vanderhaegen Joke - - 2010
The cerebral tissue oxygenation index (TOI) and fractional tissue oxygen extraction (FTOE) reflect the cerebral oxygenation. We studied the effect of glycaemia on the TOI and FTOE, as measured by near-infrared-spectroscopy (NIRS). We continuously measured TOI, glycaemia, mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), saturation (SaO(2)) and transcutaneous carbon dioxide pressure (tPCO(2)) ...
Maurer Walter G - - 2010
The American Society of Anesthesiologists published monitoring requirements for non-anesthesia providers performing sedation and analgesia in 2002. This manuscript covered not only the monitoring of patients under sedation and analgesia but pre-procedure evaluation and preparation, personnel availability and training, emergency equipment availability, use of supplemental oxygen, sedative-analgesic agents, and discharge ...
Fávero Fernando C - - 2010
The effect of hydrostatic pressure on the waveguiding properties of high birefringence photonic crystal fibers (HiBi PCF) is evaluated both numerically and experimentally. A fiber design presenting form birefringence induced by two enlarged holes in the innermost ring defining the fiber core is investigated. Numerical results show that modal sensitivity ...
Pena Fernando Lopez - - 2010
After studying the performance and characteristics of actual laminar flowmeters a new disposition for this type of sensors is proposed in such a way that the measurement errors introduced by the intrinsic nature of the device can be minimized. The preliminary study shows that the developing entry region introduces non-linearity ...
Sakaue Hirotaka - - 2010
Anodized-aluminum pressure-sensitive paint (AA-PSP) has been used as a global pressure sensor for unsteady flow measurements. We use a dipping deposition method to apply a luminophore on a porous anodized-aluminum surface, controlling the luminophore concentration of the dipping method to optimize AA-PSP characteristics. The concentration is varied from 0.001 to ...
Zeynalov Bakhtiyar - - 2010
This study aimed to compare gas exchange with heliox and oxygen-enriched air during piston-type high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV). We hypothesized that helium gas would improve both carbon dioxide elimination and arterial oxygenation during piston-type HFOV. Five rabbits were prepared and ventilated by piston-type HFOV with carrier 50% helium/oxygen (heliox50) or ...
Schreinemakers Joyce R C - - 2010
Fighter pilots may develop slowly progressive deformities of their noses during their flying careers. The spectrum of deformities that may be acquired ranges from soft tissue to osseous changes. The main cause is the varying pressure exerted by the oxygen mask on the skin and bony pyramid of the nose ...
Wang Yuehong - - 2010
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Continuous monitoring of PaO(2) in seriously ill patients is an important aspect of clinical management, especially for patients with acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome. We have developed a fibreoptic sensor to detect PaO(2)in vivo based on fluorescence quenching technology. In this study we ...
Petrova Anna - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of the duration of spontaneous hypoxic episodes and variations in haemodynamic parameters on cerebral and renal tissue oxygenation (rSo(2)C and rSo(2)R) in clinically stable preterm infants. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Neonatal intensive care unit of a university-affiliated children's hospital. Patients rSo(2)C and rSo(2)R and haemodynamic ...
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