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Leumann Andre A Human Performance Laboratory, Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, AB, T2N 1N4, Canada, - - 2014
The menisci are thought to modulate load transfer and to absorb shocks in the knee joint. No study has experimentally measured the meniscal functions in the intact, in vivo joint loaded by physiologically relevant muscular contractions. Right knee joints of seven New Zealand white rabbits were loaded using isometric contractions ...
Telfer Scott S Institute for Applied Health Research, Glasgow Caledonian University, UK; Department of Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Altered foot function is common in individuals with rheumatoid arthritis. Plantar pressure distributions during gait are regularly assessed in this patient group; however, the association between frequently reported magnitude-based pressure variables and clinical outcomes has not been clearly established. Recently, a novel approach to the analysis of plantar pressure distributions ...
Vaiman Michael - - 2014
To find correlations between diameters of the optic nerve sheath (ONSD), the eyeball, and the optic canal that might be important for intracranial pressure monitoring. In a prospective cohort study, the CT data of consecutive 400 adults (18+) with healthy eyes and optic nerves and absence of neurological diseases were ...
Swamy Varghese V Advanced Engineering Platform, School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway, 46150 Selangor, Malaysia. - - 2014
First-principles calculations of anatase structured TiO2 and ZrO2 as well as of TiO2-B were carried up to 20 GPa in order to develop an understanding of the unusual compression and pressure-dependent phase transitions reported for nanocrystalline (nc) pure and Zr-doped anatase and nc TiO2-B. The computations, carried out using two ...
Mukhopadhyay Saikat S Cornell Nanoscale Facility, Cornell University, 250 Duffield Hall, Ithaca, New York 14853, - - 2014
We report the lattice thermal conductivity (κ) of cubic boron nitride (c-BN) under pressure calculated using density functional theory. Pressure was used to manipulate the c-BN phonon dispersion and study its effect on thermal conductivity. These results were compared to c-BN's mass-equivalent, nonpolar counterpart, diamond, in order to isolate the ...
Bonnaig Nicolas N 1363 Coppershire Cove South, Apt. 104, Germantown, TN - - 2014
➤ The consequences of improper intraoperative positioning can be profound: it not only may cause substantial morbidity but also may be a major area of litigation, particularly when peripheral nerve injury occurs.➤ The ulnar nerve is most likely to be injured secondary to improper positioning. The elbow should be flexed ...
Ayrinhac S S Institut de Minéralogie, de Physique des Matériaux, et de Cosmochimie (IMPMC), Sorbonne Universités - UPMC Univ. Paris 06, UMR CNRS 7590, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, IRD UMR 206, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris, - - 2014
Ultrafast acoustics measurements on liquid mercury have been performed at high pressure and temperature in a diamond anvil cell using picosecond acoustic interferometry. We extract the density of mercury from adiabatic sound velocities using a numerical iterative procedure. We also report the pressure and temperature dependence of the thermal expansion, ...
Inomata Jun-Ichiro JI aDepartment of Disease Control and Homeostasis, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University bKanazawa Municipal Hospital, Kanazawa, Japan *Hisayoshi Murai and Shuichi Kaneko contributed equally to this - - 2014
Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are used as antihypertensive agents and have a strong vasodilatory effect; however, the sympathetic activation mediated by baroreflex might cause adverse effects. A recently developed CCB, azelnidipine, decreases the heart rate (HR) while lowering blood pressure (BP), possibly by inhibiting sympathetic nerve activity in animal models. ...
Simmonds Sarah S SS From the Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, - - 2014
Previous studies have reported that chronic increases in dietary salt intake enhance sympathetic nerve activity and arterial blood pressure (ABP) responses evoked from brain stem nuclei of normotensive, salt-resistant rats. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether this sensitization results in exaggerated sympathetic nerve activity and ABP ...
Madhavan Malini M Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, - - 2014
Neurocardiogenic syncope (NCS) is a common and sometimes debilitating disorder, with no consistently effective treatment. NCS is due to a combination of bradycardia and vasodilation leading to syncope. Although pacemaker devices have been tried in treating the bradycardic aspect of NCS, no device based therapy exists to treat the co-existent ...
Fatouleh Rania R School of Medicine, University of Western - - 2014
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is associated with elevated muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during normoxic daytime wakefulness, leading to hypertension. We tested the hypothesis that respiratory-sympathetic coupling, postulated to be the underlying cause of neurogenic hypertension, is increased in OSA. MSNA, blood pressure, ECG and respiration were recorded in 21 ...
Tiradentes R V RV Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES, - - 2014
Serotonergic mechanisms have an important function in the central control of circulation. Here, the acute effects of three selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on autonomic and cardiorespiratory variables were measured in rats. Although SSRIs require 2-3 weeks to achieve their full antidepressant effects, it has been shown that they ...
Olver T Dylan TD Neurovascular Research Laboratory, School of Kinesiology, Western University, London, ON, - - 2014
Peripheral nerve blood flow (NBF) does not autoregulate but, instead, responds passively to changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP). How this relationship is impacted by insulin-treated experimental diabetes (ITED) is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that ITED will reduce NBF across a range of MAP in Sprague Dawley rats. Following ...
Xu Feng - - 2014
A fiber-optic acoustic pressure sensor based on a large-area nanolayer silver diaphragm is demonstrated with a high dynamic pressure sensitivity of 160  nm/Pa at 4 kHz frequency. The sensor exhibits a noise limited detectable pressure level of 14.5  μPa/Hz<sup>1/2</sup>. Its high dynamic pressure sensitivity and simple fabrication process make it an attractive tool ...
Park Jeanie J Emory University - - 2014
Mindfulness meditation (MM) is a stress-reduction technique that may have real biological effects on hemodynamics, but has never previously been tested in chronic kidney disease (CKD). In addition, the mechanisms underlying the potential BP-lowering effects of MM are unknown. We sought to determine if MM acutely lowers BP in CKD ...
Plachta Dennis T T DT Department of Microsystems Engineering (IMTEK), Laboratory for Biomedical Microtechnology, University of Freiburg, Georges-Koehler-Allee 102, D-79110 Freiburg, - - 2014
Objective. Hypertension is the largest threat to patient health and a burden to health care systems. Despite various options, 30% of patients do not respond sufficiently to medical treatment. Mechanoreceptors in the aortic arch relay blood pressure (BP) levels through vagal nerve (VN) fibers to the brainstem and trigger the ...
Leenen Frans H H FH Hypertension Unit, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, - - 2014
In the past 1-2 decades, it has become apparent that the brain renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a crucial role in the regulation of blood pressure (BP) by the circulating RAAS. In the brain, angiotensinergic sympatho-excitatory pathways do not contribute to acute, second-to-second regulation but play a major role in the ...
Hering Dagmara D Neurovascular Hypertension and Kidney Disease Laboratory, Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, - - 2014
Renal denervation (RDN) reduces muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and blood pressure (BP) in resistant hypertension. Although a persistent BP-lowering effect has been demonstrated, the long-term effect on MSNA remains elusive. We investigated whether RDN influences MSNA over time. Office BP and MSNA were obtained at baseline, 3, 6, and ...
Tanaka Kunihiko K Gifu University of Medical Science, Department of Radiological Technology, Seki, Gifu 501-3894, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2014
RR interval variability (RRIV) in the supine position without and with galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS (off) and GVS (on), respectively), changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP) at the onset of 60° head-up tilt (HUT) during GVS (off), and their relationship were analyzed in 25 healthy young subjects. MAP decreased by ...
Ushijima Ryuichi R Second Department of Internal Medicine, University of - - 2014
Background: Long-term adaptive servoventilation (ASV) increases cardiac function more effectively than continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), possibly via alleviation of sympathetic overactivation. The present study evaluated the effect of ASV and CPAP at comparable pressure on muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in patients with heart failure (HF) and with or without ...
Zhang Ling-Li LL aKey Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease and Molecular Intervention, Department of Physiology bDepartment of Pathophysiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu cDepartment of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi'an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi'an, - - 2014
Rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) plays crucial roles in central cardiovascular regulation. Salusin-β is a multifunctional bioactive peptide and is expressed in the brain and various peripheral tissues. The present study was designed to identify the expression of salusin-β in the RVLM, and to determine its roles and mechanisms in regulating ...
Haagensen Jen J MSc, Liberty University College of Osteopathic Medicine, 1971 University Blvd, Lynchburg, VA 24515-0001. - - 2014
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH)-sometimes called pseudotumor cerebri-is a neurologic condition distinguished by any of the following symptoms: headache, increased cerebrospinal fluid pressure, papilledema, vision loss, diplopia, tinnitus, deafness, nausea and vomiting, or sixth nerve palsy. Medical and surgical management options are available for patients with IIH. The authors report a ...
Frumin Erica E University of California at Irvine School of Medicine, Irvine, - - 2014
The accurate diagnosis of elevated intracranial pressure (eICP) in the emergent setting is a critical determination that presents significant challenges. Several studies show correlation of sonographic optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) to eICP, while others show high inter-observer variability or marginal performance with less experienced sonographers. The objective of our ...
Wongpraparut Nattawut - - 2014
Hypertension is a major contributor to death. A significant portion of the patients is still in resistant hypertension with current medical treatment. Renal nerve denervation can reduce sympathetic activity, and subsequently reduce BP in western population. To evaluate the effect of renal nerve denervation in treatment of resistant hypertension in ...
Jung Chan-Hee - - 2014
We examined the relationship between central blood pressure (BP), brachial BP with carotid atherosclerosis and microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We recruited 201 patients who were evaluated for central BP, brachial BP, carotid ultrasonography, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), ankle-brachial index (ABI) and microvascular complications. Central BP ...
Sverrisdóttir Yrsa B YB Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United - - 2014
Targeted electric deep brain stimulation in midbrain nuclei in humans alters cardiovascular parameters, presumably by modulating autonomic and baroreflex function. Baroreflex modulation of sympathetic outflow is crucial for cardiovascular regulation and is hypothesized to occur at 2 distinct brain locations. The aim of this study was to evaluate sympathetic outflow ...
Kim Se Hwa SH Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul, - - 2014
Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that affects peripheral nerves by repeated focal pressure. HNPP can be diagnosed by clinical findings, electrodiagnostic studies, histopathological features, and genetic analysis. Ultrasonography is increasingly used for the diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases; however, sonographic features of ...
Lacharme Tiffany T UJF-Grenoble 1, Grenoble, France; Department of Ophthalmology, CHU Grenoble, Grenoble, France; INSERM U 1042, Lab Hypoxia and Physiopathology, Joseph Fourier University, Grenoble, - - 2014
In non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (NAAION) patients, circulatory insufficiency within the optic nerve has previously been hypothesized to be related to nocturnal systemic hypotension. The main objective of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the nyctohemeral variations in ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) in NAAION patients. In 20 patients ...
Gadsden Jeff C JC From the Department of Anesthesiology, St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, New York, New York (J.C.G. and A.R.); Department of Anesthesiology, Kaiser Permanente Santa Clara Medical Center, Santa Clara, California (J.J.C.); and Department of Anesthesiology, Bronx-Lebanon Hospital Center, Bronx, New York - - 2014
Needle trauma may cause neuropathy after nerve blockade. Even without injection, nerve injury can result from forceful needle-nerve contact (NNC). High opening injection pressures (OIPs) have been associated with intrafascicular needle tip placement and nerve damage; however, the relationship between OIP and NNC is unclear. The authors conducted a prospective, ...
Norsk Peter P Division of Space Life Sciences, Universities Space Research Association (USRA), Houston, USA, - - 2014
During weightlessness, blood and fluids are immediately shifted from the lower to the upper body segments, and within the initial 2 weeks of spaceflight, brachial diastolic arterial pressure is reduced by 5 mmHg and even more so by some 10 mmHg from the first to the sixth month of flight. Blood pressure thus ...
Dick Thomas E TE Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA; Department of Neurosciences, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Cardiorespiratory coupling is an encompassing term describing more than the well-recognized influences of respiration on heart rate and blood pressure. Our data indicate that cardiorespiratory coupling reflects a reciprocal interaction between autonomic and respiratory control systems, and the cardiovascular system modulates the ventilatory pattern as well. For example, cardioventilatory coupling ...
Sasaki Konosuke K Department of Health Sciences, Tohoku University Graduate School of - - 2014
Heart rate variability (HRV), the beat-to-beat alterations in heart rate, comprises sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve activities of the heart. HRV analysis is used to quantify cardiac autonomic regulation. Since respiration could be a confounding factor in HRV evaluation, some studies recommend consciously controlled breathing to standardize the method. However, it ...
Kamiya Atsunori A Department of Cardiovascular Dynamics, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center Research Institute Suita, - - 2014
The baroreflex is a key mechanism involved in the control of arterial pressure (AP) during orthostasis in humans. However, the baroreflex is a closed-loop feedback system, from baroreceptor pressure input to systemic AP, and therefore requires open-loop experiments to identify its system characteristics. The requirement limits our ability to identify ...
Barnes Jill N JN Department of Anesthesiology, Mayo Clinic, 200 1st St SW, SMH, Joseph 4-184, Rochester, MN 55905. - - 2014
The autonomic nervous system plays a central role in both acute and chronic blood pressure regulation in humans. The activity of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system is positively associated with peripheral resistance, an important determinant of mean arterial pressure in men. In contrast, there is no association ...
Krämer Heidrun H HH Department of Neurology, Justus Liebig University, Klinikstrasse 33, 35392, Giessen, Germany; Department of Neurology, University Medical Center, Johannes Gutenberg-University, 56101, Mainz, - - 2014
The baroreceptor reflex controls spontaneous fluctuations in blood pressure. One major control variable of the baroreflex is the sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity to muscles [MSNA; burst frequency (BF) and burst incidence (BI)], which can be quantitatively assessed by microneurography. We aimed to investigate the central regions involved in baroreflex regulation of ...
Bag Ozlem - - 2013
Bell's palsy is the most common cause of acquired unilateral facial nerve palsy in childhood. Although the diagnosis depends on the exclusion of less common causes such as infectious, traumatic, malignancy associated and hypertension associated etiologies, pediatricians tend to diagnose idiopatic Bell's palsy whenever a child admits with acquired facial ...
Hellyer Jessica - - 2013
The relationship between cardiac autonomic nerve activity and blood pressure (BP) changes in ambulatory dogs is unclear. To test the hypotheses that simultaneous termination of stellate ganglion nerve activity (SGNA) and vagal nerve activity (VNA) predisposes to spontaneous orthostatic hypotension and that specific β2 adrenoceptor blockade prevents the hypotensive episodes. ...
Thorp Alicia A - - 2013
The aim is to provide clinicians with a concise update on renal sympathetic nerve ablation in the management of resistant hypertension. The review will specifically discuss the latest clinical trial findings, technological advancements in ablation modalities and expert guidelines for patient eligibility. Novel therapeutic applications beyond blood pressure (BP) control ...
Legrady Peter - - 2013
Aims: The neurovascular pulsatile compression of the rostral ventrolateral medulla can be divided into different subtypes. The posterior inferior cerebellar artery and/or vertebral artery can compress either the rostral ventrolateral medulla or the cranial nerves IX and X or both and on left, right or both sides. Methods: It was ...
Ezzahti Mustafa - - 2013
Catheter-based renal nerve ablation is a novel therapy for treatment-resistant hypertension. Although the precise mechanism is unknown, a reduction in global sympathetic tone and renal sympathetic tone, potentially resulting in a decrease in renin, may account for the antihypertensive effect. In 17 patients (mean age 51.2 ± 9.4 years) with treatment-resistant hypertension ...
Schmidl Doreen - - 2013
The present study set out to investigate whether nitric oxide, a potent vasodilator, is involved in the regulatory processes in optic nerve head blood flow during an experimental increase in intraocular pressure (IOP). The study was conducted in a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, three way cross-over design. 12 healthy subjects were ...
Schlaich Markus P MP Baker IDI Heart & Diabetes Institute/Heart Centre, Alfred Hospital and Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2013
Catheter-based radiofrequency ablation technology to disrupt both efferent and afferent renal nerves has recently been introduced to clinical medicine after the demonstration of significant systolic and diastolic blood pressure reductions. Clinical trial data available thus far have been obtained primarily in patients with resistant hypertension, defined as standardized systolic clinic ...
Hoffmann J - - 2013
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is a headache syndrome characterized by increased CSF pressure. Compression of the hypophysis and distension of the optic nerve sheath are reliable imaging signs. The purpose of the study was to validate, in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension, MR imaging-based volumetric measurements of the optic ...
Schwartz Christopher E CE Department of Pediatrics and Physiology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York; - - 2013
Withdrawal of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) may not be necessary for the precipitous fall of peripheral arterial resistance and arterial pressure (AP) during vasovagal syncope (VVS). We tested the hypothesis that the MSNA-AP baroreflex entrainment is disrupted before VVS regardless of MSNA withdrawal using the phase synchronization between blood ...
Wehrwein Erica - - 2013
The 21st century has brought renewed energy to the field of neural control of the cardiovascular system with interest in assessing directly the role of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) in initiating and/or maintaining an elevated level of arterial pressure in animal models of cardiovascular disease and in human subjects. Below ...
Bokhari Rakan F - - 2013
Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is a poorly understood entity as well as a source of continuous controversy in the neuroscientific community. The surgical management of this disease requires that intracranial pressure (ICP), also referred to as the cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP), be lowered using a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion procedure. ...
Kanai Takashi T Monash Centre of Cardiovascular Research & Education in Therapeutics (CCRE), School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, - - 2013
Hypertension is a major contributor to cardiovascular events, such as stroke and myocardial infarction, with accelerated sympathetic nerve activity implicated in its pathogenesis. However, hypertension in many patients is not adequately controlled, despite the availability of numerous medication classes. Novel procedure-as well as device-based strategies, such as percutaneous renal sympathetic ...
Kawada Toru - - 2013
Dynamic characteristics of arterial pressure (AP) regulation are important components in our understanding of rapid AP restoration by the arterial baroreflex system. The present study examined the effects of an L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker nifedipine on baroreflex-mediated dynamic AP regulation. In anesthetized and vagotomized rats, carotid sinus pressure was externally ...
Mabuchi Kunihiko - - 2013
We are currently developing an artificial arm/hand system which is capable of sensing stimuli and then transferring these stimuli to users as somatic sensations. Presently, we are evoking the virtual somatic sensations by electrically stimulating a sensory nerve fiber which innervates a single mechanoreceptor unit at the target area; this ...
Plachta Dennis T T - - 2013
The therapy of refractory hypertension is an increasing problem for health care systems and a frontend in research in both pharmacology and neuroelectronic engineering. Overriding the baroreceptive information of afferent nerve fibers, originating from pressure sensors in the aortic arch, can trigger the baroreflex, a systemic control system that lowers ...
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