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Results 351 - 400 of 1882
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Firbank Les G - - 2008
Agricultural intensification is best considered as the level of human appropriation of terrestrial net primary production. The global value is set to increase from 30%, increasing pressures on biodiversity. The pressures can be classified in terms of spatial scale, i.e. land cover, landscape management and crop management. Different lowland agricultural ...
Stockton Lesley - - 2009
INTRODUCTION: There are many static pressure-reducing cushions commercially available consisting of foams, gels, air or a combination of these. There is, however, little evidence available on their effectiveness to guide prescription. In practice, comfort tends to be a major factor in determining whether a pressure-reducing cushion will continue to be ...
Nthumba, P.M.
Background: Pressure ulcer management is difficult for the patient, relatives, doctor, and nursing staff and requires enormous resources. Management of multiple pressure ulcers in the spinal cord injured patient is a near-impossible task, especially in resource-deprived environments. The paraplegic, with multiple pressure ulcers, will frequently be managed under palliative care ...
Tsuji Leonard J S - - 2008
The use of lead shotshell to hunt water birds has been associated with lead-contamination in game meat. However, evidence illustrating that lead shotshell is a source of lead exposure in subsistence hunting groups cannot be deemed definitive. This study seeks to determine whether lead shotshell constitutes a source of lead ...
Coltman David W - - 2008
Size-selective harvesting favours reduced investment in growth and earlier age at reproduction. A recent study by Edeline and colleagues has shown that trait dynamics of Lake Windermere pike reflect the interplay of 50 years of harvest and natural selection. Growth and investment in early reproduction decreased under harvesting, and then ...
Goossens Richard H M - - 2008
Heels have substantially higher tissue interface pressures and are prone to ulceration compared to other bony prominences. Although many different types of alternating pressure air mattresses (APAMs) are used for the prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers, a few high-quality randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are available on which to base ...
Duan Xiaojing - - 2008
Subsurface drip distribution is an important on-site wastewater treatment technique widely used with various soil types and restricted site conditions. This study evaluated the performance of five subsurface wastewater drip products under eight pressures, ranging from 0 to 310 kPa. Results showed that Netafim Bioline pressure-compensating emitters (Netafim Irrigation Inc., ...
Cancio Leopoldo C - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Our purpose was to compare the Revised Trauma Score (RTS) with the new Field Triage Score (FTS) for prediction of mortality (MORT) and of need for massive transfusion (MASS, >or=10 units of packed cells or whole blood) in casualties arriving at combat support hospitals in Iraq. METHODS: Six hundred ...
Vangilder Catherine - - 2008
Pressure ulcers continue to be a significant problem for patients and healthcare facilities. Since 1989, results from the International Pressure Ulcer Prevalence surveys--observational, cross-sectional cohort studies--conducted by Hill-Rom, Batesville, Ind, have been used to document aggregate prevalence rates and provide acute care, long-term acute care, and long-term care facilities with ...
Frain Roxann - - 2008
Heel pressure ulcers are a major problem in healthcare today. They involve extended clinician time, patient discomfort, and increased healthcare costs. In an attempt to decrease the incidence of heel pressure ulcers in one long-term care facility, a 1-year program was implemented that involved residents of one long-term care unit. ...
Weng Min-Hsueh - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: In acute respiratory failure, non-invasive ventilation (NIV) treatment is used to prevent the need for intubation. NIV applied through a face mask may contribute to the development of facial skin lesions. This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of protective dressings and of using no materials for pressure ...
Wagnac Eric L - - 2008
Finite element (FE) models are very efficient tools to study internal stresses in human structures that induce severe pressure sores. Unfortunately, methods currently used to generate FE models are not suitable for clinical application involving wheelchair users. A clinical-oriented method, based on calibrated-biplanar radiographs, was therefore developed to generate a ...
McInerney Joan A - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To provide health care organizations with strategies for decreasing the prevalence of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers. DESIGN: Hospital-acquired pressure ulcer prevalence was measured every 6 months for 4.5 years while multiple strategies were implemented. SETTING: The study took place in a not-for-profit, 548-bed, 2-hospital system in Southwest Florida. PATIENTS: All ...
Kang, Sung-Jae
Air mattress is now used widely to prevent the pressure ulcer by reducing the localized pressure peaks. The pressure control method based on the anthrophometric model of an air-cell mattress developed in this study is presented. The air-cell mattress has 18 cylindrical air cells made of porous material allowing air ...
Haleem S - - 2008
Development of pressure sores during hospital admission causes morbidity and distress to the patient, increases strain on nursing resources, delaying discharge and possibly increasing mortality. A hip fracture in elderly patients is a known high-risk factor for development of pressure sores. We aimed to determine the current incidence of pressure ...
Solé Ricard V - - 2008
Modularity is known to be one of the most relevant characteristics of biological systems and appears to be present at multiple scales. Given its adaptive potential, it is often assumed to be the target of selective pressures. Under such interpretation, selection would be actively favouring the formation of modular structures, ...
Fogerty Mary D - - 2008
Selection of patients for preventive measures to protect against pressure ulcers relies on clinical scales and provider judgment, which vary widely. Our objectives were to: (a) identify risk factors by clinical classification and report demographic differences in pressure ulcer risk and (b) develop criteria for identification of high-risk patients. Patients ...
van der Wegen-Franken C P M - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: To calculate the dynamic stiffness index (DSI) of 18 different brands of medical elastic compression stockings (MECS). METHODS: In all, 18 different brands of MECS that were divided into five categories (class II round-knitted, class II flat-knitted, class III round-knitted, class III flat-knitted and class IV flat-knitted MECS) were ...
Suriadi - - 2008
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to evaluate the predictive validity and accuracy of a new pressure ulcer risk assessment scale in two Indonesia intensive care units (ICUs). BACKGROUND: Several risk assessment scales have been designed to identify patients at risk of developing pressure ulcers in ICU. However, the relative ...
Huang Desheng - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The effects of climate variations on bacillary dysentery incidence have gained more recent concern. However, the multi-collinearity among meteorological factors affects the accuracy of correlation with bacillary dysentery incidence. METHODS: As a remedy, a modified method to combine ridge regression and hierarchical cluster analysis was proposed for investigating the ...
Cullum Nicky - - 2008
Unrelieved pressure or friction of the skin, particularly over bony prominences, can lead to pressure ulcers in up to a third of people in hospitals or community care, and a fifth of nursing home residents. Pressure ulcers are more likely in people with reduced mobility and poor skin condition, such ...
Zong Wei - - 2008
To predict the need for vasopressor therapy, arterial blood pressure and heart rate are taken as inputs to a fuzzy-logic based algorithm that generates a 'vasopressor advisability index'. We evaluated the algorithm against patient records from a large intensive care database. The algorithm achieved a sensitivity of 69.7% and a ...
Zhong Wen - - 2008
A bedsore or pressure ulcer is an area of localized damage to the skin and underlying tissue caused by pressure, shear, friction, or a combination of these factors. In countries with a large geriatric population like Canada, this healthcare threat presents a significant risk to hospitalized patients, imposing huge cost ...
Timm Jane A - - 2008
Hospital acquired pressure ulcers are the focus of national attention. We report on a decision support system that notifies clinical nurse specialists of patients with pressure ulcers or risk for developing pressure ulcers. Auto-summed pressure ulcer risk and pressure ulcer occurrence data are embedded in nursing flowsheets, while the expert ...
Partsch B - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to measure the interface pressure of a newly designed two-layer compression stocking (Mediven ulcer kit Medi QMBH, Bayreuth, Germany) in different body positions and to compare the values with those obtained with another two-layer product. METHODS: Interface pressure was measured on the distal ...
Stinson M D - - 2008
PURPOSE: Pressure mapping systems provide useful information for pressure care assessment. Healthcare professionals tend to rely upon their colour-coded pressure maps to assist clinical decision-making, based on ranking these from best to worst pressure distribution. The current study investigated whether such ranking is an appropriate method of assessment when compared ...
Vetrichevvel T P - - 2008
Calluses are a diffuse area of hyperkeratosis occurring as a normal physiological response to chronic, excessive pressure or friction on the skin. They can be distinctive occupational stigmata when they occur on the hands. Herein we report the occurrence of calluses of the thumb in professional milkers as an occupational ...
Huber Jacqueline - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of elevation in the primary prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers by studying the blood flow in tissue at risk of ulceration. DESIGN: A prospective study was used to compare different preventative devices with an elevating prosthesis. SETTING:: Wollongong Hospital Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia. ...
Duan Wei - - 2008
Diurnal variations in photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence, xanthophyll cycle, antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant metabolism in leaves in response to low sink demand caused by fruit removal (-fruit) were studied in 'Zaojiubao' peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batch) trees during the final stage of rapid fruit growth. Compared with the retained fruit treatment ...
Janusz Karen - - 2008
AIM: Toothbrushing effectiveness can be improved with at-home reinforcement of proper technique. This study evaluated the ability of a power brush with a wireless remote display (Oral-B Triumph with SmartGuide) to improve brushing force and thoroughness. METHODS AND MATERIALS: At baseline, 61 pre-screened subjects were videotaped while brushing. The wireless ...
Bauer John - - 2008
After studying this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Understand and describe the physiology of pressure sore development. 2. Understand and describe population risk factors. 3. Understand and describe examination and classification. 4. Understand and describe common surgical treatment algorithms. 5. Understand and describe strategies for prevention and ...
Knipfer Thorsten - - 2008
Using the root pressure probe in the pressure clamping (PC) mode, the impact of internal unstirred layers (USLs) was quantified for young corn roots, both in experiments and in computer simulations applying the convection/diffusion model of Knipfer et al. In the experiments, water flows (J(Vr)s) during PC were analysed in ...
Bogie Kath - - 2008
Recent technological improvements have led to increasing clinical use of interface pressure mapping for seating pressure evaluation, which often requires repeated assessments. However, clinical conditions cannot be controlled as closely as research settings, thereby creating challenges to statistical analysis of data. A multistage longitudinal analysis and self-registration (LASR) technique is ...
Mistiaen Patriek - - 2008
Pressure ulcers are a major problem, especially in nursing home patients, although they are regarded as preventable and there are many pressure relieving methods and materials. One such pressure relieving material is the recently developed Australian Medical Sheepskin, which has been shown in two randomized controlled trials 12 to be ...
McInnes Elizabeth - - 2008
Pressure ulcers (also known as bedsores, pressure sores, decubitus ulcers) are areas of localised damage to the skin and underlying tissue due to pressure, shear or friction. They are common in the elderly and immobile and costly in financial and human terms. Pressure-relieving beds, mattresses and seat cushions are widely ...
Moore Zena E H ZE Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, 123 St Stephens Green, Dublin, Ireland, Dublin 15. - - 2008
Pressure ulcer risk assessment is a component of the assessment process used to identify individuals at risk of developing a pressure ulcer. Use of a risk assessment tool is recommended by many international pressure ulcer prevention guidelines however it is not known whether using a risk assessment tool makes a ...
Totino Paulo Renato Rivas - - 2008
It has been reported that an apoptotic cell death process can occur with protozoans, but no consensus on Plasmodium susceptibility to apoptosis was reached till now. Thus, we evaluated if Plasmodium falciparum blood forms undergo apoptosis after in vitro pressure with chloroquine, S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP) or staurosporine. Inhibition of parasite growth ...
de Kwaadsteniet Erik W - - 2007
This article investigates how justification pressures influence harvesting decisions in common resource dilemmas. The authors argue that when a division rule prescribes a specific harvest level, such as under environmental certainty, people adhere more strongly to this division rule when they have to justify their decisions to fellow group members. ...
Clark Russell D RD - - 2007
This study followed the performance of 35 professional golfers who played from 1997 to 2004 on the Professional Golfers Association Tour (PGA Tour) and investigated whether any players were prone to "choke" when placed in high-pressure situations. Choking was defined as a player having significantly higher than expected final round ...
Pagnamenta Fania - - 2007
The NICE pressure ulcer guidelines the management of pressure ulcers in primary and secondary care (2005) recommend 'as a minimum provision a high specification foam mattress'. With this statement NICE infers that if quality of care is to be offered, an alternating pressure mattress should be used. In the Newcastle ...
Gefen Amit - - 2007
Pressure-related deep tissue injury (DTI) is a life-risking form of pressure ulcers threatening immobilized and neurologically impaired patients. In DTI, necrosis of muscle and enveloping adipose tissues occurs under intact skin, owing to prolonged compression by bony prominences. Modeling the process of DTI in the buttocks requires knowledge on viscoelastic ...
Beeckman Dimitri - - 2007
AIM: This paper is a report of a study of the inter-observer reliability of the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel pressure ulcer classification system and of the differential diagnosis between moisture lesions and pressure ulcers. BACKGROUND: Pressure ulcer classification is a valuable tool to provide a common description of ulcer ...
Makhsous Mohsen - - 2007
The interface pressure is currently the only clinical tool to estimate the risk of sitting-related pressure ulcers. However, it provides little information on the loading condition in deep tissues. We present a comprehensive 3-D finite element (FE) model for human buttocks with the consideration of the joint configuration and realistic ...
Pafilis Panayiotis - - 2008
Caudal autotomy is an effective antipredator strategy widespread among lizards. The shed tail thrashes vigorously for long periods to distract the predator and facilitate the lizard's escape. This movement is maintained by energy supplied by the anaerobic conversion of glycogen into lactate. It has been suggested that lactate accumulation serves ...
Houwing, R.H.
Pressure ulcers (PU), also called bedsores or decubitus, present a significant problem in healthcare. This thesis addresses some aspects of the aetiology of PU. The possible benefit of interventions with nutrional supplementation and the use of a risk assessment tool are evaluated. The role of reactive oxygen species in the ...
Tescher Ann N - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Occipital pressure ulcers are well-known complications for trauma patients wearing cervical collars. We assessed the effects of four commercial cervical collars (Aspen, Philadelphia, Miami J, and Miami J with Occian back [Miami J/Occian]) on cervical range of motion (CROM) and mandibular and occipital tissue-interface pressure (TIP). METHODS: Forty-eight healthy ...
Theilla Miryam - - 2007
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Pressure ulcers are a significant burden in the ICU. Many factors have found to be associated with pressure ulcers including malnutrition. While it has been recognized that high protein diets decrease the incidence of pressure ulcers, the role of lipids as well as vitamins and antioxidants remains ...
Al-Ajlan Abdulaziz M - - 2007
Desert Locust, Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål), is one of the most important insect pests in Saudi Arabia. Cultivated crops and the range lands are heavily affected by desert locust in some regions of Saudi Arabia. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of damage by the Desert Locust, ...
Haddad Paul R - - 2008
This review provides a selected overview of some of the significant developments that have occurred in ion chromatography (IC) over recent years, together with some views on the future directions that IC will follow. The topics covered in the review include new stationary phases (especially monolithic phases), miniaturized IC systems ...
Lim Dohyung - - 2007
Excessive compressive load induces pressure related soft tissue damage, i.e. pressure ulcer (PU), in buttock area in wheelchair users. In solving this problem, our previous study has introduced a concept of Off-Loading sitting, which partially removes the ischial support to reduce pressure under buttocks. However, the effect of this sitting ...
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