Search Results
Results 551 - 600 of 1763
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Murakami Tomoaki - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Despite the relative successes in cardiac surgical repair, early onset of heart disease (hypertension, myocardial infarction, cardiac failure, and sudden death) is a common late complication in patients who have undergone repair of occlusive aortic vessels. Many hypotheses for the cause of this complication have been proposed, but these ...
Cullen John P - - 2005
We investigated the effect of ethanol on the pulse pressure-induced expression of PAI-1 and MMP-2/9 in human smooth muscle cells (SMC). Human SMC were exposed to static or pulse pressure (25 mL/min; pulse pressure 106/50 mm Hg) conditions for 24 h in the absence or presence of ethanol (0.1-100 mM). ...
Jourdan Claudia - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Sonographic evaluation of arterial wall morphology and elasticity is increasingly accepted as a non-invasive tool in cardiovascular assessment. Several studies suggest that intima-media thickness (IMT) and arterial elasticity indices may sensitively reflect different vasculopathic processes in children. However, normative values and the impact of adolescent growth are largely unknown. ...
Blacher Jacques - - 2005
Research studies on hypertension have, so far, generally focused on vascular resistance and small arteries. The high prevalence of systolic hypertension in patients older than 50 years and the development of noninvasive Doppler and echotracking techniques have made it possible to determine large-artery stiffness with a high degree of reproducibility. ...
Karatzi Kalliopi N - - 2005
BACKGROUND: To investigate red wine's acute effects on aortic pressures and arterial stiffness in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: Fifteen patients with CAD were recruited in a double-blind, cross-over study, which was comprised of 2 study days. Each volunteer consumed either 250 mL of regular or 250 mL ...
Hagaman John R JR University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, - - 2005
Study of the genetics of hypertension has been facilitated greatly by the use of mice with modified genes that affect blood pressure. A current successful method for measuring blood pressure in mice relies on detection of light passing through the tail to determine the pressure in a tail-cuff necessary to ...
Cannesson Maxime - - 2005
INTRODUCTION: Respiratory variation in arterial pulse pressure is a reliable predictor of fluid responsiveness in mechanically ventilated patients with circulatory failure. The main limitation of this method is that it requires an invasive arterial catheter. Both arterial and pulse oximetry plethysmographic waveforms depend on stroke volume. We conducted a prospective ...
Takenaka Tsuneo - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Reflection pressure may influence the clinical course of chronic kidney diseases (CKDs). The relationship between the augmentation index (AI) and progression of non-diabetic CKDs was characterized. METHODS: Ninety-nine patients were enrolled into the study. Pulse wave form analysis was performed to determine AI that assesses arterial stiffness. RESULTS: In ...
Dagre Anna G - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The association between hypothyroidism and increased vascular resistance, arterial wall thickening and endothelial dysfunction is well recognized. The aim of the present study was to examine if hypothyroid subjects have increased arterial stiffness, a risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. METHODS: Sixty-five subjects (59 females and 6 males) ...
Inatsugi Mikiko - - 2005
PURPOSE: We studied the relationship between minute distance calculated from pulmonary venous flow (PVF) velocity tracing and cardiac output (CO) measured with thermodilution method in patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery. METHODS: In 32 patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery, simultaneous measurements of hemodynamics including CO and transesophageal pulsed Doppler signals of PVF velocity ...
Shen Fabin - - 2005
We present a novel method for measuring the frequency response of a diaphragm-based optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometric pressure sensor. The impulse response of the sensor to the radiation pressure generated by an excimer laser pulse is measured. The Fourier transform of the impulse response yields the frequency response of the ...
Tsai Wei-Chuan - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is correlated with cardiovascular risk. This study presents a new method for measuring the arterial PWV by simultaneously recording the digital volume pulse through the finger and the toe by way of dual-channel photoplethysmography (PPG). METHODS: In this study, 100 asymptomatic subjects (54 men and ...
Kullo Iftikhar J - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Emerging data suggest that C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation, is associated with functional properties of arteries. We investigated the relationship of CRP to measures of arterial wave reflection and stiffness (aortic augmentation index [AIX], carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity [PWV], and pulse pressure) in asymptomatic individuals from the ...
Chemla Denis - - 2005
The aim of our study was twofold: 1) to establish a mathematical link between mean aortic pressure (MAP) and systolic (SAP) and diastolic aortic pressures (DAP) by testing the hypothesis that either the geometric mean or the harmonic mean of SAP and DAP were reliable MAP estimates; and 2) to ...
Lekakis John P - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Arterial stiffness is a risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and appears to be increased in arterial hypertension. The purpose of the present study was to relate systemic arterial stiffness assessed by pulse wave analysis to variables of 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in patients with essential ...
Hope Sarah A - - 2005
The objective of this study was to investigate the determinants of aortic pressure waveform morphology in the thoracoabdominal aorta with specific reference to features of potential prognostic value for cardiovascular disease. In particular, we aimed to determine the location of major pressure wave reflection sites within the aorta. Aortic pressure ...
Mitchell Gary F - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Arterial stiffness and mean arterial pressure variably contribute to systolic hypertension and increased cardiovascular risk. However, few prior community-based studies have evaluated the genetics of arterial stiffness and separate mean and pulsatile components of blood pressure. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using arterial tonometry, we evaluated heritability and linkage of forward ...
O'Rourke Michael F - - 2005
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The use of pulse wave analysis with arterial tonometry has accelerated over the last year. Despite approval from the US Food and Drug Administration in 2001 on the use of generalized transfer function to generate the central (aortic) pressure wave from the radial waveform, this technique is ...
Yasuoka K - - 2005
Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) offers a new technique for assessing aortic wall expansion/contraction velocities and may provide a noninvasive approach to aortic wall mechanics. The purpose of this study was to determine the normal values of abdominal aortic wall motion velocities and the effect of age on these velocities in ...
McEniery Carmel M - - 2005
Isolated systolic hypertension is a common condition in individuals aged older than 60 years. However, isolated systolic hypertension has also been described in young individuals, although the mechanisms are poorly understood. We hypothesized that in young adults, isolated systolic hypertension and essential hypertension have different hemodynamic mechanisms and the aim ...
Haluska B A - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Brachial pulse pressure (BPP) is a predictor of outcome in epidemiologic studies, but brachial and aortic pulse pressure (AoPP) may not correspond and both are influenced by multiple parameters including arterial properties and cardiac output. We sought to what extent pulse pressure (PP) measurements reflected direct measurement of arterial ...
Gaillard Virginie - - 2005
Specific treatment of age-related aortic wall arteriosclerosis and stiffening is lacking. Because ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma have beneficial effects on the arterial wall in atherosclerosis, via an antiinflammatory mechanism, we investigated whether long-term pioglitazone (Pio) treatment protects against another form of vascular wall disease, arteriosclerosis. We evaluated, in ...
Vlachopoulos Charalambos - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The effect of coffee consumption on the cardiovascular system is still an unresolved issue. Aortic stiffness and wave reflections are important prognosticators of cardiovascular disease risk. We have shown that caffeine acutely increases aortic stiffness and wave reflections. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to investigate the effect of chronic coffee ...
Ie E H Y - - 2005
An elevated pulse pressure leads to an increased pulsatile cardiac load, and results from arterial stiffening. The aim of our study was to test whether a reduction in volume overload by ultrafiltration (UF) during haemodialysis (HD) leads to an improvement of aortic compliance. In 18 patients, aortic compliance was estimated ...
Adedoyin Rufus A - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Studies into social inequalities in health tend to focus more on parental socio-economic status (SES) as it affects the children. We aimed to test the hypothesis that socio-economic inequalities would not affect the casual blood pressure among Nigerian adults. METHODS AND RESULTS: Resting blood pressure (BP) and pulse rate ...
Vlachopoulos Charalambos - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies suggest that high flavonoid intake confers a benefit on cardiovascular outcome. Endothelial function, arterial stiffness, and wave reflections are important determinants of cardiovascular performance and are predictors of cardiovascular risk. METHODS: The effect of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate (100 g) on endothelial function, aortic stiffness, wave reflections, and ...
Foo J Y A - - 2005
Characteristics obtained from peripheral pulses can be used to assess the status of cardiovascular system of subjects. However, nonintrusive techniques are preferred when prolonged monitoring is required for their comfort. Pulse transit time (PTT) measurement has showed its potentials to monitor timing changes in peripheral pulse in cardiovascular and respiratory ...
Sevcencu C C Center for Sensory-Motor Interaction (SMI), Department of Health Science and Technology, Aalborg University, Denmark. - - 2005
This work was performed to study electrically induced contractions in the descending colon of pigs. Contractions were monitored using impedance planimetry and manometry. The luminal pressure, cross-sectional area (CSA), latency and velocity of CSA decrease were compared when using 3 ms, 9, 12, 15 or 30 mA pulses at 10 ...
O'Rourke Michael F - - 2005
A close relationship has been established between microvascular damage in brain and kidney and indices of age and hypertension (pulse pressure, aortic pulse wave velocity, and augmentation index). The mechanism of such association has not been established, nor has rationale for prevention and treatment of microvascular damage. A logical pathophysiological ...
Verbeke Francis - - 2005
The advocated SphygmoCor procedure uses a radial-to-aorta transfer function with calibration on brachial instead of radial artery pressure to assess the central pulse pressure. We compared these values with carotid artery pulse pressures obtained from a validated calibration method, assuming mean minus diastolic blood pressure constant throughout the large artery ...
Foo Jong Yong A - - 2005
Pulse oximetry is commonly used as an arterial blood oxygen saturation (SaO2) measure. However, its other serial output, the photoplethysmography (PPG) signal, is not as well studied. Raw PPG signals can be used to estimate cardiovascular measures like pulse transit time (PTT) and possibly heart rate (HR). These timing-related measurements ...
Schillaci Giuseppe - - 2005
Metabolic syndrome is a powerful predictor of cardiovascular disease in hypertension, and large-artery stiffness is increasingly recognized as a cardiovascular risk factor. We hypothesized that the adverse prognostic significance of the metabolic syndrome in hypertension might be explained in part by its association with aortic stiffness. A total of 169 ...
Dao Huy Hao - - 2005
Arteriosclerosis, characterized by remodeling and stiffening of large elastic arteries is the most significant manifestation of vascular aging. The increased stiffening is believed to originate from a gradual mechanical senescence of the elastic network, alterations in cross-linking of extracellular matrix components, fibrosis and calcification of elastic fibers (medial elastocalcinosis). The ...
Phillips Craig - - 2005
Nocturnal and early morning elevation of blood pressure are common acute manifestations of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) that do not always carry over into a sustained daytime hypertension. Using pulse wave analysis, we examined the effect of OSA on arterial stiffness and central aortic blood pressure to assess whether each ...
Cockcroft J R - - 2005
Recent studies in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) have suggested that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors may have benefits beyond blood pressure reduction alone. Increased arterial stiffness, itself an emerging risk factor for CAD, adversely influences ventricular vascular interaction, leading to an increased central aortic pulse pressure. A number of ...
Fujiwara Yoshinori - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Knowledge about potentially modifiable risk factors for cognitive decline is limited at this time. The aim of this study was to determine the cross-sectional relationship between a low level of cognitive function and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) in a community-dwelling elderly population. METHODS: The study population included 352 ...
Chesterton Lindsay J - - 2005
INTRODUCTION: Vascular calcification is a critical determinant of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in chronic haemodialysis (HD) patients. The pathophysiology underlying this observation remains obscure. Baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS) is important in the maintenance of an appropriate cardiovascular status both at rest and under the physiological stress of HD. BRS is determined ...
Patrianakos A P - - 2006
To present a novel, non-invasive echocardiographic application to assess the structural and functional properties of the complex composition of the proximal aorta in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). 71 haemodialysis patients (mean (SD) age 61.3 (9.3) years, dialysis duration 79.2 (51.6) months) and 62 age matched controls were ...
Madias John E - - 2005
Increases in the P-wave duration (P-du) and P-wave dispersion (P-d) following hemodialysis (HD) are attributed to changes in the electrolytic milieu with HD, or are considered to be due to an unknown mechanism. Such changes are thought to be proarrhythmic, and thus have potential clinical implications. Increase in the amplitude ...
Khir A W - - 2005
We examine the effects of arterial occlusion on the pressure, velocity and the reflected waves in the ascending aorta using wave intensity analysis. In 11 anaesthetised, open-chested dogs, snares were used to produce total arterial occlusion at 4 sites: the upper descending aorta at the level of the aortic valve ...
Safar Michel E - - 2005
Systolic hypertension in the elderly involves an increase of arterial stiffness and early wave reflections, both of them causing a predominant or selective increase of systolic blood pressure. The mechanisms for such alterations remain largely unknown. The development of systolic hypertension includes constantly an age-related increase of sodium sensitivity and ...
de Simone Giovanni - - 2005
This study tests the hypothesis that high brachial pulse pressure might constitute preclinical cardiovascular disease, rather than a risk factor. We studied 1250 subjects (472 nonobese normotensive [<135/80 mm Hg] and 778 untreated hypertensive). Central pulse pressure was estimated from brachial pulse pressure and age and divided by stroke volume ...
Rutherford J J - - 2005
During voluntary hyperventilation in unanesthetized humans, hypocapnia causes coronary vasoconstriction and decreased oxygen (O(2)) supply and availability to the heart. This can induce local epicardial coronary artery spasm in susceptible patients. Its diagnostic potential for detection of early heart disease is unclear. This is because such hypocapnia produces an inconsistent ...
Pauca A L - - 2005
To determine how the vasodilator glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) alters arterial stiffness and improves left ventricular afterload. Ascending aortic pressure waves were measured with fluid filled catheters of high fidelity in 50 patients undergoing cardiac surgery, before cardiopulmonary bypass, both before and after intravenous infusion of GTN. In all 50 patients, ...
Chang Shih-Ling - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the electrocardiographic and electrophysiologic characteristics of right midseptal (RMS) and left midseptal (LMS) accessory pathways (APs), and to develop a stepwise algorithm to differentiate RMS from LMS APs. METHODS AND RESULTS: From May 1989 to February 2004, 1591 patients with ...
Sevcencu Cristian - - 2005
Electrical stimulation of the colon can improve transit in slow-transit constipation, or enable controlled emptying in colostomy patients. Preliminary studies showed that sequential stimulation of consecutive colon segments induced serial contractions resulting in colonic propulsion. This study was performed to optimize the stimulation parameters. The electrodes were inserted under the ...
Geddes Leslie A - - 2005
The duration of untreated (no cardiopulmonary resuscitation) ventricular fibrillation (VF) needed to produce postdefibrillation pulseless electrical activity (PEA) was determined in 9 anesthetized swine ranging in weight from 20 to 30 kg. VF was induced electrically by a right ventricular catheter electrode, while arterial pressure and the electrocardiogram were recorded. ...
Hirata Kozo - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: The substantial benefits of ramipril over conventional therapy in high-risk patients are not always associated with clinically significant differences in brachial arterial pressure, and largely remain unexplained. We undertook this acute study to establish the magnitude of and reason for different acute effects of ramipril and atenolol on arterial ...
Papaioannou Theodoros G - - 2005
1. Pulse pressure (PP) constitutes an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and mortality in various populations. Heart rate (HR) and arterial stiffness, in addition to their independent predictive value for cardiovascular complications, seem to interact with regard to the modification of PP. The aim of the present study was to ...
Stokes Gordon S - - 2005
Isosorbide mononitrate (ISMN) is effective in the short-term for decreasing systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, and pulse wave reflection in patients with systolic hypertension. To determine whether tolerance negates the efficacy of this nitrate in the long-term, a placebo-controlled study was performed in which ISMN was withdrawn briefly in a ...
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