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Results 301 - 350 of 1010
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Lee Jeong-Heon JH Perinatal Research Laboratory, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Center for Research in Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, - - 2013
Antenatal steroid administration is associated with multiple cardiometabolic alterations, including hypertension; however, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are unclear. The aim of the present study was to ascertain, in vivo, the contribution of the endothelin system to the development of hypertension in the adult offspring and the signaling pathway involved. ...
Papadopoulos Dimitris P - - 2013
Recent evidence demonstrates that masked hypertension (MH) is a significant predictor of cardiovascular disease, while apelin and relaxin are two novel factors with a significant role in vascular regulation. Apelin is an adipokine that elicits endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation and reduces arterial blood pressure, while relaxin is a protein hormone that induces ...
Adefurin Abiodun A Departments of Medicine and Pharmacology, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232, - - 2013
Blacks have increased hemodynamic responses to both physiological and pharmacological adrenergic stimulation compared with whites, and this may contribute to the greater prevalence of hypertension in this ethnic group. A small study suggested enhanced α1-adrenoreceptor-mediated arterial vasoconstriction in the forearm vasculature of blacks compared with whites, but it is unknown ...
Jiménez Caballero Pedro Enrique - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) are at increased risk for cerebrovascular diseases. The underlying mechanisms remain obscure. It may occur through a reduction in cerebral vascular reactivity. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is effective in reducing the occurrence of apneas. We hypothesized that treatment with CPAP improves ...
García-García Angel - - 2013
OBJECTIVES: To analyze the relationship of 24-h blood pressure variability (BPV) with vascular structure and function using the SD and the coefficient of variation (CV). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 344 hypertensive patients (aged 54.1±11.7 years, 59.6% men). BPV was estimated with the SD and ...
Kocaman Sinan A - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Hypertension, identifiable by elevated blood pressure (BP), is a heterogeneous multifactorial disorder. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT), a special fat depot that is related to visceral fat rather than total adiposity, shares the same microcirculation with myocardial tissue and coronary vessels. Recent studies have identified EAT as an active organ, ...
Alghamdi Mohammed M Division of Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, British Columbia Children's Hospital, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, - - 2013
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is known to cause increased arterial stiffness, which is an important independent risk factor for adverse cardiovascular events. The purpose of this study was to assess the vascular properties of the aorta (AO) in a group of children with CKD using a noninvasive echocardiography (echo)-Doppler method. ...
Villegas Leah R LR Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO 80045, - - 2013
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is characterized by an oxidant/antioxidant imbalance that promotes abnormal vascular responses. Reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide (O(2)(•-)), contribute to the pathogenesis of PH and vascular responses, including vascular remodeling and inflammation. This study sought to investigate the protective role of a pharmacological catalytic antioxidant, a superoxide ...
Raamat Rein - - 2013
To compare different algorithms to determine the oscillometric mean arterial pressure. Using a computer-based model, the accuracy of five algorithms was studied: maximum amplitude algorithm, 33 and 40% formulas calculating the mean arterial pressure from oscillometrically measured systolic and diastolic pressures, and two oscillation shape-based algorithms. We examined to which ...
Fang Chang - - 2013
Some studies have shown that serum resistin levels increase in hypertensive patients. Whether the increase of resistin is related to inflammatory or vascular endothelial function is still unknown. We investigated the relationship of increased resistin levels to inflammatory factors and circulating biomarkers of vascular endothelial function in hypertensive patients. One ...
Shirai Kohji - - 2013
Arterial stiffness has been known to be a surrogate marker of arteriosclerosis, and also of vascular function. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) had been the most popular index and was known to be a predictor of cardiovascular events. But, it depends on blood pressure at measuring time. To overcome this problem, ...
Bertera Facundo Martín - - 2013
An increase in blood pressure variability (BPV) contributes to the development of target organ damage associated with hypertension. Treatment with conventional β-blockers, such as atenolol, has been associated with an increase in BPV; however, the extrapolation of these results to third generation β-blockers with pleiotropic effects seems to be inappropriate. ...
Ojeda Norma B NB Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39216, - - 2013
This study tested the hypothesis that Rho kinase contributes to the enhanced pressor response to acute angiotensin II in intact male growth-restricted and gonadectomized female growth-restricted rats. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and renal function were determined in conscious animals pretreated with enalapril (250 mg/l in drinking water) for 1 wk ...
Huang Jen-Hung - - 2013
Abstract Background: Androgen is a steroid hormone associated with high blood pressure (BP). The effect of androgen on BP in females is unknown. Methods: Androgen, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-6 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 were evaluated in females with menstruation disorders (n = 135, 28 ± 5 years old) and normal BP, ...
Malan L - - 2013
OBJECTIVES: Defensive coping (AC) responses in urban African males have been associated with vascular responsiveness, partly explaining autonomic nervous system dysfunction. We therefore aimed to assess whether AC responses facilitate higher blood pressure and early sub-clinical structural vascular disease via alterations in frequency- and time-domain heart rate variability (HRV) responses. ...
Ilhan Selcuk - - 2013
Objective: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of melatonin on biochemical and cardiovascular changes resulting from exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxin.Methods: A total of 24 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided equally into the following four groups: (1) control group was administered with 0.5 mL ...
van den Bogaard Bas - - 2013
BACKGROUND Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and labetalol are recommended for the immediate treatment of malignant hypertension. Both are intravenous agents but have different effects on systemic hemodynamics, and may have differential effects on pulse-wave reflection and pulse-pressure amplification, with consequences for peripheral versus central blood pressures (BPs). METHODS We conducted a ...
Holobotovskyy Vasyl V Western Australian Institute for Medical Research, Rear, 50 Murray St, Perth, WA 6010, - - 2013
Regulator of G-protein signaling 5 (RGS5) modulates G-protein-coupled receptor signaling and is prominently expressed in arterial smooth muscle cells. Our group first reported that RGS5 is important in vascular remodeling during tumor angiogenesis. We hypothesized that RGS5 may play an important role in vessel wall remodeling and blood pressure regulation. ...
Fairfax Seth T ST Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65212 - - 2013
Previous studies in humans attempting to assess sympathetic vascular transduction have related large reflex-mediated increases in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) to associated changes in limb vascular resistance. However, such procedures do not provide insight into the ability of MSNA to dynamically control vascular tone on a beat-by-beat basis. Thus ...
Liang Bin - - 2013
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays a critical role in ensuring proper folding of newly synthesized proteins. Aberrant ER stress is reported to play a causal role in cardiovascular diseases. However, the effects of ER stress on vascular smooth muscle contractility and blood pressure remain unknown. The aim of this study ...
Tan Can Ozan - - 2013
Despite its critical role for cardiovascular homeostasis in humans, only a few studies have directly probed the transduction of sympathetic nerve activity to regional vascular responses - sympathetic neurovascular transduction. Those that have variably relied on either vascular resistance or vascular conductance to quantify the responses. However, it remains unclear ...
London Gérard M - - 2013
Background: Accelerated arterial aging and inadequate outward arterial remodeling are observed in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Whether these changes could be closely associated with arterial calcifications has never been investigated. Methods: 155 ESRD patients and 105 age-, sex-, and blood pressure-matched control subjects were included. Common carotid artery (CCA) ...
d'El-Rei Jenifer - - 2013
Recent findings indicate an inverse relationship between cardiovascular disease and consumption of flavonoids. We aimed to identify clinical and vascular parameters of treated hypertensive who present beneficial effects of dark chocolate for one-week period on vascular function. Twenty-one hypertensive subjects, aged 40-65 years, were included in a prospective study with measurement ...
Zhang Li-Xin - - 2013
Background: ZCM298 is a novel 1,4-dihydropyridine derivative. The aim of the study was to investigate its vasodilation and hypotension, and the related mechanisms. Methods: The isometric tension of artery ring segments was recorded using an in vitro myography system. The blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) was measured in ...
Sun Cheuk-Kwan - - 2013
Arterial stiffness has been identified as an independent predictor of prognostic outcomes for patients with cardiovascular disease. Although measurement of pulse wave velocity has been a widely accepted noninvasive approach to the assessment of arterial stiffness, its accuracy is hampered by changes in blood pressure. Taking the exponential relation between ...
Litvin Ay - - 2013
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on arterial stiffness, central blood pressure, and reflected pulse wave characteristics in patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and stage 2-3 arterial hypertension. Forty-four patients with hypertension and severe OSA (apnea/hypopnea index > ...
Shahid Mohd - - 2013
Pressure myograph systems are exquisitely useful in the functional assessment of small arteries, pressurized to a suitable transmural pressure. The near physiological condition achieved in pressure myography permits in-depth characterization of intrinsic responses to pharmacological and physiological stimuli, which can be extrapolated to the in vivo behavior of the vascular ...
Uangpairoj Pichitra - - 2013
A simple method of estimating arterial elasticity in the human finger using a volume-oscillometric technique with photoplethysmography was principally studied under the various effects of age, sex, and cold-stress stimulation for testing the capability of using this technique in arterial elasticity analysis. Amplitude variations in the alternating current signal of ...
Gray Clint - - 2013
Maternal undernutrition results in elevated blood pressure (BP) and endothelial dysfunction in adult offspring. However, few studies have investigated interventions during early life to ameliorate the programming of hypertension and vascular disorders. We have utilised a model of maternal undernutrition to examine the effects of pre-weaning growth hormone (GH) treatment ...
Krzesiński Paweł - - 2013
Arterial hypertension might be caused by hemodynamic disturbances such as fluid retention, increased vascular resistance, and hyperdynamic function of the heart. The aim of this study was to estimate the effectiveness of antihypertensive therapy based on hemodynamic assessment by impedance cardiography in a randomized, prospective, controlled trial. This study involved ...
Hao Chang-Ning - - 2013
Hypertension is considered as one of the major risk factors of atherosclerosis, especially for carotid artery plaque, which is a sign for cardiovascular incapacity and cerebral infarction. As adult age, systolic blood pressure (SBP or S) tends to rise and diastolic blood pressure (DBP or D) tends to fall, thus ...
Simko Fedor - - 2013
Melatonin secreted by the pineal gland plays an important role in the regulation of blood pressure (BP) and its administration reduces hypertension both in animals and humans. There are two experimental models of melatonin-deficient hypertension: one induced by pinealectomy and another by continuous 24 hour exposure to light. Both models ...
Rodriguez-Iturbe Bernardo - - 2013
Impairment of the pressure natriuresis relationship is a central event in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Renal tubulointerstitial inflammation results in salt-sensitive hypertension and, until recently, the changes in pressure natriuresis induced by renal inflammation received little attention. Oxidative stress and increased intrarenal angiotensin II activity, in association with rarefaction and ...
Maki Kevin C - - 2013
This randomized crossover trial assessed the effects of 5 weeks of consuming low-fat dairy (one serving/day each of 1% fluid milk, low-fat cheese, and low-fat yogurt) versus nondairy products (one serving/day each of apple juice, pretzels, and cereal bar) on systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP and DBP), vascular function ...
Gong H T - - 2013
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system plays a key role in regulating blood pressure by maintaining vascular tone and the water/sodium balance. Many antihypertensive drugs target the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, but the effect differs considerably among hypertensive patients. We investigated whether genetic variants of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor are associated with blood ...
Leong Xin-Fang - - 2013
Hypertension increases the risk for a variety of cardiovascular diseases, including stroke, coronary artery disease, heart failure, and peripheral vascular disease. The increase in oxidative stress has been associated with the pathogenesis of hypertension. Increase of blood pressure is due to an imbalance between antioxidants defence mechanisms and free radical ...
Renna Nicolás F - - 2013
Vascular remodeling refers to alterations in the structure of resistance vessels contributing to elevated systemic vascular resistance in hypertension. We start with some historical aspects, underscoring the importance of Glagov's contribution. We then move to some basic concepts on the biomechanics of blood vessels and explain the definitions proposed by ...
Bellavia Andrea - - 2013
Short-term exposures to fine (<2.5 μm aerodynamic diameter) ambient particulate-matter (PM) have been related with increased blood pressure (BP) in controlled-human exposure and community-based studies. However, whether coarse (2.5 to 10 μm) PM exposure increases BP is uncertain. Recent observational studies have linked PM exposures with blood DNA hypomethylation, an ...
Houston Mark C - - 2013
Macronutrient and micronutrient deficiencies are very common in the general population and may be even more common in patients with hypertension and cardiovascular disease due to genetic or environmental causes and prescription drug use. These deficiencies will have an enormous impact on present and future cardiovascular health and outcomes, such ...
Stegbauer Johannes - - 2013
NO/cGMP signaling plays an important role in vascular relaxation and regulation of blood pressure. The key enzyme in the cascade, the NO-stimulated cGMP-forming guanylyl cyclase exists in two enzymatically indistinguishable isoforms (NO-GC1, NO-GC2) with NO-GC1 being the major NO-GC in the vasculature. Here, we studied the NO/cGMP pathway in renal ...
Su Zhenbi Z Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309, - - 2013
We develop a simple computational model based on measurements from a hypoxic neonatal calf model of pulmonary hypertension (PH) to investigate the interplay between vascular and ventricular measures in the setting of progressive PH. Model parameters were obtained directly from in vivo and ex vivo measurements of neonatal calves. Seventeen ...
Pushpakumar Sathnur B SB Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, Kentucky, United States of - - 2013
Clinical data suggests an association between systolic hypertension, renal function and hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy). HHcy is a state of elevated plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels and is known to cause vascular complications. In this study, we tested the hypothesis whether Ang II-induced hypertension increases plasma Hcy levels and contributes to renovascular remodeling. ...
Harrison David G DG Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA. - - 2013
More than 60 years ago, Dr. Irvine Page proposed the Mosaic Theory of hypertension, which states that many factors, including genetics, environment, adaptive, neural, mechanical, and hormonal perturbations interdigitate to raise blood pressure. In the past two decades, it has become clear that common molecular and cellular events in various ...
Yang Runze R University of Calgary, Department of Radiology, Calgary, Alberta, - - 2013
Angiogenesis is a hallmark of many conditions, including cancer, stroke, vascular disease, diabetes, and high-altitude exposure. We have previously shown that one can study angiogenesis in animal models by using total hemoglobin (tHb) as a marker of cerebral blood volume (CBV), measured using broadband near-infrared spectroscopy (bNIRS). However, the method ...
Guimarães Danielle A DA Department of Pharmacology, Ribeirao Preto Medical School, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes 3900, Ribeirao Preto 14049-900, SP, - - 2013
Nitric oxide (NO)-derived metabolites including the anion nitrite can recycle back to NO and thus complement NO formation independent of NO synthases. While nitrite is as a major vascular storage pool and source of NO, little is known about drugs that increase tissue nitrite concentrations. This study examined the effects ...
Holwerda Seth W SW University of Missouri, Columbia, - - 2013
In the therapeutic setting, cryotherapy with varying levels of intermittent cyclical compression often replaces an ice bag and elastic wrap. However, little is known about the cardiovascular strain and tissue temperature decreases associated with cooling and intermittent compression. The authors hypothesized that higher levels of intermittent compression will result in ...
Bond Vernon V Jr Department of Health, Human Performance & Leisure Studies and the Cancer Center Physical Medicine & Nutrition Laboratory, Howard University, Washington, DC 20059, - - 2013
Cerebral blood flow dysregulation is often associated with hypertension. We hypothesized that a beetroot juice (BRJ) treatment could decrease blood pressure and cerebrovascular resistance (CVR). We subjected 12 healthy females to control and BRJ treatments. Cerebrovascular resistance index (CVRI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), total vascular resistance (TVR), and the heart ...
Dovinová Ima I Institute of Normal and Pathological Physiology, SAS, Sienkiewiczova 1, 813 71 Bratislava, - - 2013
PPAR γ receptor plays an important role in oxidative stress response. Its agonists can influence vascular contractility in experimental hypertension. Our study was focused on the effects of a PPAR γ agonist pioglitazone (PIO) on blood pressure regulation, vasoactivity of vessels, and redox-sensitive signaling at the central (brainstem, BS) and ...
Gattinoni Luciano L Dipartimento di Anestesia, Rianimazione (Intensiva e Subintensiva) e Terapia del Dolore, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda - Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Via Francesco Sforza 35, 20122 Milan, Italy. - - 2013
Assessment and monitoring of hemodynamics is a cornerstone in critically ill patients as hemodynamic alteration may become life-threatening in a few minutes. Defining normal values in critically ill patients is not easy, because 'normality' is usually referred to healthy subjects at rest. Defining 'adequate' hemodynamics is easier, which embeds whatever ...
Carpenter William E WE Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, - - 2013
Copper and zinc are essential trace biometals that regulate cardiovascular homeostasis, and dysregulation of these metals has been linked to vascular diseases, including hypertension. In this article, we review recent human population studies concerning this topic, focusing on: 1) the relationship between blood pressure and levels of zinc and copper; ...
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