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Eiken Ola - - 2013
Recent studies are reviewed, concerning the in vivo wall stiffness of arteries and arterioles in healthy humans, and how these properties adapt to iterative increments or sustained reductions in local intravascular pressure. A novel technique was used, by which arterial and arteriolar stiffness was determined as changes in arterial diameter ...
Crestani Sandra - - 2013
A high salt diet is associated with reduced activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). However, normotensive rats exposed to high sodium do not show changes in systemic arterial pressure. We hypothesized that, despite the reduced circulating amounts of angiotensin II induced by a high salt diet, the cardiovascular system's reactivity ...
Calò Lorenzo A - - 2013
Injury of vascular endothelium, crucial in vascular disease, is repaired via circulating endothelial progenitor cells (cEPCs). In hypertension, cEPCs number is reduced and function impaired adding further risk for cardiovascular (CV) events. Angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced oxidative stress (OxSt), accelerates cEPCs senescence. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), able to prevent and ...
Hyde Eoin R - - 2013
A method to extract myocardial coronary permeabilities appropriate to parameterise a continuum porous perfusion model using the underlying anatomical vascular network is developed. Canine and porcine whole-heart discrete arterial models were extracted from high-resolution cryomicrotome vessel image stacks. Five parameterisation methods were considered that are primarily distinguished by the level ...
Sollinger Daniel - - 2013
Recent publications have shed new light on the role of the adaptive and the innate immune system in the pathogenesis of hypertension. However there are limited data whether receptors of the innate immune system may influence blood pressure. Toll-like receptor 4, a pattern recognition receptor, is a key component of ...
Yoda Koichiro - - 2013
ObjectiveMorning blood pressure surge (MBPS) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events. However, little is known on the association between glycemic control and MBPS and its effect on vascular injury in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The present study examined the association between glycemic control and MBPS and ...
Silveira Edna Aparecida - - 2013
Chronic lead exposure induces hypertension affecting endothelial function. We investigated whether small concentration lead exposure alters blood pressure and vascular reactivity focusing on the role of NO, oxidative stress, cyclooxygenase-derived vasoconstrictor prostanoids and the local angiotensin renin system. Aortic rings from 3-month old Wistar rats were treated daily with lead ...
Ghiadoni Lorenzo - - 2013
Endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness are early vascular alterations, linked to oxidative stress and inflammation, with prognostic significance in essential hypertensive patients. P2X7 receptors (P2X7R), responding to extracellular ATP, are encoded by a highly polymorphic gene and modulate inflammatory responses and cell growth, potentially playing a role in the control ...
Prasad Kailash K Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, - - 2013
Secoisolariciresionol diglucoside (SDG) is a plant lignan isolated from flaxseed and is phytoestrogen. SDG is a potent and long-acting hypotensive agent. Plant phytoestrogens have inhibitory effects on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). The hypotensive effects of SDG, a phytoestrogen, may be mediated through inhibition of ACE. The objective of this study was ...
Stea Francesco F aInstitute of Clinical Physiology, National Research Council bDepartment of Internal Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, - - 2013
Arterial stiffening has harmful effects; peripheral pulse wave reflections deleteriously increase central pressure, but on the contrary they could also possibly be protective, as the pulse is transmitted to the microcirculation to a lesser extent. The aim of this study was, therefore, to explore the relationship between wave reflection and ...
Sabbatini A R - - 2013
Resistant hypertension (RHTN) includes patients with controlled blood pressure (BP) (CRHTN) and uncontrolled BP (UCRHTN). In fact, RHTN patients are more likely to have target organ damage (TOD), and resistin, leptin and adiponectin may affect BP control in these subjects. We assessed the relationship between adipokines levels and arterial stiffness, ...
Kontaraki J E - - 2013
Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotypic plasticity has a critical role in the pathophysiology of arterial remodeling in essential hypertension. MicroRNAs are emerging as potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets in cardiovascular disease. We assessed the expression levels of the microRNAs miR-143, miR-145, miR-21, miR-133 and miR-1, which are implicated in ...
Ferrario Carlos M - - 2013
Knowledge of hemodynamic factors accounting for the development of hypertension should help to tailor therapeutic approaches and improve blood pressure control. Few data exist regarding sex differences of hemodynamic factors contributing to hypertension progression among patients with untreated nondiabetic stage I and II prehypertension (PreHyp) as defined by the Joint ...
Benjamin Mina M MM Department of Internal Medicine, Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, Texas. Electronic address: - - 2013
Renal artery stenosis (RAS) is a common cause of secondary hypertension. Renal artery angiography is the gold standard for diagnosing RAS. The aim of this study is to report (1) the prevalence of RAS in patients with resistant hypertension and (2) the association of RAS with peripheral vascular disease (PVD) ...
de Lima Silveira Ludmila - - 2013
Studies have demonstrated that median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) neurons play a role in organizing the cardiovascular responses induced by changes in the circulating blood volume. The present study examined whether the MnPO controls cardiovascular function. Male Wistar normotensive (NT) rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs; 250-300g) were anesthetized with urethane ...
Tarkin Jason M - - 2013
BACKGROUND: WE STUDIED THE HEMODYNAMIC RESPONSE TO INTRAVENOUS ADENOSINE ON CALCULATION OF FRACTIONAL FLOW RESERVE (FFR). INTRAVENOUS ADENOSINE IS WIDELY USED TO ACHIEVE CONDITIONS OF STABLE HYPEREMIA FOR MEASUREMENT OF FFR. HOWEVER, INTRAVENOUS ADENOSINE AFFECTS BOTH SYSTEMIC AND CORONARY VASCULAR BEDS DIFFERENTIALLY.METHODS AND RESULTS: A TOTAL OF 283 PATIENTS (310 ...
Hage F G - - 2013
C-reactive protein (CRP), the prototypical acute-phase reactant, is one of the most widely known biomarkers of cardiovascular disease. Circulating levels of CRP are clinically used to predict the occurrence of cardiovascular events and to aide in the selection of therapies based on more accurate risk assessment in individuals who are ...
Friedman J K - - 2013
Sleep apnea (SA), defined as intermittent respiratory arrest during sleep, is associated with increased incidence of hypertension, peripheral vascular disease, stroke, and sudden cardiac death. We have shown that intermittent hypoxia with CO2 supplementation (IH), a model for SA, increases blood pressure and circulating ET-1 levels, upregulates lung pre-pro ET-1 ...
Bouchacourt Juan P - - 2013
The use of vasoconstrictor can affect the dynamic indices to predict fluid responsiveness. We investigate the effects of an increase of vascular tone on dynamic variables of fluid responsiveness in a rabbit model of hemorrhage, and to examine the ability of the arterial pressure surrogates dynamic indices to track systolic ...
Castorena-Gonzalez Jorge A JA Dalton Cardiovascular Research Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, USA; Department of Biological Engineering, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, - - 2013
The resistance arteries and arterioles are the vascular components of the circulatory system where the greatest drop in blood pressure takes place. Consequently these vessels play a preponderant role in the regulation of blood flow and the modulation of blood pressure. For this reason, the inward remodeling process of the ...
Suzuki Ryo - - 2013
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) induce neovascularization and repair vascular damage. We have demonstrated that EPC function is impaired in hypertensive rats with increases in oxidative stress and that angiotensin II receptor blockers improved the impaired function of EPCs. In this study, we investigated basal EPC functions in normotensive control subjects ...
Adrogué Horacio J - - 2013
The pathogenic role of Na(+) in primary hypertension is widely recognized but that of K(+) remains unappreciated. Yet, extensive evidence indicates that together, the body's dominant cations constitute the chief environmental factor in the pathogenesis of hypertension and its cardiovascular sequelae. In this Review, we provide a synthesis of the ...
Titze Jens - - 2013
Extracellular volume expansion may lead to elevated blood pressure. This long-term adaptation of the vascular bed to extracellular volume overload is considered a multifactorial and not perfectly understood 'autoregulatory' event, which is difficult to measure. In this issue, Ebah and colleagues demonstrate a direct relationship between fluid overload and pressure ...
Asgary Sedigheh S Professor, Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, - - 2013
Pomegranate juice (PJ) is rich in bioactive phytochemicals with antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective functions. The present trial investigated the acute effects of PJ consumption on blood pressure and markers of endothelial function. In this single-arm study, thirteen hypertensive men aged 39-68 years were recruited. Included subjects were assigned to ...
Neal Bruce - - 2013
There is unequivocal evidence that increased sodium intake is associated with increased blood pressure, and that increased blood pressure leads to increased risk of vascular diseases. Unfortunately, the published evidence directly linking sodium intake to vascular risk is inconsistent and confusing. This review, emphasising recent developments in national and international ...
Lai Chi-Cheng - - 2013
<sec id="st1"><title>ABSTRACT</title> <bold><italic>Purpose:</italic></bold> Translesional pressure ratio (TLPR) indicating fractional flow reserve has been applied to physiological assessment of moderate coronary stenosis. The role of TLPR in hemodialysis (HD) patients with arteriovenous graft (AVG) outflow stenosis undergoing percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) is unclear. The purpose of the study was to assess ...
Chang Chen-Shu - - 2013
Abstract Vascular cytokines, total nitrite, and cyclophilin-A (CyP-A) may be related to the pathogenesis of untreated hypertension. Forty males with normotensive and untreated essential hypertension were recruited in this cytokines survey. Body mass index (BMI), hyperlipidemia, and plasma CyP-A were increased in the hypertensive group (p < 0.05). However, only BMI (p = 0.022) ...
Borgers Anke J - - 2013
The arterial baroreflex regulates blood pressure by modifying heart rate and systemic vascular resistance. Baroreflex sensitivity is expressed as the relation between changes in blood pressure and the resulting changes in reciprocal values of heart rate (cardBRS) and in reciprocal values of vascular resistance (vascBRS). This study investigated determinants of ...
Koumaras Charalambos - - 2013
Antihypertensive agents may, even within the same class, exert variable effects on arterial stiffness variables. Nebivolol could have a better impact than atenolol on arterial stiffness, by increasing the bioavailability of endothelium-derived nitric oxide. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) increase plasma renin activity (enhancing the production ...
Hughes Timothy M TM From the Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health (T.M.H., L.H.K., E.J.M.B.-M., R.H.M.), and the Departments of Neurology (E.M.M., B.E.S., O.L.L.), Psychiatry (W.E.K., H.J.A., A.D.C.), and Radiology (C.A.M.), School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, PA; and the Office of the Dean and Department of Neurology (S.T.D.), School of Medicine, University of Virginia, - - 2013
To determine arterial stiffness and β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition in the brain of dementia-free older adults. We studied a cohort of 91 dementia-free participants aged 83-96 years. In 2009, participants completed brain MRI and PET imaging using Pittsburgh compound B (PiB; a marker of amyloid plaques in human brain). In 2011, ...
Vogel Britta - - 2013
Renal sympathetic denervation (RDN) is a novel treatment option in patients with treatment-resistant arterial hypertension. A subset of recently published randomized and non-randomized trials indicates that RDN leads to sustained lowering of blood pressure (BP) under controlled study conditions. However, registry data that allow evaluation of safety and efficacy in ...
Karamat Fares A - - 2013
Hypertension remains the main risk factor for cardiovascular death. Environmental and biological factors are known to contribute to the condition, and circulating creatine kinase was reported to be the main predictor of blood pressure in the general population. This was proposed to be because of high resistance artery creatine kinase-BB ...
Jones Anne - - 2013
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality which may be mediated by increased arterial stiffness and endothelial dysfunction. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy improves excessive daytime somnolence (EDS), but its effect on vascular function in patients without preexisting cardiovascular disease (CVD) is unclear. Fifty-three ...
Durrand J W - - 2013
Inter-arm differences in blood pressure may confound haemodynamic management in vascular surgery. We evaluated 898 patients in the vascular pre-assessment clinic to determine the prevalence of inter-arm differences in systolic and mean arterial pressure, quantify the consequent risk of clinical error in siting monitoring peri-operatively and evaluate systolic inter-arm difference ...
Antonio Raquel C - - 2013
Increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) levels are involved in vascular remodeling of hypertension. In this study, we hypothesized that doxycycline (a MMP inhibitor) could exert antioxidant effects, reverse establish vascular remodeling, and lower blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). SHR and Wistar-Kyoto rats received either doxycycline at 30 mg/kg/day by gavage ...
Liu Alex H - - 2013
An increase in nitrate intake can augment circulating nitrite and nitric oxide. This may lead to lower blood pressure and improved vascular function. Green leafy vegetables, such as spinach, are rich sources of nitrate. We aimed to assess the acute effects of a nitrate-rich meal containing spinach on arterial stiffness ...
Blanch N - - 2013
Endothelial dysfunction, as assessed by flow mediated dilatation (FMD) is an early event in atherosclerosis and an independent predictor of cardiovascular events. The effect of potassium supplementation on endothelial function and blood pressure (BP) in the postprandial state is not known. The aim of this study was to assess endothelial ...
Teren Andrej - - 2013
Ankle-brachial-Index (ABI) measured by manual Dopplersonography is an easily assessable marker of global cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to establish novel photo-plethysmography (PPG)-based ABI assessments in an epidemiologic context and to compare its results with those of Doppler. Two devices for PPG-based ABI assessments (Vicorder, Vascular Explorer) ...
Cowburn Andrew S AS Departments of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience and Medicine, University of Cambridge CB2 3EG, Cambridge, United - - 2013
Vascular flow through tissues is regulated via a number of homeostatic mechanisms. Localized control of tissue blood flow, or autoregulation, is a key factor in regulating tissue perfusion and oxygenation. We show here that the net balance between two hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) transcription factor isoforms, HIF-1α and HIF-2α, is an ...
Kearney Thérèse M TM Northern Ireland Centre for Food and Health (University of Ulster), Coleraine, Northern - - 2014
Arterial stiffness is a major contributor to the development of atherosclerosis and consequently cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to examine whether 6 months of accumulated (3 × 10 minutes, 5 days/week) brisk walking was sufficient to reduce arterial stiffness in sedentary, overweight individuals. Seventy-seven individuals (19 men, 58 women; age, 30-55 years) were randomly allocated ...
Houston Mark - - 2013
Vascular biology, endothelial and vascular smooth muscle, and cardiac dysfunction play a primary role in the initiation and perpetuation of hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and target organ damage. Nutrient-gene interactions and epigenetics are predominant factors in promoting beneficial or detrimental effects in cardiovascular health and hypertension. Macronutrients and micronutrients can prevent, ...
Houston Mark - - 2013
Vascular biology, endothelial and vascular smooth muscle, and cardiac dysfunction play a primary role in the initiation and perpetuation of hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and target organ damage. Nutrient-gene interactions and epigenetics are predominant factors in promoting beneficial or detrimental effects in cardiovascular health and hypertension. Macronutrients and micronutrients may be ...
Kim Won Young - - 2013
The accuracy of arterial blood pressure (ABP) monitoring is crucial in treating septic shock patients. Clinically significant differences in central to peripheral ABP could develop into sepsis during vasopressor therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the difference between radial (peripheral) and femoral (central) ABP in septic shock ...
Houston Mark - - 2013
Vascular biology, endothelial and vascular smooth muscle, and cardiac dysfunction play a primary role in the initiation and perpetuation of hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and target organ damage. Nutrient-gene interactions and epigenetics are predominant factors in promoting beneficial or detrimental effects in cardiovascular health and hypertension. Macronutrients and micronutrients can prevent, ...
Nishimura Mie M Department of Medical Management and Informatics, Hokkaido Information University, Hokkaido, Japan. ; Section of Research and Development, Hokkaido Food Industry Promotion Organization, - - 2013
Asparagus ( Lú Sǔn; Asparagus officinalis L.) is a common vegetable, long used as an herbal medicine. The cladophylls and bottom-stems of asparagus have various pharmacological effects, but they are generally discarded at harvesting. The present open clinical trial was performed to examine the effects of the intake of cladophylls ...
Lv Gui-Yuan - - 2013
Flos Chrysanthemi is used in a variety of diseases in traditional Chinese medicine including hypertension, and the total flavonoids (rich in Luteolin (LUT) and Buddleoside(BUD)) of Flos Chrysanthemi is known to modulate vascular functions and reduce the blood pressure. However, the active flavonoids and their synergistic effects on anti-hypertension are ...
Burke Marilyn - - 2013
Diabetes and hypertension are the leading causes of chronic kidney disease and their incidence is increasing at an alarming rate. Both are associated with impairments in the autoregulation of renal blood flow (RBF) and greater transmission of fluctuations in arterial pressure to the glomerular capillaries. The ability of the kidney ...
Thiele Robert - - 2013
Arterial pressure-flow loops and vascular impedance provide additional data that could be used to assess the hemodynamic effects of therapeutic interventions in anesthetized patients. To evaluate the utility of such an approach, the authors sought to design a device that combines flow waveforms from an esophageal Doppler probe and pressure ...
Lampinen K H - - 2013
A history of pre-eclampsia increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity by mechanisms yet unknown. The aim of the present study was to assess whether plasma norepinephrine (NE) levels are increased 5-6 years after pre-eclamptic pregnancy and to investigate associations with pathophysiological mechanisms of cardiovascular disease: insulin sensitivity, vascular function and ...
Graham U M - - 2013
There is limited evidence on the effect of potassium supplementation on the vasculature in patients at increased cardiovascular risk. Potassium increases aldosterone and there is a strong association of hyperaldosteronism with poor cardiac outcomes. We aimed to determine whether potassium supplementation has a significant medium-term effect on aldosterone levels and, ...
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