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Schulte Kevin K Department of Nephrology and Clinical Immunology (Internal Medicine II), RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Aachen, - - 2014
Why is it that only human beings continuously perform acts of heroism? Looking back at our evolutionary history can offer us some potentially useful insight. This review highlights some of the major steps in our evolution-more specifically, the evolution of high blood pressure. When we were fish, the first kidney ...
Rocchetti Marcella M Dipartimento di Biotecnologie e Bioscienze, Università degli Studi di Milano - Bicocca, Milano, - - 2014
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) reflects abnormal pulmonary vascular resistance and causes right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy. Enhancement of the late sodium current (INaL), may result from hypertrophic remodeling. The study tests whether: 1) constitutive INaL enhancement may occur as part of PAH-induced myocardial remodelling; 2) ranolazine (RAN), a clinically available INaL ...
Moraes Lillian - - 2014
IntroductionSigh improves oxygenation and lung mechanics during pressure control ventilation (PCV) and pressure support ventilation (PSV) in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, so far, no study has evaluated the biological impact of sigh during PCV or PSV on the lung and distal organs in experimental pulmonary (p) and ...
Tudorache Igor I 1 Division of Cardiac, Thoracic, Transplantation and Vascular Surgery, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany. 2 Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany. 3 Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Endocrinology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany. 4 Department of Pediatric Respiratory Medicine and Neonatology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany. 5 German Centre for Lung Research, Hannover, Germany. 6 Address correspondence to: Gregor Warnecke, M.D., Division of Cardiac, Thoracic, Transplantation and Vascular Surgery, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Str.1, 30623 Hannover, - - 2014
Bilateral lung transplantation (BLTx) is an established treatment for end-stage pulmonary hypertension (PH). Ventilator weaning failure and death are more common as in BLTx for other indications. We hypothesized that left ventricular (LV) dysfunction is the main cause of early postoperative morbidity or mortality and investigated a weaning strategy using ...
Namendys-Silva S A SA Departamento de Terapia Intensiva, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City, - - 2014
Our aims were to describe the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), to characterize their hemodynamic cardiopulmonary profiles, and to correlate these parameters with outcome. All consecutive patients over 16 years of age who were in the intensive care unit with a diagnosis of ...
Kaga Sanae S Faculty of Health Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan; Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, - - 2014
Many echocardiographic features of constrictive pericarditis (CP) have been reported, but each alone has a limitation either in sensitivity or in specificity. Continuous-wave Doppler-derived flow velocity of pulmonary regurgitation can reflect the diastolic right ventricular pressure pattern characteristic of CP and be useful for its detection. Fifteen patients with CP, ...
Gattinoni Luciano L aDipartimento di Anestesia, Rianimazione ed Emergenza Urgenza, Fondazione IRCCS Cà Granda - Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan bDipartimento di Fisiopatologia Medico-Chirurgica e dei Trapianti, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan cDipartimento di Scienze Chirurgiche, Microchirurgiche e Mediche, Università degli Studi di Sassari, Sassari dUnità Operativa Complessa di Anestesia e Rianimazione, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Sassari, Sassari, - - 2014
Early acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by protein-rich inflammatory lung edema often associated with a hydrostatic component. Mechanical ventilation with positive intrathoracic pressure further induces salt and water retention, while impairing the pathways designed for edema clearance. In this framework, we will review the recent findings on fluid ...
Lewis Kevin M KM Baxter Healthcare Corporation, Deerfield, IL, USA - - 2014
Trends in the development of hemostatic agents are towards self-adhering pads. This study investigates a novel biomaterial made of a polyethylene glycol-coated collagen pad (PCC). The swelling and adherence of PCC were investigated in vitro, and the hemostatic and sealing ability was investigated in vivo. In vitro, the maximum swell ...
Saddy Felipe F Laboratory of Pulmonary Investigation, Carlos Chagas Filho Institute of Biophysics, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundão, Rio de Janeiro, - - 2014
Assisted mechanical ventilation (MV) may be a favorable alternative to controlled MV at the early phase of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), since it requires less sedation, no paralysis and is associated with less hemodynamic deterioration, better distal organ perfusion, and lung protection, thus reducing the risk of ventilator-associated lung ...
Hess Dean R DR Department of Respiratory Care, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, - - 2014
Lung-protective ventilator strategies are considered standard practice in the care of patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). To minimize ventilator-induced lung injury, attention is directed at avoidance of alveolar overdistention and cyclical opening and closing. The lowest possible plateau pressure and tidal volume (VT) should be selected. A ...
Parrilla Francisco José FJ Intensive Care Unit, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), Barcelona, - - 2014
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by expiratory flow limitation (EFL) due to progressive airflow obstruction. The various mechanisms that cause EFL are central to understanding the physiopathology of COPD. At the end of expiration, dynamic inflation may occur due to incomplete emptying the lungs. This "extra" volume increases ...
El-Baradey Ghada Fouad GF Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Tanta University Hospital, Tanta University, Tanta, - - 2014
To Compare compliance versus dead space (Vd) targeted positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) as regard its effect on lung mechanics and oxygenation. This study was carried out on 30 adult acute respiratory distress syndrome patients. The ventilator was initially set on volume controlled with tidal volume (Vt) 7 mL/kg predicted body ...
Razazi Keyvan K Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, GH Henri Mondor, Service de Réanimation Médicale, Créteil, France, INSERM, Unité U955, Créteil, France ; - - 2014
Objectives: We investigated the effect of large pleural effusion drainage on oxygenation, respiratory function (including lung volumes), and hemodynamics in mechanically ventilated patients. The following data were recorded before (H0), 3 hours (H3) and 24 hours (H24) after ultrasound guided drainage of pleural fluid: arterial blood gases, respiratory mechanics (pleural ...
Fleming John - - 2014
Determination of regional lung air volume has several clinical applications. This study investigates the use of mid-tidal breathing CT scans to provide regional lung volume data. Low resolution CT scans of the thorax were obtained during tidal breathing in 11 healthy control male subjects, each on two separate occasions. A ...
Hartmann E K EK Department of Anaesthesiology, Medical Centre of the Johannes Gutenberg-University, Mainz, - - 2014
During cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) the ventilation/perfusion distribution (VA /Q) within the lung is difficult to assess. This experimental study examines the capability of multiple inert gas elimination (MIGET) to determine VA /Q under CPR conditions in a pig model. Twenty-one anaesthetised pigs were randomised to three fractions of inspired oxygen ...
Lozano-Zahonero Sara S Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Division for Experimental Anesthesiology, University Medical Center Freiburg, Freiburg, - - 2014
The analysis of non-linear respiratory system mechanics under the dynamic conditions of controlled mechanical ventilation is affected by systemic disturbances of the respiratory signals. Cardio-pulmonary coupling induces cardiogenic oscillations to the respiratory signals, which appear prominently in the second half of expiration. We hypothesized that breathing phase-selective filtering of expiratory ...
Boukhettala Nabile N 1 Centre d'Etude des Pathologies Respiratoires INSERM, Université François Rabelais de Tours , F-37032 Tours, France - - 2014
Abstract Background: During mechanical ventilation, different aerosol generators are employed with various interfaces. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of a range of spacers, including a new device called Combihaler(®) designed for connection with both nebulizers and pressurized Metered-Dose Inhalers (pMDIs). Methods: To assess the spacers, ...
Farrero Marta M Heart Failure and Heart Transplantation program, Cardiology, Hospital Clínic, Barcelona, Spain - - 2014
-Pulmonary hypertension and collagen metabolism abnormalities are prevalent in patients with HFpEF. Peripheral endothelial dysfunction (PED) has been described in heart failure (HF), as well as in pulmonary arterial hypertension. Our aim is to determine whether pulmonary hypertension is associated with PED and impaired collagen metabolism in patients with heart ...
Cressoni Massimo M From the Dipartimento di Anestesia, Rianimazione (Intensiva e Subintensiva) e Terapia del Dolore, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy (D.C., P.C., L.G.); Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Medico-Chirurgica e dei Trapianti, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy (M.C., E.C., C.C., M.A., M.B., L.G.); and Department of Anaesthesiology, Emergency and Intensive Care Medicine, Georg-August University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany - - 2014
It has been suggested that higher positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) should be used only in patients with higher lung recruitability. In this study, the authors investigated the relationship between the recruitability and the PEEP necessary to counteract the compressive forces leading to lung collapse. Fifty-one patients with acute respiratory distress ...
Liberman Moishe M CETOC - CHUM Endoscopic Tracheobronchial and Oesophageal Center, Division of Thoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada. Electronic address: - - 2014
Vascular endostaplers are bulky and can be dangerous when dividing small pulmonary arterial (PA) branch vessels during video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy. We aimed to evaluate and compare the immediate efficacy of modern energy sealing devices in an ex vivo PA sealing model. Patients undergoing anatomical lung resection or lung transplantation were recruited ...
Gustafsson Per M PM Central Hospital Skövde - - 2014
Imaging studies describe significant ventilation defects across a wide range of cystic fibrosis (CF) related lung disease severity. These are unfortunately poorly reflected by phase III slope analysis-derived Scond and Sacin from multiple breath washout (MBW). Methodology extending previous two-lung compartment model-based analysis is presented describing size and function of ...
Lutz Dennis D Hannover Medical School, Institute of Functional and Applied Anatomie, Hannover, Germany ; - - 2014
Rationale: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis are associated with surfactant-system dysfunction, alveolar collapse (derecruitment), and collapse induration (irreversible collapse). These events play undefined roles in the loss of lung function. Objective: To quantify how surfactant inactivation, alveolar collapse and collapse induration lead to degradation of lung function. ...
Kirschbaum A A Klinik für Viszeral-, Thorax- und Gefäßchirurgie, Uniklinik Giessen und Marburg GmbH (UKCM), Philipps University Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35033, Marburg, Germany, - - 2014
Almost every pulmonary lobe resection requires cutting the lung parenchyma in the area of a lung fissure. A monopolar cutter or stapler is often used for this purpose. The seal should be absolutely airtight to prevent post-operative pulmonary fistulas. In the present study, the bipolar sealing technique was evaluated regarding ...
Marhong Jonathan D JD Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, 500 University Avenue, Suite 602, Toronto, ON, M5G 1V7, Canada, - - 2014
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is common following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), but the influence of mechanical ventilator settings on its development is unclear. We sought to determine adherence to lung protective thresholds in ventilated patients with SAH and describe the association between ventilator settings and subsequent development of ARDS. ...
Tachon Aurélie - - 2014
The aim of this work is to identify which law governs oxygen transfer through cork: Knudsen or Fick's mechanism. This is important to better understand wine oxidation during post bottling aging. Oxygen transfer through cork wafers is measured at 298 K using a manometric permeation technique. Depending on the mechanism, ...
Blankman P P Department of Adult Intensive Care, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The - - 2014
Inhomogeneous ventilation is an important contributor to ventilator-induced lung injury. Therefore, this study examines homogeneity of lung ventilation by means of electrical impedance tomography (EIT) measurements during pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) and pressure support ventilation (PSV) using the same ventilation pressures. Twenty mechanically ventilated patients were studied after cardiac surgery. On ...
Makiyama A M AM Department of Material Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, United States. Electronic address: - - 2014
Lung parenchyma surrounding an atelectatic region is thought to be subjected to increased stress compared with the rest of the lung. Using 37 hexagonal cells made of linear springs, Mead et al. (1970) measured a stress concentration greater than 30% in the springs surrounding a stiffer central cell. We re-examine ...
Kirschbaum Andreas A Department of Visceral, Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Philipps-University Marburg, Marburg, Germany. Electronic address: - - 2014
In every anatomic lung resection operation, the pulmonary artery itself or its branches must be sealed. This involves either stapling or ligating the vessels. Based on the positive results with the bipolar vessel sealing ≤7 mm in abdominal surgery the present study aimed to evaluate burst pressures of the pulmonary artery ...
Pellegrino Riccardo R Allergology and Respiratory Physiopathology, S. Croce e Carle Hospital, Cuneo, - - 2014
During forced expiration, alveolar pressure (PALV ) increases and intrathoracic gas is compressed. Thus, 1-s forced expiratory volume measured by spirometry (FEV1-sp ) is smaller than 1-s forced expiratory volume measured by plethysmography (FEV1-pl ). Thoracic gas compression volume (TGCV) depends on the amount of gas within the lung when ...
Poh Paula Y S PY US Army Institute of Surgical Research, Fort Sam Houston, TX, 78234, - - 2014
. Intrathoracic pressure regulation (IPR) represents a therapy for increasing systemic circulation through the creation of negative intrathoracic pressure. We hypothesized that utilizing this 'respiratory pump' effect would slow the diminution of the physiological reserve to compensate during progressive reductions in central blood volume. The Compensatory Reserve Index (CRI) algorithm ...
Jacek Sein Anand SA Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland Department of Clinical Toxicology Head: Sein Anand Jacek M.D., Ph.D; Pomeranian Centre of Toxicology, Gdansk, Poland Head: Waldman Wojciech M.D., - - 2014
The aims of this study were to examine selected respiratory and gasometric parameters during hyperventilation with and without isocapnia and to identify the possible mechanism by which isocapnic hyperventilation might be useful in the elimination of volatile substances, including CO. Ten healthy non-smoking volunteers were studied, and each underwent two ...
Medina Alberto A Paediatric Intensive Care Unit, Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias, University of Oviedo, Oviedo, Spain. Electronic address: - - 2014
Management of mechanical ventilation in severely obstructed patients remains controversial. Pressure-regulated volume control ventilation (PRVCV) has been suggested to be the best option, as it should ensure a prefixed tidal volume at the lowest peak inspiratory pressure. We sought to determine the accuracy of the delivered volume, compared with the ...
Cvetkovic Draginja D New York Medical College-Westchester Medical Center, Valhalla, NY, USA - - 2014
Over the course of the past 4 decades, the survival of patients with the Fontan circulation has improved and today they often present for noncardiac surgery anesthesia care. In patients with the Fontan circulation, pulmonary blood flow is passive and anesthetic management is directed at reducing pulmonary vascular resistance and ...
Lang Justin A R JA Monash - - 2014
Background: At birth, the transition to newborn life is triggered by lung aeration, which stimulates a large increase in pulmonary blood flow (PBF). Current theories predict that the increase in PBF is spatially related to ventilated lung regions as they aerate after birth. Using simultaneous phase contrast X-ray imaging and ...
Azarbar Sayena S *Department of Medicine, Montreal Heart Institute, Université de Montréal, 5000 Belanger Street, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, H1T - - 2014
The lungs are the primary organs affected in LHD (left heart disease). Increased left atrial pressure leads to pulmonary alveolar-capillary stress failure, resulting in cycles of alveolar wall injury and repair. The reparative process causes the proliferation of MYFs (myofibroblasts) with fibrosis and extracellular matrix deposition, resulting in thickening of ...
Matsuoka Shin S 1Department of Radiology, St. Marianna University School of Medicine , Kawasaki , - - 2014
Abstract Background: In patients with emphysema, increased intrathoracic pressure is closely related to hyperinflation and leads to hemodynamic impairments. Both intrathoracic pressure and hemodynamics such as venous return are affected by the respiratory phase. Therefore, respiratory variations in hemodynamics may be associated with the extent of emphysema that causes increased ...
Marhong Jonathan D JD University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, - - 2014
Background: In patients with severe, acute respiratory failure undergoing venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO), the optimal strategy for mechanical ventilation is unclear. Our objective was to describe ventilation practices used in centers registered with the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO). Methods: We conducted an international cross-sectional survey of medical directors ...
López-Candales Angel A From the Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, - - 2014
Right ventricular (RV) dilatation and systolic dysfunction are known remodeling changes occurring in chronic pulmonary hypertension and are likely the result of increases in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). It remains unclear whether PVR affects primarily the main RV chamber (mRVc) or the RV outflow tract (RVOT). Standard echocardiography data were ...
West John B JB Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California - - 2014
Robert Hooke (1635-1703) was a polymath who made important contributions to respiratory physiology and many other scientific areas. With Robert Boyle, he constructed the first air pump that allowed measurements on small animals at a reduced atmospheric pressure, and this started the discipline of high-altitude physiology. He also built the ...
Fares Khaled M - - 2014
Thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA) has a well-known effect on neurohormonal response. Attenuation of stress response by post-operative epidural analgesia has shown beneficial effects such as lower pain scores and less immunological alterations. Investigation of the combined effects of TEA and protective lung ventilation on pro-inflammatory cytokines and patients' outcome after ...
de la Osa Agustín Mendiola AM From the Anaesthesia Department, Universitary General Hospital of Ciudad Real (AMDLO), Anaesthesia and Critical Care Department, Puerta de Hierro University Hospital, Majadahonda Experimental Unit, La Paz University Hospital, Madrid (JGF), Paediatric Intensive Care Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Maimónides Institute for Biomedical Research of Cordoba (IMIBIC), University of Cordoba (FJLC, MGC, MJDLTA, IIDLR, JLPN), Unit of Methodology in Investigation, Instituto Maimo[Combining Acute Accent]nides de Investigacio[Combining Acute Accent]n Biome[Combining Acute Accent]dica de Co[Combining Acute Accent]rdoba, Cordoba, Spain (IMIBIC) - - 2014
Lung recruitment manoeuvres in neonates during anaesthesia are not performed routinely due to concerns about causing barotrauma, haemodynamic instability and oxidative stress. To assess the influence of recruitment manoeuvres and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on haemodynamics, oxidative stress, oxygenation and lung mechanics. A prospective experimental study. Experimental Unit, La Paz ...
Kharge Angana Banerjee AB Stevens Institute of - - 2014
In the acute respiratory distress syndrome, plasma proteins in alveolar edema liquid are thought to inactivate lung surfactant and raise surface tension, T. However plasma protein-surfactant interaction has been assessed only in vitro, during unphysiologically large surface area compression (%ΔA). Here, we investigate whether plasma proteins raise T in situ ...
Mireles-Cabodevila Eduardo E Respiratory Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas. - - 2014
Mid-frequency ventilation (MFV) is a mode of pressure control ventilation based on an optimal targeting scheme that maximizes alveolar ventilation and minimizes tidal volume (VT). This study was designed to compare the effects of conventional mechanical ventilation using a lung-protective strategy with MFV in a porcine model of lung injury. ...
Qi Shouliang - - 2014
Left pulmonary artery sling (LPAS) is a rare but severe congenital anomaly, in which the stenoses are formed in the trachea and/or main bronchi. Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) provides useful anatomical images, but does not offer functional information. The objective of the present study is to quantitatively analyze the airflow ...
Dabaghyan Mikayel M Mirtech, Inc., Brockton, MA, - - 2014
In this work, we report initial results from a light-weight, low field magnetic resonance device designed to make relative pulmonary density measurements at the bedside. The development of this device necessarily involves special considerations for the magnet, RF and data acquisition schemes as well as a careful analysis of what ...
Ventetuolo Corey E CE Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, - - 2014
-While frequently assessed in trials and clinical practice, hemodynamic response to therapy has never been validated as a surrogate endpoint for clinical events in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). -We performed a patient-level pooled analysis of four randomized placebo-controlled trials to determine if treatment-induced changes in hemodynamic values at 12 weeks ...
Ryan John J JJ From the Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City (J.J.R.); and Department of Medicine, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada - - 2014
The right ventricle (RV) is the major determinant of functional state and prognosis in pulmonary arterial hypertension. RV hypertrophy (RVH) triggered by pressure overload is initially compensatory but often leads to RV failure. Despite similar RV afterload and mass some patients develop adaptive RVH (concentric with retained RV function), while ...
Maci Eliana E Department of Medical Oncology, University Campus Bio-Medico , - - 2014
Background: Tobacco smoke causes lung disfunction and inflammation. Methods: Twenty-two consecutive smokers with undetermined lung nodules were included. All underwent a baseline imaging, exhaled carbon monoxide level evaluation and spirometry, repeated at three months from smoking cessation therapy. Results: A significant reduction in size of the lung nodules was reported ...
Hallberg Christopher J - - 2014
Respiratory disease accounts for three of the ten leading causes of death worldwide. Many of these diseases can be treated and diagnosed using a nebulizer. Nebulizers can also be used to safely and efficiently deliver vaccines. Unfortunately, commercially available nebulizers are not designed for use in regions of the world ...
Joshi Suchita S Department of Child Health, Cardiff University, Cardiff, - - 2014
Although increased pulmonary arterial pressure is common in infancy in preterm infants who develop chronic lung disease of prematurity (CLD), it is unknown if the increase persists into childhood. We, therefore, assessed if 8-12-year-old children with documented CLD in infancy had evidence of right ventricular dysfunction or pulmonary arterial hypertension ...
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