Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 2140
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De Backer Daniel - - 2013
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss the role of the invasive monitoring techniques pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) and transpulmonary thermodilution (TPD) for cardiopulmonary monitoring in the critically ill patient. RECENT FINDINGS: Characterization of the nature of hemodynamic alterations and hemodynamic optimization can be achieved both with PAC and TPD. Some recent ...
Menendez Carmen - - 2013
OBJECTIVES:: Acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome are characterized by increased pulmonary artery pressure and ventilation-perfusion mismatch. We analyzed the changes in the pulmonary vascular function in a model of ventilator-induced acute lung injury. DESIGN:: Controlled in vivo laboratory study. SETTING:: Animal research laboratory. SUBJECTS:: Anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley ...
Bech-Hanssen Odd - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Several treatment options are available for pulmonary vascular disease, and more patients are considered for right heart catheterization. The aims of this study were to evaluate the diagnostic ability of echocardiography to detect pulmonary hypertension and increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). METHODS: This retrospective study comprised 118 patients investigated ...
Lafitte Stéphane - - 2013
BACKGROUND: To date, Doppler echocardiography is the most widespread and well-recognized technique for the noninvasive evaluation of systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP). However, recent studies have reported reservations about the relevance of Doppler echocardiography or the tool's reliability in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH). Thus, ...
Mauri Tommaso - - 2013
OBJECTIVE:: Acute respiratory distress syndrome is characterized by collapse of gravitationally dependent lung regions that usually diverts tidal ventilation toward nondependent regions. We hypothesized that higher positive end-expiratory pressure and enhanced spontaneous breathing may increase the proportion of tidal ventilation reaching dependent lung regions in patients with acute respiratory distress ...
Smith Benjamin M BM Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, - - 2013
Left ventricular (LV) mass is an important predictor of heart failure and cardiovascular mortality, yet determinants of LV mass are incompletely understood. Pulmonary hyperinflation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may contribute to changes in intrathoracic pressure that increase LV wall stress. We therefore hypothesized that residual lung volume in ...
Briones Claudett Killen Harold - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) in patients with acute respiratory failure has been traditionally determined based on clinical assessment and changes in blood gases, with NIV support pressures manually adjusted by an operator. Bilevel positive airway pressure-spontaneous/timed (BiPAP S/T) with average volume assured pressure support (AVAPS) uses a fixed tidal ...
Kilickaya Oguz - - 2013
The lung-protective mechanical ventilation strategy has been standard practice for management of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) for more than a decade. Observational data, small randomized studies and two recent systematic reviews suggest that lung protective ventilation is both safe and potentially beneficial in patients who do not have ARDS ...
Wheeler Kevin - - 2013
BackgroundWe investigatedthe effects of positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) and tidal volume (VT) on lung aeration, pulmonary mechanics, and the distribution of ventilation immediately after birth using a preterm rabbit model.MethodsSixty preterm rabbits (27d) received volume-targeted positive pressure ventilation from birth, with one of 12 combinations of PEEP (0, 5, ...
Wolf Gerhard K - - 2013
OBJECTIVE:: To utilize real-time electrical impedance tomography to guide lung protective ventilation in an animal model of acute respiratory distress syndrome. DESIGN:: Prospective animal study. SETTING:: Animal research center. SUBJECTS:: Twelve Yorkshire swine (15 kg). INTERVENTIONS:: Lung injury was induced with saline lavage and augmented using large tidal volumes. The ...
Wallet Florent - - 2013
We wanted to assess whether there was a significant relationship between recruited lung volume (V(rec)) and change in density on digital processed chest x-ray measured at 2 different levels of inspiratory plateau pressure corresponding to 2 PEEP levels in patients with acute lung injury or ARDS. In 14 subjects, PEEP ...
Tiruvoipati R - - 2013
Lung protective ventilation limiting tidal volumes and airway pressures were proven to reduce mortality in patients with acute severe respiratory failure. Hypercapnia and hypercapnic acidosis is often noted with lung protective ventilation. While the protective effects of lung protective ventilation are well recognised, the role of hypercapnia and hypercapnic acidosis ...
Neary Joseph M - - 2013
Producer reports from ranches over 2,438 meters in southwest Colorado suggest that the mortality of preweaned beef calves may be substantially higher than the national average despite the selection of low pulmonary pressure herd sires for over 20 years. Diagnostic investigations of this death loss problem have been limited due ...
Cokkinos Philip - - 2013
We admitted a 16-year-old boy with the Cohen syndrome to our institution for increasing dyspnoea. Investigations revealed idiopathic pulmonary hypertension. He was commenced on bosentan and oral anticoagulation and was followed up for nearly 7 years, during which he was readmitted for dynamic measurements of pulmonary artery pressure. Despite initial ...
Stewart Sarah K - - 2013
A case of post-operative negative pressure pulmonary oedema in a young, athletic male is reported. We discuss this rare but life-threatening condition and its aetiology, and review the published literature. Military health care providers need to be aware of this condition as young fit personnel may be at increased risk ...
Frazer D G - - 2013
The role of the recruitment-derecruitment of small structures in the lung (lung units) as the lung increases and decreases in volume has been debated. The objective of this study was to develop a model to estimate the change in the number and volume of open lung units as an excised ...
Gerges Christian C Department of Internal Medicine II, Division of Cardiology, Vienna General Hospital, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, - - 2013
Left-sided heart disease (LHD) is the most common cause of pulmonary hypertension (PH). In patients with LHD, elevated left atrial pressure causes a passive increase in pulmonary vascular pressure by hydrostatic transmission. In some patients, an active component caused by pulmonary arterial vasoconstriction and/or vascular remodeling superimposed on left-sided pressure ...
Ortiz Tatiana de Arruda Tde A Department of Physiotherapy, University of Cuiabá, Tangará da Serra, - - 2013
To evaluate, in a lung model simulating a mechanically ventilated patient, the efficiency and safety of the manual hyperinflation (MH) maneuver as a means of removing pulmonary secretions. Eight respiratory therapists (RTs) were asked to use a self-inflating manual resuscitator on a lung model to perform MH as if to ...
Huang Jun-Feng - - 2013
INTRODUCTION: Acute inhalational exposure leads to rapidly progressive acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). This report is the first one to present a patient with ARDS in relation to long-standing exposure to a high-concentration mixture of ethenone and crotonaldehyde. Case report: A male worker in a chemical plant was accidentally exposed ...
Granstam Sven-Olof - - 2013
BACKGROUND: During ultrasound examination, tricuspid regurgitation may be absent or gives a signal that is not reliable for the estimation of systolic pulmonary pressure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of acceleration time (AT) from the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) as an estimation of the ...
Shinomiya Shohei - - 2013
ABSTRACT Systemic anaphylaxis accompanies pulmonary vasoconstriction and bronchoconstriction, which may contribute to increased right heart afterload, and finally anaphylactic hypotension. However, the pulmonary response to anaphylaxis is not known in mice. We determined the pulmonary vascular and bronchial response to systemic anaphylaxis in anesthetized BALB/c mice. We also clarified the ...
Binazzi B - - 2013
Background: Breathing pattern description and chest wall kinematics during phonation have not been studied in male and female patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Objectives: We used optoelectronic plethysmography to provide a quantitative description of breathing pattern and chest wall kinematics. Methods: Volumes of chest wall compartments (rib cage and ...
Lauscher P - - 2013
Background:Given the low physical solubility of oxygen (O2) in plasma, little value is attached to hyperoxic ventilation (FiO2 1.0) as a modality for improving O2 transport and tissue oxygen supply when hypoxemia (i.e., O2 partial pressure (paO2) < 60 mmHg) is absent. Because recent experimental and clinical data conflict with ...
Galinsky Robert R The Ritchie Centre, Monash Institute of Medical Research, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia. - - 2013
Intrauterine inflammation is associated with preterm birth and poor long-term cardiopulmonary outcomes. We aimed to determine the effect of intrauterine inflammation on the cardiopulmonary and cerebral haemodynamic transition at birth, and the response to subsequent haemodynamic challenge. Fetal instrumentation was performed at ∼112 days gestation (term is 147 days) for ...
Pecchiari Matteo - - 2013
Pressure-volume curves of the lungs and chest wall require knowledge of an effective 'average' pleural pressure (Ppl(av)), and are usually estimated using esophageal pressure as PL(es)-V and PW(es)-V curves. Such estimates could be misleading when Ppl becomes spatially non-uniform with lung lavage or shape distortion of the chest. We therefore ...
Ladoire Sylvain - - 2013
BACKGROUND:: The prone position (PP) has proven beneficial in patients with severe lung injury subjected to mechanical ventilation (MV), especially in those with lobar involvement. We assessed the impact of PP on unilateral pneumonia in rabbits subjected to MV. METHODS:: After endobronchial challenge with Enterobacter aerogenes, adult rabbits were subjected ...
Oran Bulent - - 2013
OBJECTIVES: To measure serum B-type natriuretic peptide, especially N-terminal segment of its prohormone (NT-proBNP) and pulmonary arterial pressure levels and to determine whether NT-proBNP concentrations correlate with pulmonary arterial pressure levels in children before and after adenotonsillectomy. METHODS: Twenty children with adenoid and tonsil hypertrophy and 20 healthy subjects were ...
Kirkpatrick Edward C - - 2013
Pediatric pulmonary hypertension is a complicated disease with multiple etiologies and high mortality. Echocardiography is at the forefront of evaluation as a noninvasive, portable imaging modality that can yield diagnostic and prognostic information regarding this disease. Echocardiography is known for its ability to give an anatomic assessment of the heart ...
Steckelberg Rachel C RC Division of Cardiovascular Diseases and Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, - - 2013
The assessment of pulmonary pressure is important for the diagnosis and management of patients with pulmonary hypertension. Mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP) has been used in the current definition of pulmonary hypertension. However, invasive derivation by Doppler echocardiography provides the peak pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP). The aim of this ...
Al-Rawas Nawar - - 2013
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: We hypothesized the expiratory time constant (tauE) may be used to provide real time determinations of inspiratory plateau pressure (Pplt), respiratory system compliance (Crs), and total resistance (respiratory system resistance plus series resistance of endotracheal tube) (Rtot) of patients with respiratory failure using various modes of ventilatory support. ...
Schwenninger David - - 2013
OBJECTIVES:: Although global respiratory mechanics are usually used to determine the settings of mechanical ventilation, this approach does not adequately take into account alveolar mechanics. However, it should be expected that the ventilatory condition (quasi-static vs. dynamic) and lung condition (noninjured vs. injured) affect alveolar mechanics in a clinically relevant ...
Madke Gabriel Ribeiro - - 2013
To evaluate the effects of 2 different levels of positive end-expiratory pressure on pigs who had unilateral lung transplants. A left lung transplant was performed in 12 pigs. The animals were randomized into 2 groups based on positive end-expiratory pressure: group 1 (5 cm H2O) and group 2 (10 cm ...
Maslow Andrew D - - 2013
OBJECTIVE: Protective lung ventilation is reported to benefit patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. It is not known whether protective lung ventilation is also beneficial to patients undergoing single-lung ventilation for elective pulmonary resection. METHODS: In an institutional review board-approved prospective randomized trial, 34 patients undergoing elective pulmonary resection requiring ...
Farah Peiravian - - 2013
Control of residual pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) after closure of left to right shunts in children is still a challenging issue. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of two phosphodiesterase inhibitors in pediatric cardiac surgical patients. A total of 48 postoperative children were enrolled in the ...
Wauters Shana - - 2013
INTRODUCTION: Only 15%-25% of brain death (BD) donors match the ideal donor criteria for lung transplantation. Lung injury may evolve in the hours after onset of brain death, but the evolution over time has not been well studied in lung. The aim of this study was to evaluate lung injury ...
Sawheny Eva - - 2013
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that nebulized iloprost would improve ventilation perfusion matching in patients with pulmonary hypertension and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) as reflected by an improved PaO2/FIO2 ratio and PaO2 without adversely affecting lung mechanics or systemic hemodynamics. METHODS: ARDS patients with pulmonary hypertension were enrolled. With ...
Teboul J L - - 2013
Fluid management is a crucial issue in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Assessment of preload responsiveness should help to define the best fluid strategy. Arterial pulse pressure variation (PPV), which represents the amplitude of the respiratory changes in arterial pulse pressure, is considered as a marker of preload ...
Konduri Girija G - - 2013
Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is associated with increased oxidative stress in pulmonary arteries (PAs). Betamethasone decreases the oxidative stress and improves antioxidant balance in PPHN. We investigated whether antenatal betamethasone improves pulmonary vasodilation and postnatal oxygenation in late preterm lambs with PPHN. PPHN was induced by constriction ...
Marabotti Claudio - - 2013
The presence of circulating gas bubbles has been repeatedly reported after uncomplicated SCUBA dives. The clinical and pathophysiological relevance of this phenomenon is still under debate but some experimental data suggest that silent bubbles may have a damaging potential on pulmonary endothelial cells. The aim of the present study was ...
Kjellberg Malin - - 2013
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a significant cause of morbidity in the preterm population. Clinical severity grading based on the need for supplemental oxygen and/or need for positive airway pressure at 36 weeks postmenstrual age does not yield reproducible predictive values for later pulmonary morbidity. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) ...
Burkhardt Wolfram - - 2013
Background: Ventilatory pressures should target the range between the upper and lower inflection point of the pressure volume curve in order to avoid atelecto- and volutrauma. During high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV), this range is difficult to determine. Quadrant impedance measurement (QIM) has recently been shown to allow accurate and precise ...
Dellamonica J - - 2013
RATIONALE: Lung volume available for ventilation is markedly decreased during acute respiratory distress syndrome. Body positioning may contribute to increase lung volume and partial verticalization is simple to perform. This study evaluated whether verticalization had parallel effects on oxygenation and end expiratory lung volume (EELV). METHODS: Prospective multicenter study in ...
Cornejo Rodrigo A - - 2013
RATIONALE: Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and prone positioning may induce lung recruitment and affect alveolar dynamics in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, whether there is any interdependence between the effects of PEEP and prone positioning on these variables is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of high PEEP and ...
Farha Samar - - 2013
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Reduced gas transfer in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is traditionally attributed to remodeling and progressive loss of pulmonary arterial vasculature that results in decreased capillary blood volume available for gas exchange. METHODS: We tested this hypothesis by determination of lung diffusing capacity (DL) and its components, ...
Nakahashi Susumu - - 2013
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine whether the relative change in the end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) obtained by the recruitment maneuver (RM) can serve as an indicator of the change in the P/F ratio. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of the intermittent stepwise increases in the RM ...
Ravikumar Priya P Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, - - 2013
Following right pneumonectomy (PNX), the remaining lung expands and its perfusion more than doubles. Tissue and microvascular mechanical stresses are putative stimuli for compensatory lung growth and remodeling, but their relative contribution remains uncertain. To temporally separate expansion- and perfusion-related stimuli, we replaced the right lung of adult dogs with ...
Prescott Hallie C - - 2013
OBJECTIVES:: Lung-protective ventilation with lower tidal volume and lower plateau pressure improves mortality in patients with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. We sought to determine the incidence of elevated plateau pressure in acute lung injury /acute respiratory distress syndrome patients receiving lower tidal volume ventilation and to ...
Monteiro Regina - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Dystrophia myotonica (DM) is the most frequent adult-onset muscular dystrophy. Type 1 is caused by the cytosine-thymine-guanine (CTG) repeat expansion in the DM protein kinase gene. Respiratory muscle weakness and altered central ventilatory control lead to hypercapnia and lung volume restriction. PURPOSE: This study aims to review the respiratory ...
Bodenstein Marc - - 2013
ABSTRACT Varying pulmonary shunt fractions during the respiratory cycle cause oxygen oscillations during mechanical ventilation. In artificially damaged lungs, cyclical recruitment of atelectasis is responsible for varying shunt according to published evidence. We introduce a complimentary hypothesis that cyclically varying shunt in healthy lungs is caused by cyclical redistribution of ...
Tossavainen Erik - - 2013
BACKGROUND: In patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH), ascertaining raised vascular resistance as a cause is a clinical objective, for which various Doppler-based measurements have been proposed, but with modest accuracy. We hypothesize that pulmonary acceleration time (PAcT) and the ratio of PAcT/peak pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) reflect better the ...
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