Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 2118
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Lauscher P - - 2013
Background:Given the low physical solubility of oxygen (O2) in plasma, little value is attached to hyperoxic ventilation (FiO2 1.0) as a modality for improving O2 transport and tissue oxygen supply when hypoxemia (i.e., O2 partial pressure (paO2) < 60 mmHg) is absent. Because recent experimental and clinical data conflict with ...
Galinsky Robert R The Ritchie Centre, Monash Institute of Medical Research, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia. - - 2013
Intrauterine inflammation is associated with preterm birth and poor long-term cardiopulmonary outcomes. We aimed to determine the effect of intrauterine inflammation on the cardiopulmonary and cerebral haemodynamic transition at birth, and the response to subsequent haemodynamic challenge. Fetal instrumentation was performed at ∼112 days gestation (term is 147 days) for ...
Pecchiari Matteo - - 2013
Pressure-volume curves of the lungs and chest wall require knowledge of an effective 'average' pleural pressure (Ppl(av)), and are usually estimated using esophageal pressure as PL(es)-V and PW(es)-V curves. Such estimates could be misleading when Ppl becomes spatially non-uniform with lung lavage or shape distortion of the chest. We therefore ...
Ladoire Sylvain - - 2013
BACKGROUND:: The prone position (PP) has proven beneficial in patients with severe lung injury subjected to mechanical ventilation (MV), especially in those with lobar involvement. We assessed the impact of PP on unilateral pneumonia in rabbits subjected to MV. METHODS:: After endobronchial challenge with Enterobacter aerogenes, adult rabbits were subjected ...
Oran Bulent - - 2013
OBJECTIVES: To measure serum B-type natriuretic peptide, especially N-terminal segment of its prohormone (NT-proBNP) and pulmonary arterial pressure levels and to determine whether NT-proBNP concentrations correlate with pulmonary arterial pressure levels in children before and after adenotonsillectomy. METHODS: Twenty children with adenoid and tonsil hypertrophy and 20 healthy subjects were ...
Kirkpatrick Edward C - - 2013
Pediatric pulmonary hypertension is a complicated disease with multiple etiologies and high mortality. Echocardiography is at the forefront of evaluation as a noninvasive, portable imaging modality that can yield diagnostic and prognostic information regarding this disease. Echocardiography is known for its ability to give an anatomic assessment of the heart ...
Steckelberg Rachel C RC Division of Cardiovascular Diseases and Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, - - 2013
The assessment of pulmonary pressure is important for the diagnosis and management of patients with pulmonary hypertension. Mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP) has been used in the current definition of pulmonary hypertension. However, invasive derivation by Doppler echocardiography provides the peak pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP). The aim of this ...
Al-Rawas Nawar - - 2013
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: We hypothesized the expiratory time constant (tauE) may be used to provide real time determinations of inspiratory plateau pressure (Pplt), respiratory system compliance (Crs), and total resistance (respiratory system resistance plus series resistance of endotracheal tube) (Rtot) of patients with respiratory failure using various modes of ventilatory support. ...
Schwenninger David - - 2013
OBJECTIVES:: Although global respiratory mechanics are usually used to determine the settings of mechanical ventilation, this approach does not adequately take into account alveolar mechanics. However, it should be expected that the ventilatory condition (quasi-static vs. dynamic) and lung condition (noninjured vs. injured) affect alveolar mechanics in a clinically relevant ...
Madke Gabriel Ribeiro - - 2013
To evaluate the effects of 2 different levels of positive end-expiratory pressure on pigs who had unilateral lung transplants. A left lung transplant was performed in 12 pigs. The animals were randomized into 2 groups based on positive end-expiratory pressure: group 1 (5 cm H2O) and group 2 (10 cm ...
Maslow Andrew D - - 2013
OBJECTIVE: Protective lung ventilation is reported to benefit patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. It is not known whether protective lung ventilation is also beneficial to patients undergoing single-lung ventilation for elective pulmonary resection. METHODS: In an institutional review board-approved prospective randomized trial, 34 patients undergoing elective pulmonary resection requiring ...
Farah Peiravian - - 2013
Control of residual pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) after closure of left to right shunts in children is still a challenging issue. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of two phosphodiesterase inhibitors in pediatric cardiac surgical patients. A total of 48 postoperative children were enrolled in the ...
Wauters Shana - - 2013
INTRODUCTION: Only 15%-25% of brain death (BD) donors match the ideal donor criteria for lung transplantation. Lung injury may evolve in the hours after onset of brain death, but the evolution over time has not been well studied in lung. The aim of this study was to evaluate lung injury ...
Sawheny Eva - - 2013
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that nebulized iloprost would improve ventilation perfusion matching in patients with pulmonary hypertension and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) as reflected by an improved PaO2/FIO2 ratio and PaO2 without adversely affecting lung mechanics or systemic hemodynamics. METHODS: ARDS patients with pulmonary hypertension were enrolled. With ...
Teboul J L - - 2013
Fluid management is a crucial issue in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Assessment of preload responsiveness should help to define the best fluid strategy. Arterial pulse pressure variation (PPV), which represents the amplitude of the respiratory changes in arterial pulse pressure, is considered as a marker of preload ...
Konduri Girija G - - 2013
Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is associated with increased oxidative stress in pulmonary arteries (PAs). Betamethasone decreases the oxidative stress and improves antioxidant balance in PPHN. We investigated whether antenatal betamethasone improves pulmonary vasodilation and postnatal oxygenation in late preterm lambs with PPHN. PPHN was induced by constriction ...
Marabotti Claudio - - 2013
The presence of circulating gas bubbles has been repeatedly reported after uncomplicated SCUBA dives. The clinical and pathophysiological relevance of this phenomenon is still under debate but some experimental data suggest that silent bubbles may have a damaging potential on pulmonary endothelial cells. The aim of the present study was ...
Kjellberg Malin - - 2013
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a significant cause of morbidity in the preterm population. Clinical severity grading based on the need for supplemental oxygen and/or need for positive airway pressure at 36 weeks postmenstrual age does not yield reproducible predictive values for later pulmonary morbidity. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) ...
Burkhardt Wolfram - - 2013
Background: Ventilatory pressures should target the range between the upper and lower inflection point of the pressure volume curve in order to avoid atelecto- and volutrauma. During high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV), this range is difficult to determine. Quadrant impedance measurement (QIM) has recently been shown to allow accurate and precise ...
Dellamonica J - - 2013
RATIONALE: Lung volume available for ventilation is markedly decreased during acute respiratory distress syndrome. Body positioning may contribute to increase lung volume and partial verticalization is simple to perform. This study evaluated whether verticalization had parallel effects on oxygenation and end expiratory lung volume (EELV). METHODS: Prospective multicenter study in ...
Cornejo Rodrigo A - - 2013
RATIONALE: Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and prone positioning may induce lung recruitment and affect alveolar dynamics in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, whether there is any interdependence between the effects of PEEP and prone positioning on these variables is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of high PEEP and ...
Farha Samar - - 2013
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Reduced gas transfer in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is traditionally attributed to remodeling and progressive loss of pulmonary arterial vasculature that results in decreased capillary blood volume available for gas exchange. METHODS: We tested this hypothesis by determination of lung diffusing capacity (DL) and its components, ...
Nakahashi Susumu - - 2013
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine whether the relative change in the end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) obtained by the recruitment maneuver (RM) can serve as an indicator of the change in the P/F ratio. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of the intermittent stepwise increases in the RM ...
Ravikumar Priya P Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, - - 2013
Following right pneumonectomy (PNX), the remaining lung expands and its perfusion more than doubles. Tissue and microvascular mechanical stresses are putative stimuli for compensatory lung growth and remodeling, but their relative contribution remains uncertain. To temporally separate expansion- and perfusion-related stimuli, we replaced the right lung of adult dogs with ...
Prescott Hallie C - - 2013
OBJECTIVES:: Lung-protective ventilation with lower tidal volume and lower plateau pressure improves mortality in patients with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. We sought to determine the incidence of elevated plateau pressure in acute lung injury /acute respiratory distress syndrome patients receiving lower tidal volume ventilation and to ...
Monteiro Regina - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Dystrophia myotonica (DM) is the most frequent adult-onset muscular dystrophy. Type 1 is caused by the cytosine-thymine-guanine (CTG) repeat expansion in the DM protein kinase gene. Respiratory muscle weakness and altered central ventilatory control lead to hypercapnia and lung volume restriction. PURPOSE: This study aims to review the respiratory ...
Bodenstein Marc - - 2013
ABSTRACT Varying pulmonary shunt fractions during the respiratory cycle cause oxygen oscillations during mechanical ventilation. In artificially damaged lungs, cyclical recruitment of atelectasis is responsible for varying shunt according to published evidence. We introduce a complimentary hypothesis that cyclically varying shunt in healthy lungs is caused by cyclical redistribution of ...
Tossavainen Erik - - 2013
BACKGROUND: In patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH), ascertaining raised vascular resistance as a cause is a clinical objective, for which various Doppler-based measurements have been proposed, but with modest accuracy. We hypothesize that pulmonary acceleration time (PAcT) and the ratio of PAcT/peak pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) reflect better the ...
Sandberg Kenneth L - - 2013
AIM: Chloral hydrate (CH) is the most commonly used sedative for medical procedures and lung function tests in infancy. The aim was to determine whether moderate CH sedation affects airway function, lung volume, and ventilation. METHODS: Thirteen chronically instrumented 7-8 weeks old lambs were studied both before after CH sedation ...
Ward Kevin R - - 2013
While pressurized oxygen in tank form, as well as oxygen concentrators, are ubiquitous in civilian healthcare in developed countries for medical use, there are a number of settings where use of these oxygen delivery platforms is problematic. These settings include but are not limited to combat casualty care and healthcare ...
Asakura Takanori - - 2013
The aim of this report is to call attention to a poorly recognised cause of pulmonary hypertension, thiamine deficiency. A 78-year-old woman without alcoholism or malabsorption presented with progressive dyspnoea and generalised oedema. Echocardiography showed signs of right ventricular overload with an estimated systolic pulmonary artery pressure of 50 mm ...
Rossi Felipe de Souza Fde - - 2013
Nasal continuous positive airway pressure is used as a standard of care after extubation in very-low-birth-weight infants. A pressure of 5 cmH2O is usually applied regardless of individual differences in lung compliance. Current methods for evaluation of lung compliance and air distribution in the lungs are thus imprecise for preterm ...
Meng Gang - - 2013
Here we report thermal evaporation dynamics of Au nanoparticles on single crystal oxide substrates, including MgO, SrTiO_{3}, and Al_{2}O_{3}. The size reduction rate of Au nanoparticles via thermal treatments is strongly dependent on not only temperature but also pressure. Lowering the pressure of inert Ar gas from 10^{5} to 10 ...
Thammanomai Apiradee - - 2013
The accepted protocol to ventilate patients with acute lung injury is to use low tidal volume (V(T)) in combination with recruitment maneuvers or positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). However, an important aspect of mechanical ventilation has not been considered: the combined effects of PEEP and ventilation modes on the integrity of ...
Meloche Jolyane - - 2013
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a vasculopathy characterized by enhanced pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) proliferation and suppressed apoptosis. This results in both increase in pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance. Recent studies have shown the implication of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)/bone morphogenetic ...
De Monte Valentina - - 2013
Objective-To evaluate the effectiveness of reduction of inspired oxygen fraction (Fio(2)) or application of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) after an alveolar recruitment maneuver (ARM) in minimizing anesthesia-induced atelectasis in dogs. Animals-30 healthy female dogs. Procedures-During anesthesia and neuromuscular blockade, dogs were mechanically ventilated under baseline conditions (tidal volume, 12 mL/kg; ...
Tingay David G - - 2013
OBJECTIVES:: During high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, an understanding of the relationship between lung volume and lung mechanics may help clinicians better apply ventilation. The objectives of this study were: 1) to describe the relationship between lung volume and lung function parameters during mapping of the deflation limb of the pressure-volume relationship ...
Shi Jia-Xin - - 2013
This meta-analysis evaluated the effect of noninvasive, positive pressure ventilation on severe, stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). PUBMED, CNKI, Wanfang, EMBASE and the Cochrane trials databases were searched. Randomized controlled trials of patients with severe, stable COPD and receiving noninvasive positive pressure ventilation, compared with sham ventilation or no ...
Nishant Kumar - - 2013
A 30-year-old woman presented with a 1-year history of a dull ache in her left flank along with recent onset of hypertension. There was no history suggestive of tuberculosis and examination was unremarkable. X-ray showed dense opacity in left renal area. Contrast-enhanced CT revealed a non-enhancing and non-excretory left kidney ...
Zhang Yuxuan - - 2013
The behavior of sludge solubilization using high-pressure homogenization (HPH) treatment was examined by investigating the sludge solid reduction and organics solubilization. The sludge volatile suspended solids (VSS) decreased from 10.58 to 6.67 g/L for the sludge sample with a total solids content (TS) of 1.49% after HPH treatment at a ...
Petrucci Nicola - - 2013
Patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute lung injury require mechanical ventilatory support. Acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute lung injury are further complicated by ventilator-induced lung injury. Lung protective ventilation strategies may lead to improved survival. This systematic review is an update of a Cochrane review originally published ...
Wang Shuo - - 2013
The destruction of the pulmonary structure after cardiopulmonary resuscitation may lead to lung function breakdown. The aim of this study was to investigate lung function after cardiopulmonary resuscitation and the influence of rescue breathing on lung function. Prospective, randomized animal study. A university animal research laboratory. Twenty-eight male domestic pigs ...
Blatteau Jean-Eric - - 2013
Recent advances in submarine rescue systems have allowed a transfer under pressure of crew members being rescued from a disabled submarine. The choice of a safe decompression procedure for pressurised rescuees has been previously discussed, but no schedule has been validated when the internal submarine pressure is significantly increased i.e. ...
Goutorbe Philippe - - 2013
Long term oxygen therapy improves survival in hypoxemic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Because pressure support ventilation with a home care ventilator is largely unsupervised, there is considerable risk of leakage occurring, which could affect delivered FiO2. We have therefore conducted a bench study in order to measure ...
Croft Quentin P P - - 2013
The human pulmonary vasculature constricts in response to hypercapnia and hypoxia, with important consequences for homeostasis and adaptation. One function of these responses is to direct blood flow away from poorly-ventilated regions of the lung. In humans it is not known whether the stimuli of hypercapnia and hypoxia constrict the ...
Liu D - - 2013
Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) causes lung dysfunction in patients after hemorrhagic shock resuscitation. We performed intra-abdominal volume increment (IAVI) to IAH and studied its effect on pulmonary function. Methods: Eight minipigs established for IAH model by exsanquination until shock, incomplete blockage of portal vein and overload resuscitation were randomly divided into ...
Sánchez Luna Manuel - - 2013
Objective. To assess volume guarantee (VG) ventilation combined with high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) strategy on PaCO2 regulation in an experimental model of neonatal distress syndrome. Methods. Six 2-day-old piglets weighing 2.57 ± 0.26 kg were used for this interventional experimental study. Animals were ventilated during physiologic lung conditions and after depletion ...
Yin Lei-Miao - - 2013
One of the most important theories of the traditional Chinese medicine is the exterior-interior relationship between the lung and the large intestine; so far, little direct experimental evidence has been reported to support such relationship. Here we for the first time investigated the mutual interactions between the lung and the ...
Zick Günther - - 2013
Lung-protective ventilation aims at using low tidal volumes (VT) at optimum positive end-expiratory pressures (PEEP). Optimum PEEP should recruit atelectatic lung regions and avoid tidal recruitment and end-inspiratory overinflation. We examined the effect of VT and PEEP on ventilation distribution, regional respiratory system compliance (CRS), and end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) ...
Becker Eva Maria - - 2013
Approved therapies for pulmonary arterial hypertension can induce oxygen desaturation when administered to patients with secondary forms of pulmonary hypertension (PH), probably due to an increase in ventilation/perfusion mismatch. Thus, so far these treatments have largely failed in secondary forms of PH. We established an animal model of heterogeneous lung ...
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