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Results 301 - 350 of 2119
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Galanis Dimitris S - - 2013
Healthy male volunteers were investigated for cardiopulmonary adaptations to a head-down posture (HDT). Thirty-three volunteers were enrolled in this study. Their changes in cardiopulmonary parameters at 15° and 30° HDT, for 7.5 minutes in each posture, were studied using echocardiography. Spirometric measurements of pulmonary function were performed during sitting and ...
Seppa Ville-Pekka - - 2013
Diagnosis of asthma in the preschoold children is difficult due to lack of objective lung function tests suitable for this age group. Impedance pneumography (IP) is a mode of measurement that may potentially enable ambulatory 24h recording of tidal breathing indices and respiratory dynamics that are known to relate to ...
Albanese Antonio - - 2013
A method for real-time noninvasive estimation of intrapleural pressure in mechanically ventilated patients is proposed. The method employs a simple first-order lung mechanics model that is fitted in real-time to flow and pressure signals acquired non-invasively at the opening of the patient airways, in order to estimate lung resistance (RL), ...
Albu Gergely G Department of Anesthesiology, Pharmacology and Intensive Care, University of Geneva, Geneva, - - 2013
Effective lung volume (ELV) for gas exchange is a new measure that could be used as a real-time guide during controlled mechanical ventilation. The authors established the relationships of ELV to static end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) with varying levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in healthy and surfactant-depleted rabbit lungs. ...
Lopes Fernanda Maia - - 2013
To assess the oxygenation behavior and ventilatory mechanics after hemodialysis in patients under ventilatory support. The present study was performed in the general intensive care unit of a tertiary public hospital. Patients over 18 years of age under mechanical ventilation and in need of dialysis support were included. Each patient ...
Berger Kenneth I KI André Cournand Pulmonary Physiology Laboratory, the World Trade Center Environmental Health Center, Bellevue Hospital, New York, NY 10016, USA. - - 2013
The present study (1) characterizes a physiologic phenotype of restrictive dysfunction due to airway injury and (2) compares this phenotype to the phenotype of interstitial lung disease (ILD). This is a retrospective study of 54 persistently symptomatic subjects following World Trade Center (WTC) dust exposure. Inclusion criteria were reduced vital ...
Tucci Mauro R MR Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, - - 2013
Lung derecruitment is common during general anesthesia. Mechanical ventilation with physiological tidal volumes could magnify derecruitment, and produce lung dysfunction and inflammation. The authors used positron emission tomography to study the process of derecruitment in normal lungs ventilated for 16 h and the corresponding changes in regional lung perfusion and ...
Kuchnicka Katarzyna K Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Therapy, District Hospital in Bielsko-Biała, Poland Chair of Nursing and Emergency Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Technical-Humanistic Academy, Bielsko-Biała, Poland. - - 2013
Mechanical ventilation of disease-affected lungs, as well as being an inadequate mode of ventilation for initially healthy lungs, can cause significant changes in their structure and function. In order to differentiate these processes, two terms are used: ventilator-associated lung injury (VALI) and ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). In both cases, lung ...
Maron Bradley A BA Department of Cardiology, Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System, Parkway, Boston, - - 2013
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a key contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and early mortality; however, reports are lacking on the epidemiology of PH in at-risk patient populations. The echocardiography registries from 2 major Veterans Affairs hospitals were accessed to identify patients with at least moderate PH, defined here as a pulmonary ...
Couret David - - 2013
Chest trauma remains a leading cause of trauma-death. Since lung contusion is one of the most important lesions implicated, the aim of this experimental study was to evaluate the cardiorespiratory consequences of an isolated lung contusion model. Twenty-eight anesthetized pigs were studied during four hours. We induced a right lung ...
Roy Shreyas K - - 2013
Once established, the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is highly resistant to treatment and retains a high mortality. We hypothesized that preemptive application of airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) in a rat model of trauma/hemorrhagic shock (T/HS) would prevent ARDS. Rats were anesthetized, instrumented for hemodynamic monitoring, and subjected to ...
Romero Roberto R Perinatology Research Branch, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. - - 2013
A 24-year-old nulliparous woman developed mildly elevated blood pressure (140-150/90-100 mmHg) without proteinuria (20 mg protein in a 24-hour urine collection) at 30⁶/⁷ weeks of gestation. The fetus was small for gestational age (estimated fetal weight under the fifth percentile). At 32⁵/⁷ weeks of gestation, the patient complained of epigastric ...
Lee S M - - 2013
We evaluated the effects of a prolonged inspiratory time on gas exchange in subjects undergoing one-lung ventilation for thoracic surgery. One hundred patients were randomly assigned to Group I:E = 1:2 or Group I:E = 1:1. Arterial blood gas analysis and respiratory mechanics measurements were performed 10 min after anaesthesia induction, 30 and 60 min after ...
Chemla Denis - - 2013
The contribution of heart rate (HR) to pulmonary artery hemodynamics has been suggested in pulmonary hypertension. Our high-fidelity pressure, retrospective study tested the hypothesis that HR explained the majority of mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) and pulse pressure (PApp) variation in twelve severe precapillary pulmonary hypertension patients performing incremental-load cycling ...
Canfrán S - - 2013
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a stepwise lung recruitment manoeuvre (RM) on cardiac output (CO) in mechanically ventilated dogs, with or without a previous fluid load. Eight healthy adult Beagle dogs were enrolled in a prospective crossover study. Following sedation with dexmedetomidine and methadone, ...
Struik Fransien M - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) is effective in treating acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Nocturnal non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (nocturnal-NIPPV) has been proposed as an intervention for stable hypercapnic patients with COPD. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of nocturnal-NIPPV at home via nasal mask or face ...
Osadnik Christian - - 2013
Background: Positive expiratory pressure (PEP) has been used to promote airway clearance in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) for many years; however, its mechanism of action and benefits are unclear. Previous authors have suggested that PEP improves collateral ventilation via changes in lung volumes. Objectives: It was the ...
Bates Jason H - - 2013
Patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome receiving mechanical ventilation typically experience repetitive closure (derecruitment) and subsequent re-opening (recruitment) of airways and alveoli. This can lead, over time, to further ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Recruitment and derecruitment (R/D) thus reflect both the current level of lung injury and the risk for ...
Chiumello D - - 2013
PURPOSE: To assess the time interval required to reach a new steady state of oxygenation-, ventilation-, respiratory mechanics- and hemodynamics-related variables after decreasing/increasing positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP). METHODS: In 23 patients (group 1) with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), PEEP was decreased from 10 to 5 cmH2O and, after 60', ...
Ebah Leonard M - - 2013
The kidneys and the interstitial compartment play a vital role in body fluid regulation. The latter may be significantly altered in renal dysfunction, but experimental studies are lacking. To help define this we measured the subcutaneous interstitial pressure, bioimpedance volumes, and edema characteristics in 10 healthy subjects and 21 patients ...
Wagner Johanna-Josophina - - 2013
Experimental data indicate that hypercapnic adidosis has anti-inflammatory effects. These anti-inflammatory effects may even be a beneficial property in case of low tidal volume ventilation with consecutive hypercapnic acidosis. It is unclear whether these anti-inflammatory effects predominate in critically ill patients who suffer from multiple pro- and anti-inflammatory insults like ...
Connolly Desmond M - - 2013
Rapid decompressions (RD) to 60,000 ft (18,288 m) were undertaken by six subjects to provide evidence of satisfactory performance of a contemporary, partial pressure assembly life support system for the purposes of flight clearance. A total of 12 3-s RDs were conducted with subjects breathing 56% oxygen (balance nitrogen) at ...
Fock Andrew - - 2013
Central nervous system oxygen toxicity is a recognised risk in recreational open-circuit scuba diving with the use of nitrox (oxygen-enriched air mixtures), but other forms of oxygen toxicity in other diving settings are poorly understood. However, divers using constant partial pressure of oxygen closed-circuit rebreathers (CCRs) for multi-day, multi-dive expeditions ...
Donina Zh A - - 2013
We studied the dependence of parameters of lung volumes and the elastic properties of the lungs on changes in the central hemodynamics occurring in the initial period of passive postural changes in cats. It was found that transition from the horizontal to head-up and head-down tilting was accompanied by opposite ...
Ke Tao T Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, the Ministry of Education Key Lab of Hazard Assessment and Control in Special Operational Environment, School of Public Health, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, - - 2013
Acetazolamide and gingko biloba are the two most investigated drugs for the prevention of acute mountain sickness (AMS). Evidence suggests that they may also reduce pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP). To investigate whether these two drugs for AMS prevention also reduce PASP with rapid airlift ascent to high altitude, a ...
West John B - - 2013
Denis Jourdanet (1815-1892) was a French physician who spent many years in Mexico studying the effects of high altitude. He was a major benefactor of Paul Bert (1833-1886) who is often called the father of high altitude physiology because his book La Pression Barometrique was the first clear statement that ...
Bruells Christian S - - 2013
Mechanical ventilation is a life-saving intervention for patients with respiratory failure. Unfortunately, a major complication associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation is ventilator-induced diaphragmatic atrophy and contractile dysfunction, termed ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction (VIDD). Emerging evidence suggests that positive pressure ventilation (PPV) promotes lung damage (ventilator-induced lung injury [VILI]), resulting in the ...
Held Matthias - - 2013
We aimed to characterize the association of pulmonary hypertension due to hypoventilation and exercise capacity, and the haemodynamic and functional changes under non-invasive ventilation.A retrospective analysis was done to assess haemodynamics and functional capacity in 18 patients with daytime pulmonary hypertension due to hypoventilation at baseline and after three months ...
Hong D M - - 2013
Background: The use of a fiberoptic bronchoscope is fundamental to the positioning of bronchial blockers. However, a fiberoptic bronchoscope could be unavailable. We tried to devise a blind method to locate the blocker without help of a fiberoptic bronchoscope. Methods: In 56 thoracic surgical patients requiring one-lung ventilation, a Uniblocker® ...
Frerichs I - - 2013
Measurement of regional lung volume changes during a quasi-static pressure-volume (PV) manoeuvre using electrical impedance tomography (EIT) could be used to assess regional respiratory system mechanics and to determine optimal ventilator settings in individual patients. Using this approach, we studied regional respiratory system mechanics in healthy and lung-injured animals, before ...
Setzer Florian - - 2013
INTRODUCTION: The principal mechanisms of ventilator induced lung injury (VILI) have been investigated in numerous animal studies. However, prospective data on the effect of old age on VILI are limited. Under the hypothesis that susceptibility to VILI is increased in old age, we investigated the pulmonary and extrapulmonary effects of ...
Huang Yingzi - - 2013
BACKGROUND: The heterogeneity of lung injury in pulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) may have contributed to the greater response of hyperinflated area with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). PEEP titrated by stress index can reduce the risk of alveolar hyperinflation in patients with pulmonary ARDS. The authors sought to investigate ...
Wu Wen-I - - 2013
This paper reports the development of microfluidic oxygenator (MFO) units designed for a lung assist device (LAD) for newborn infants. This device will be connected to the umbilical vessels like the natural placenta and provide gas exchange. The extracorporeal blood flow is only driven by the pressure difference between the ...
Oto Jun - - 2013
Background:Although leak compensation has been widely introduced to acute care ventilators to improve patient-ventilator synchronization in the presence of system leaks, there is no data on these ventilators ability to prevent triggering and cycling asynchrony. The goal of this study was to evaluate the ability of leak compensation in acute ...
Soo Hoo Guy W - - 2013
The management of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains daunting as we approach a half century since its description.(1) Both direct and indirect insults produce acute lung injury, diffuse alveolar damage, and increased vascular permeability, with more severe involvement classified as ARDS.(2) Although this suggests homogeneous injury, computed tomography ...
Colquhoun Douglas A - - 2013
Abstract Respiratory variation in the systemic arterial blood pressure tracing is predictive of the change in cardiac output following volume administration. However, significant inter-individual variability exists. Animal data suggest that systemic arterial respiratory variation loses its predictive ability in the setting of right ventricular failure. Human studies suggest that patients ...
Boissier Florence - - 2013
PURPOSE: Pulmonary vascular dysfunction is common during acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), but there is controversy concerning prevalence and prognosis of cor pulmonale during protective ventilation for ARDS. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study in an academic medical intensive care unit in France. Two hundred and twenty-six consecutive patients ...
Amigoni Maria - - 2013
BACKGROUND:: Mechanical ventilation is necessary during acute respiratory distress syndrome, but it promotes lung injury because of the excessive stretch applied to the aerated parenchyma. The authors' hypothesis was that after a regional lung injury, the noxious effect of mechanical ventilation on the remaining aerated parenchyma would be more pronounced. ...
Lanza Fernanda de Cordoba - - 2013
Background:chest wall mobility is often used in clinical practice, but is not determined it's correlation with respiratory muscle strength and lung volumes.Objective:to investigate the association between chest wall mobility, axilary (Cax) and thoracic cirtometry (Cthor), respiratory muscle strength (maximal inspiratory pressure - PImax, maximal expiratory pressure - PEmax) and lung ...
Gomes Evelim Leal de Freitas Dantas - - 2013
Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) causes changes in alveolar and intrathoracic pressure and the activation of pulmonary stretch receptors affects the balance of the autonomic nervous system. The acute effects of CPAP on autonomic modulation have been demonstrated in different diseases, but no studies have been carried out addressing CPAP ...
Brinkman Ryan - - 2013
PURPOSE: Cerebral desaturation occurs frequently in patients undergoing one-lung ventilation for thoracic surgery. The mechanism of this desaturation is unclear regarding its etiology. The objective of this study was to investigate whether or not decreases in cerebral oxygen saturation associated with one-lung ventilation were a consequence of decreased cardiac output. ...
Amado-Rodríguez Laura - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation can promote lung injury by triggering a pro-inflammatory response. Macrolides may exert some immunomodulatory effects and have shown significant benefits over other antibiotics in ventilated patients. We hypothesized that macrolides could decrease ventilator-induced lung injury. METHODS: Adult mice were treated with vehicle, clarithromycin or levofloxacin, and randomized ...
Sera Toshihiro - - 2013
We visualised pulmonary acini in the core regions of the mouse lung in situ using synchrotron refraction-enhanced CT and evaluated their kinematics during quasi-static inflation. This CT system (with a cube voxel of 2.8 μm) allows excellent visualization of not only the conducting airways but also the alveolar ducts and ...
Morélot-Panzini Capucine - - 2013
Introduction: Patients with the congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) suffer from life-threatening hypoventilation when asleep, making them dependent on mechanical ventilation (MV) at night or during naps. State-of-art respiratory management consists of intermittent positive-pressure ventilation via a tracheotomy or mask. In some patients hypoventilation is permanent, in which case ventilatory ...
West John B - - 2013
Although the pulmonary capillaries were discovered in 1661, the ultrastructure of the wall was not elucidated until 60 years ago. Electron micrographs then showed that only 0.2 µm of tissue separated the capillary endothelium from the alveolar space over much of the area. In retrospect this vanishingly small protective layer ...
Hillman David R - - 2013
Rationale: Increasing lung volume increases upper airway patency and decreases airway resistance and collapsibility. The role of diaphragm contraction in producing these changes remains unclear. Objectives: To determine the effect of selective diaphragm contraction, induced by phrenic nerve stimulation, on upper airway collapsibility and the extent to which any observed ...
Michaels Andrew J - - 2013
The investigators present a series of adults with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) who were treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) at a regional referral center. Patients with refractory hypoxic ARDS received ECMO until they recovered lung function or demonstrated futility. ECMO was initiated at the referring facility if ...
Michaels Andrew J - - 2013
The investigators compared a series of adult survivors of severe H1N1 pneumonia treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) with members of the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization registry for patients with H1N1 with regard to ventilator management while on ECMO. Adults who survived ECMO were compared regarding time on ECMO for ...
Park Maj - - 2013
This study compares the accuracy and capabilities of various ventilators using a paediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome lung model. Various compliance settings and respiratory rate settings were used. The study was done in three parts: tidal volume and FiO2 accuracy; pressure control accuracy and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) accuracy. The ...
Ignagni Mario - - 2013
Abstract A dual-excitation approach to mechanical clearance of mucus from the pulmonary system is described. The approach employs independently controlled vibratory and constrictive pressure stimulations to the thorax. Patient cooperative efforts are integrated into the therapy regimen as a means of enhancing the efficacy of the treatment. An engineering model ...
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