Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 2142
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Grossman Alon - - 2013
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is frequently associated with parenchymal lung disease. To evaluate the association between spirometric values and pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) in young subjects without overt lung disease METHODS:: Applicants to the Israeli air force undergo routine evaluation that includes resting spirometry and echocardiography. Applicants with evidence of ...
Bech-Hanssen Odd - - 2013
The two hemodynamic profiles in left heart disease (LHD) with pulmonary hypertension (PH), passive PH with increased pulmonary venous pressure and reactive PH with increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR>3 Wood units, WU), are difficult to distinguish non-invasively. We hypothesized that echocardiographic signs of pressure reflection (PR) in the pulmonary circulation ...
Mellema Matthew S - - 2013
Ventilator waveforms are graphic representations of changes in pressure, flow, and volume within a ventilator circuit. The changes in these parameters over time may be displayed individually (scalars) or plotted one against another (pressure-volume and flow-volume loops). There are 6 basic shapes of scalar waveforms, but only 3 are functionally ...
Levitt Joseph E JE Division of Pulmonary/Critical Care, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA. - - 2013
Mortality associated with acute lung injury remains high. Early identification of acute lung injury prior to onset of respiratory failure may provide a therapeutic window to target in future clinical trials. The recently validated Lung Injury Prediction Score identifies patients at risk for acute lung injury but may be limited ...
Whayne Thomas F TF - - 2013
Altitude physiology began with Paul Bert in 1878. Chronic mountain sickness (CMS) was defined by Carlos Monge in the 1940s in the Peruvian Andes as consisting of excess polycythemia. Hurtado et al performed studies in the Peruvian Andes in the 1950s to 1960s which defined acclimatization in healthy altitude natives, ...
Silva Pedro L - - 2013
To investigate the effects of the rate of increase in airway pressure and duration of lung recruitment maneuvers in experimental pulmonary and extrapulmonary acute lung injury. Prospective, randomized, controlled experimental study. University research laboratory. Fifty adult male Wistar rats. Acute lung injury was induced by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide either intratracheally ...
Curths Christoph - - 2013
Animal models with a high predictive value for human trials are needed to develop novel human-specific therapeutics against respiratory diseases. The aim of the study was to examine lung function parameters in marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus) that can be used to detect pharmacologically or provocation induced airway hyperresponsiveness. Therefore, a ...
Hong Youlian - - 2013
The lunge is the most fundamental skill in badminton competitions. Fifteen university-level male badminton players performed lunge maneuvers in four directions, namely, right-forward, left-forward, right-backward, and left-backward, while wearing two different brands of badminton shoes. The test compared the kinetics of badminton shoes in performing typical lunge maneuvers. A force ...
Amini Reza - - 2013
To determine the impact of ventilation frequency, lung volume, and parenchymal stiffness on ventilation distribution, we developed an anatomically-based computational model of the canine lung. Each lobe of the model consists of an asymmetric branching airway network subtended by terminal, viscoelastic acinar units. The model allows for empiric dependencies of ...
Hu Han-Chung - - 2013
In order to reduce the contamination in the ventilator, bacterial filters were placed on the expiratory limb of a ventilator circuit. Aerosolized mucolytic agents may increase the resistance of the ventilator. The goal of this study is to determine the impact of aerosolized mucolytic agents on the pressure change during ...
Woods D R - - 2013
Our objective was to evaluate the utility of the natriuretic peptides BNP (brain natriuretic peptide) and NT-proBNP as markers of pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) in trekkers ascending to high altitude (HA). 20 participants had BNP and NT-proBNP assayed and simultaneous echocardiographic assessment of PASP performed during a trek to ...
Yehya Nadir - - 2013
Airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) and high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) are frequently used in acute lung injury (ALI) refractory to conventional ventilation. Our aim was to describe our experience with APRV and HFOV in refractory pediatric ALI, and to identify factors associated with survival. We analyzed 104 patients with ...
García-Fernández Javier - - 2013
Recruitment manoeuvres aim at reversing atelectasis during general anaesthesia but are associated with potential risks such as barotrauma. To explore the range of pressures that can be used safely to fully recruit the lung without causing barotrauma in an ex-vivo healthy lung rabbit model. Prospective, randomised, experimental study. Experimental Unit, ...
Protti Alessandro - - 2013
Healthy piglets ventilated with no positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and with tidal volume (VT) close to inspiratory capacity (IC) develop fatal pulmonary oedema within 36 hours. In contrast, those ventilated with high PEEP and low VT, resulting in the same volume of gas inflated (close to IC), do not. If ...
Rubini Alessandro - - 2013
Interleukin-6 has been shown to be increased in various pathological conditions involving the lungs, both experimentally induced in animals, or spontaneously occurring in humans. Experimental data demonstrating a significant role of interleukin-6 in commonly occurring respiratory system inflammatory diseases are reviewed. These diseases, i.e. asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ...
Rubini Alessandro - - 2013
Interleukin-6 has been shown to be increased in various pathological conditions involving the lungs, both experimentally induced in animals, or spontaneously occurring in humans. Experimental data demonstrating a significant role of interleukin-6 in commonly occurring respiratory system inflammatory diseases are reviewed. These diseases, i.e. asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ...
Santschi Miriam - - 2013
The aim of this survey was to determine North American and European pediatric intensivists' knowledge and stated practice in the management of children with acute respiratory distress syndrome with regard to mechanical ventilation settings; blood gas and SO2 targets; and use of adjunctive treatments at sites where actual practice had ...
Xie Yu - - 2013
The ratio of tricuspid regurgitation velocity divided by the velocity-time integral of right ventricular outflow tract pulsed-wave Doppler tracing (TRV/VTIRVOT ) has been used to estimate pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). However, this method has not been validated in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). We assessed the utility of TRV/VTIRVOT in ...
Makara Mariano - - 2013
In dogs, a mean broncho-arterial ratio of 1.45 ± 0.21 has been previously defined as normal. These values were obtained in dogs under general inhalational anesthesia using a single breath-hold technique. The purpose of the study was to determine whether ventilation technique and bronchial diameter have an effect on broncho-arterial ...
Oto Jun - - 2013
Ventilators used for non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIV) must be able to synchronize in the presence of system leaks. We compared the ability of 7 ICU ventilators and 3 dedicated NIV ventilators to compensate for leaks during pediatric NIV. Using a lung simulator, the Maquet Servo-i, the Dräger V500, the ...
Kubota Satoshi - - 2013
The present study investigates autonomic cardiovascular regulation during postural changes while in Fowler's position. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and sequence baroreflex sensitivity (sBRS) were measured in 12 healthy individuals in three positions (Experiment 1). We also measured RSA, sBRS, tidal volume (TV), lung volume spectrum (LV spectrum), and transfer gain ...
Bikker I G - - 2013
Background: Setting the optimal level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in critically ill patients remains a matter of debate. 'Best' PEEP is regarded as minimal lung collapse and overdistention to prevent lung injury. In this study, global and regional variables were evaluated in a porcine model to identify which variables ...
Tyler Laurel - - 2013
Background Functional hemodynamic indicators (systolic pressure variation [SPV and SPV%] and pulse pressure variation [PPV%]) are sensitive and specific indicators of fluid responsiveness. It was unknown if these indicators could be accurately measured directly from the bedside monitor. Objective Determine the accuracy of SPV, SPV%, and PPV% measurements by using ...
Guazzi Marco - - 2013
Recently, it has become increasingly recognized that pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a particularly ominous consequence of left-sided heart failure (HF). The primary aim of this investigation was to assess the ability of key cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) variables to detect elevated pulmonary pressures in a HF cohort. This was a ...
Galanis Dimitris S - - 2013
Healthy male volunteers were investigated for cardiopulmonary adaptations to a head-down posture (HDT). Thirty-three volunteers were enrolled in this study. Their changes in cardiopulmonary parameters at 15° and 30° HDT, for 7.5 minutes in each posture, were studied using echocardiography. Spirometric measurements of pulmonary function were performed during sitting and ...
Seppa Ville-Pekka - - 2013
Diagnosis of asthma in the preschoold children is difficult due to lack of objective lung function tests suitable for this age group. Impedance pneumography (IP) is a mode of measurement that may potentially enable ambulatory 24h recording of tidal breathing indices and respiratory dynamics that are known to relate to ...
Albanese Antonio - - 2013
A method for real-time noninvasive estimation of intrapleural pressure in mechanically ventilated patients is proposed. The method employs a simple first-order lung mechanics model that is fitted in real-time to flow and pressure signals acquired non-invasively at the opening of the patient airways, in order to estimate lung resistance (RL), ...
Albu Gergely G Department of Anesthesiology, Pharmacology and Intensive Care, University of Geneva, Geneva, - - 2013
Effective lung volume (ELV) for gas exchange is a new measure that could be used as a real-time guide during controlled mechanical ventilation. The authors established the relationships of ELV to static end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) with varying levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in healthy and surfactant-depleted rabbit lungs. ...
Lopes Fernanda Maia - - 2013
To assess the oxygenation behavior and ventilatory mechanics after hemodialysis in patients under ventilatory support. The present study was performed in the general intensive care unit of a tertiary public hospital. Patients over 18 years of age under mechanical ventilation and in need of dialysis support were included. Each patient ...
Berger Kenneth I KI André Cournand Pulmonary Physiology Laboratory, the World Trade Center Environmental Health Center, Bellevue Hospital, New York, NY 10016, USA. - - 2013
The present study (1) characterizes a physiologic phenotype of restrictive dysfunction due to airway injury and (2) compares this phenotype to the phenotype of interstitial lung disease (ILD). This is a retrospective study of 54 persistently symptomatic subjects following World Trade Center (WTC) dust exposure. Inclusion criteria were reduced vital ...
Kuchnicka Katarzyna K Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Therapy, District Hospital in Bielsko-Biała, Poland Chair of Nursing and Emergency Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Technical-Humanistic Academy, Bielsko-Biała, Poland. - - 2013
Mechanical ventilation of disease-affected lungs, as well as being an inadequate mode of ventilation for initially healthy lungs, can cause significant changes in their structure and function. In order to differentiate these processes, two terms are used: ventilator-associated lung injury (VALI) and ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). In both cases, lung ...
Tucci Mauro R MR Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, - - 2013
Lung derecruitment is common during general anesthesia. Mechanical ventilation with physiological tidal volumes could magnify derecruitment, and produce lung dysfunction and inflammation. The authors used positron emission tomography to study the process of derecruitment in normal lungs ventilated for 16 h and the corresponding changes in regional lung perfusion and ...
Maron Bradley A BA Department of Cardiology, Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System, Parkway, Boston, - - 2013
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a key contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and early mortality; however, reports are lacking on the epidemiology of PH in at-risk patient populations. The echocardiography registries from 2 major Veterans Affairs hospitals were accessed to identify patients with at least moderate PH, defined here as a pulmonary ...
Couret David - - 2013
Chest trauma remains a leading cause of trauma-death. Since lung contusion is one of the most important lesions implicated, the aim of this experimental study was to evaluate the cardiorespiratory consequences of an isolated lung contusion model. Twenty-eight anesthetized pigs were studied during four hours. We induced a right lung ...
Romero Roberto R Perinatology Research Branch, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. - - 2013
A 24-year-old nulliparous woman developed mildly elevated blood pressure (140-150/90-100 mmHg) without proteinuria (20 mg protein in a 24-hour urine collection) at 30⁶/⁷ weeks of gestation. The fetus was small for gestational age (estimated fetal weight under the fifth percentile). At 32⁵/⁷ weeks of gestation, the patient complained of epigastric ...
Lee S M - - 2013
We evaluated the effects of a prolonged inspiratory time on gas exchange in subjects undergoing one-lung ventilation for thoracic surgery. One hundred patients were randomly assigned to Group I:E = 1:2 or Group I:E = 1:1. Arterial blood gas analysis and respiratory mechanics measurements were performed 10 min after anaesthesia induction, 30 and 60 min after ...
Chemla Denis - - 2013
The contribution of heart rate (HR) to pulmonary artery hemodynamics has been suggested in pulmonary hypertension. Our high-fidelity pressure, retrospective study tested the hypothesis that HR explained the majority of mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) and pulse pressure (PApp) variation in twelve severe precapillary pulmonary hypertension patients performing incremental-load cycling ...
Canfrán S - - 2013
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a stepwise lung recruitment manoeuvre (RM) on cardiac output (CO) in mechanically ventilated dogs, with or without a previous fluid load. Eight healthy adult Beagle dogs were enrolled in a prospective crossover study. Following sedation with dexmedetomidine and methadone, ...
Struik Fransien M - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) is effective in treating acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Nocturnal non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (nocturnal-NIPPV) has been proposed as an intervention for stable hypercapnic patients with COPD. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of nocturnal-NIPPV at home via nasal mask or face ...
Osadnik Christian - - 2013
Background: Positive expiratory pressure (PEP) has been used to promote airway clearance in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) for many years; however, its mechanism of action and benefits are unclear. Previous authors have suggested that PEP improves collateral ventilation via changes in lung volumes. Objectives: It was the ...
Bates Jason H - - 2013
Patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome receiving mechanical ventilation typically experience repetitive closure (derecruitment) and subsequent re-opening (recruitment) of airways and alveoli. This can lead, over time, to further ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Recruitment and derecruitment (R/D) thus reflect both the current level of lung injury and the risk for ...
Chiumello D - - 2013
PURPOSE: To assess the time interval required to reach a new steady state of oxygenation-, ventilation-, respiratory mechanics- and hemodynamics-related variables after decreasing/increasing positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP). METHODS: In 23 patients (group 1) with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), PEEP was decreased from 10 to 5 cmH2O and, after 60', ...
Ebah Leonard M - - 2013
The kidneys and the interstitial compartment play a vital role in body fluid regulation. The latter may be significantly altered in renal dysfunction, but experimental studies are lacking. To help define this we measured the subcutaneous interstitial pressure, bioimpedance volumes, and edema characteristics in 10 healthy subjects and 21 patients ...
Wagner Johanna-Josophina - - 2013
Experimental data indicate that hypercapnic adidosis has anti-inflammatory effects. These anti-inflammatory effects may even be a beneficial property in case of low tidal volume ventilation with consecutive hypercapnic acidosis. It is unclear whether these anti-inflammatory effects predominate in critically ill patients who suffer from multiple pro- and anti-inflammatory insults like ...
Connolly Desmond M - - 2013
Rapid decompressions (RD) to 60,000 ft (18,288 m) were undertaken by six subjects to provide evidence of satisfactory performance of a contemporary, partial pressure assembly life support system for the purposes of flight clearance. A total of 12 3-s RDs were conducted with subjects breathing 56% oxygen (balance nitrogen) at ...
Fock Andrew - - 2013
Central nervous system oxygen toxicity is a recognised risk in recreational open-circuit scuba diving with the use of nitrox (oxygen-enriched air mixtures), but other forms of oxygen toxicity in other diving settings are poorly understood. However, divers using constant partial pressure of oxygen closed-circuit rebreathers (CCRs) for multi-day, multi-dive expeditions ...
Donina Zh A - - 2013
We studied the dependence of parameters of lung volumes and the elastic properties of the lungs on changes in the central hemodynamics occurring in the initial period of passive postural changes in cats. It was found that transition from the horizontal to head-up and head-down tilting was accompanied by opposite ...
Ke Tao T Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, the Ministry of Education Key Lab of Hazard Assessment and Control in Special Operational Environment, School of Public Health, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, - - 2013
Acetazolamide and gingko biloba are the two most investigated drugs for the prevention of acute mountain sickness (AMS). Evidence suggests that they may also reduce pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP). To investigate whether these two drugs for AMS prevention also reduce PASP with rapid airlift ascent to high altitude, a ...
West John B - - 2013
Denis Jourdanet (1815-1892) was a French physician who spent many years in Mexico studying the effects of high altitude. He was a major benefactor of Paul Bert (1833-1886) who is often called the father of high altitude physiology because his book La Pression Barometrique was the first clear statement that ...
Bruells Christian S - - 2013
Mechanical ventilation is a life-saving intervention for patients with respiratory failure. Unfortunately, a major complication associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation is ventilator-induced diaphragmatic atrophy and contractile dysfunction, termed ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction (VIDD). Emerging evidence suggests that positive pressure ventilation (PPV) promotes lung damage (ventilator-induced lung injury [VILI]), resulting in the ...
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