Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 2028
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Gomes Evelim Leal de Freitas Dantas - - 2013
Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) causes changes in alveolar and intrathoracic pressure and the activation of pulmonary stretch receptors affects the balance of the autonomic nervous system. The acute effects of CPAP on autonomic modulation have been demonstrated in different diseases, but no studies have been carried out addressing CPAP ...
Brinkman Ryan - - 2013
PURPOSE: Cerebral desaturation occurs frequently in patients undergoing one-lung ventilation for thoracic surgery. The mechanism of this desaturation is unclear regarding its etiology. The objective of this study was to investigate whether or not decreases in cerebral oxygen saturation associated with one-lung ventilation were a consequence of decreased cardiac output. ...
Amado-Rodríguez Laura - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation can promote lung injury by triggering a pro-inflammatory response. Macrolides may exert some immunomodulatory effects and have shown significant benefits over other antibiotics in ventilated patients. We hypothesized that macrolides could decrease ventilator-induced lung injury. METHODS: Adult mice were treated with vehicle, clarithromycin or levofloxacin, and randomized ...
Sera Toshihiro - - 2013
We visualised pulmonary acini in the core regions of the mouse lung in situ using synchrotron refraction-enhanced CT and evaluated their kinematics during quasi-static inflation. This CT system (with a cube voxel of 2.8 μm) allows excellent visualization of not only the conducting airways but also the alveolar ducts and ...
Morélot-Panzini Capucine - - 2013
Introduction: Patients with the congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) suffer from life-threatening hypoventilation when asleep, making them dependent on mechanical ventilation (MV) at night or during naps. State-of-art respiratory management consists of intermittent positive-pressure ventilation via a tracheotomy or mask. In some patients hypoventilation is permanent, in which case ventilatory ...
West John B - - 2013
Although the pulmonary capillaries were discovered in 1661, the ultrastructure of the wall was not elucidated until 60 years ago. Electron micrographs then showed that only 0.2 µm of tissue separated the capillary endothelium from the alveolar space over much of the area. In retrospect this vanishingly small protective layer ...
Hillman David R - - 2013
Rationale: Increasing lung volume increases upper airway patency and decreases airway resistance and collapsibility. The role of diaphragm contraction in producing these changes remains unclear. Objectives: To determine the effect of selective diaphragm contraction, induced by phrenic nerve stimulation, on upper airway collapsibility and the extent to which any observed ...
Michaels Andrew J - - 2013
The investigators present a series of adults with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) who were treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) at a regional referral center. Patients with refractory hypoxic ARDS received ECMO until they recovered lung function or demonstrated futility. ECMO was initiated at the referring facility if ...
Michaels Andrew J - - 2013
The investigators compared a series of adult survivors of severe H1N1 pneumonia treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) with members of the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization registry for patients with H1N1 with regard to ventilator management while on ECMO. Adults who survived ECMO were compared regarding time on ECMO for ...
Park Maj - - 2013
This study compares the accuracy and capabilities of various ventilators using a paediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome lung model. Various compliance settings and respiratory rate settings were used. The study was done in three parts: tidal volume and FiO2 accuracy; pressure control accuracy and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) accuracy. The ...
Ignagni Mario - - 2013
Abstract A dual-excitation approach to mechanical clearance of mucus from the pulmonary system is described. The approach employs independently controlled vibratory and constrictive pressure stimulations to the thorax. Patient cooperative efforts are integrated into the therapy regimen as a means of enhancing the efficacy of the treatment. An engineering model ...
Bridges Elizabeth - - 2013
Hemodynamic monitoring has traditionally relied on such static pressure measurements as pulmonary artery occlusion pressure and central venous pressure to guide fluid therapy. Over the past 15 years, however, there's been a shift toward less invasive or noninvasive monitoring methods, which use "functional" hemodynamic indicators that reflect ventilator-induced changes in ...
Khirani Sonia - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Volume targeted pressure support ventilation (VT-PSV) is a hybrid mode increasingly used to maintain a minimal tidal volume (VT) by automatically adjusting the level of inspiratory pressure. The objective of the study was to determine the ability of home ventilators to maintain the preset minimal VT during unintentional leaks ...
Naeije Robert - - 2013
Hypoxia causes pulmonary vasoconstriction. Regional hypoxic vasoconstriction improves the matching of perfusion to alveolar ventilation. Global hypoxic vasoconstriction increases right ventricular afterload. The hypoxic pulmonary pressor response is universal in mammals and in birds, but with considerable inter-species and inter-individual variability. Chronic hypoxia induces pulmonary hypertension in proportion to initial ...
Reis Renata B - - 2013
OBJECTIVES: To analyze the effects of exposure to hyperoxia (100% oxygen) on the lung histoarchitecture of neonatal mice. METHODS: Neonatal Balb/c mice were exposed to hyperoxia (HG) (100% oxygen) (n= 10) in a chamber (15 x 20 x 30cm) for 24hours with a flow of 2 L/min. The control group ...
Henderson A Cortney AC Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA. - - 2013
The gravitational gradient of intrapleural pressure is suggested to be less in prone posture than supine. Thus the gravitational distribution of ventilation is expected to be more uniform prone, potentially affecting regional ventilation-perfusion (Va/Q) ratio. Using a novel functional lung magnetic resonance imaging technique to measure regional Va/Q ratio, the ...
Kong Dehong - - 2013
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate right ventricular (RV) regional systolic function and dyssynchrony in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) using real-time three-dimensional echocardiography. METHODS: Real-time three-dimensional echocardiographic images were acquired to obtain RV regional (inflow, body, and outflow) ejection fraction (EF) and time to minimum systolic ...
Smith Robert - - 2013
Elevated pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) is a significant healthcare risk. Continuous monitoring for patients with elevated PAP is crucial for effective treatment, yet the most accurate method is invasive and expensive, and cannot be performed repeatedly. Noninvasive methods exist but are somewhat inaccurate, expensive, and cannot be used for continuous ...
Saigal Aparna - - 2013
Pulmonary hypertension (PAH) is a condition of the lungs characterised by an elevated arterial pressure and increased vascular resistance. Existing medications have to be administered frequently, resulting in non compliance by patients. Little work has been reported to date where microspheres have been developed to control the release of drug ...
Goligher Ewan C - - 2013
High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) seems ideal for lung protection in acute respiratory distress syndrome, but randomized trials have not shown a mortality reduction. The initial oxygenation response to HFOV appears to be associated with survival. Here, we discuss the mechanisms of oxygenation response to increases in airway pressure and the ...
Kan Hong - - 2013
Abstract The inhalation of nano-sized air pollutant particles is a recognized risk factor for cardiovascular disease; however, the link between occupational exposure to engineered nanoparticles and adverse cardiovascular events remains unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated that pulmonary exposure of rats to ultrafine titanium dioxide (UFTiO2) significantly increased heart ...
Liu Songqiao - - 2013
BACKGROUND:: High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) at higher frequencies minimizes the tidal volume. However, whether increased frequencies during HFOV can reduce ventilator-induced lung injury remains unknown. METHODS:: After the induction of acute respiratory distress syndrome in the model by repeated lavages, 24 adult sheep were randomly divided into four groups (n ...
Boussen Salah - - 2013
The aim of this study was to evaluate the most recent transport ventilators operational capacities regarding volume delivery in controlled mode, trigger function and the quality of pressurization in pressure support modeMethods:Eight recent transport ventilators were included in a bench study in order to evaluate: 1) Their accuracy to deliver ...
Haas Sebastian A - - 2013
BACKGROUND:The thermodilution curve assessed by transpulmonary thermodilution is the basis for calculation of global end-diastolic volume index (GEDI) and extravascular lung water index (EVLWI). Until now, it was unclear whether the method is affected by 1-lung ventilation. Therefore, aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of 1-lung ventilation ...
Hua Dong-Ming - - 2013
This study was undertaken to determine whether twitch mouth pressure (TwPmo) can reliably assess diaphragm strength in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using fully automatic trigger techniques. Fifteen patients with COPD were recruited. TwPmo, twitch oesophageal pressure (TwPes) and twitch transdiaphragmtic pressure (TwPdi) were generated by phrenic nerve ...
van Berkel Saskia - - 2013
PURPOSE: Early prediction of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) requirement in term newborns with persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPHN), partially responding to inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) and/or high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV), based on oxygenation parameters. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study in 53 partial responders from among 133 term newborns with ...
Janjindamai Waricha - - 2013
The aims of this study were to determine the effectiveness (oxygenation), safety (hemodynamic status) and short term outcomes of intravenous iloprost (IVI) administration as a rescue therapy in severe persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). Retrospective medical records review. Tertiary neonatal intensive care unit at Songklanagarind Hospital, Songkhla Province, ...
Blankman Paul - - 2013
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of varying levels of assist during pressure support (PSV) and Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist (NAVA) on the aeration of the dependent and non-dependent lung regions by means of Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT). METHODS: We studied ten mechanically ventilated patients ...
Huh Jin-Won - - 2013
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the newly introduced ventilation parameters that are used at the bedside to estimate cardiopulmonary function during positive pressure ventilation (PPV). RECENT FINDINGS: PPV induces right atrial pressure changes over the ventilator cycle. Positive end-expiratory pressure-induced central venous pressure changes and pulse pressure variation have been ...
Bayat Sam - - 2013
BACKGROUND:: Ventilator-induced lung injury occurs due to exaggerated local stresses, repeated collapse, and opening of terminal air spaces in poorly aerated dependent lung, and increased stretch in nondependent lung. The aim of this study was to quantify the functional behavior of peripheral lung units in whole-lung lavage-induced surfactant depletion, and ...
Wang Jian - - 2013
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a lethal disease with no cure currently available. Sodium Tanshinone IIA sulfonate (STS) is a water-soluble derivative of tanshinone IIA isolated as the major active component from salvia miltiorrhiza, a kind of Chinese herbal medicine. We investigate the efficacy of STS towards treatment of PH patients. ...
Bhandari Vineet - - 2013
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), the most common chronic lung disease in infancy, has serious long-term pulmonary and neurodevelopmental consequences right up to adulthood, and is associated with significant healthcare costs. BPD is a multifactorial disease, with genetic and environmental factors interacting to culminate in the characteristic clinical and pathological phenotype. Among ...
Ortiz Tatiana de Arruda - - 2013
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate, in a lung model simulating a mechanically ventilated patient, the efficiency and safety of the manual hyperinflation (MH) maneuver as a means of removing pulmonary secretions. METHODS: Eight respiratory therapists (RTs) were asked to use a self-inflating manual resuscitator on a lung model to perform MH as ...
Lange Tobias J TJ Department of Internal Medicine II, Division of Pneumology, University Medical Center Regensburg, Regensburg, - - 2013
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) often leads to dilatation of the pulmonary artery (PA), which can be measured on chest computed tomography (CT). While the predictive capability of PA dilatation is useful to distinguish PH (mean PA pressure ≥25 mmHg) from normal (mean PA pressure ≤ 20 mmHg), CT characteristics of borderline ...
Howe M S MS Boston University, College of Engineering, 110 Cummington Mall, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. - - 2013
An investigation is made of the influence of subglottal boundary conditions on the prediction of voiced sounds. It is generally assumed in mathematical models of voicing that vibrations of the vocal folds are maintained by a constant subglottal mean pressure pI, whereas voicing is actually initiated by contraction of the ...
Chang Wan-Tsu W - - 2013
Mechanical ventilation in neurologically injured patients presents unique challenges. Patients with acute neurologic injuries may require mechanical ventilation for reasons beyond respiratory failure. There is also a subset of pulmonary pathologic abnormality directly associated with neurologic injuries. Balancing the need to maintain brain oxygenation, cerebral perfusion, and control of intracranial ...
Wiesen Jonathan - - 2013
The need to provide invasive mechanical ventilatory support to patients with myocardial infarction and acute left heart failure is common. Despite the large number of patients requiring mechanical ventilation in this setting, there are remarkably few data addressing the ideal mode of respiratory support in such patients. Although there is ...
Costa Eduardo Lv - - 2013
Applying tidal volumes of less than 6 mL/kg might improve lung protection in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. In a recent article, Retamal and colleagues showed that such a reduction is feasible with conventional mechanical ventilation and leads to less tidal recruitment and overdistension without causing carbon dioxide retention ...
Nonaka Paula N - - 2013
Lung bioengineering based on decellularized organ scaffolds is a potential alternative for transplantation. Freezing/thawing, a usual procedure in organ decellularization and storage could modify the mechanical properties of the lung scaffold and reduce the performance of the bioengineered lung when subjected to the physiological inflation-deflation breathing cycles. The aim of ...
Alencar Allan K N - - 2013
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Pulmonary hypertension is characterized by enhanced pulmonary vascular resistance, right ventricular hypertrophy, and increased right ventricular systolic pressure. Here, we investigated the effects of a N-acylhydrazone derivative, 3,4-dimethoxyphenyl-N-methyl-benzoilidrazide (LASSBio-1359), on the therapeutic treatment of monocrotaline induced pulmonary hypertension in rats. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Male Wistar rats were divided ...
Dai Bing - - 2013
Background:Most portable bi-level positive airway pressure (BPAP) devices are not equipped with air-oxygen blenders for precisely regulating oxygen concentrations and supplemental oxygen must be added to increase the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2). Very few studies have investigated the factors that affect FiO2 and their conclusions were inconsistent. We investigated ...
Tucci Mauro R - - 2013
BACKGROUND:: Lung derecruitment is common during general anesthesia. Mechanical ventilation with physiological tidal volumes could magnify derecruitment, and produce lung dysfunction and inflammation. The authors used positron emission tomography to study the process of derecruitment in normal lungs ventilated for 16 h and the corresponding changes in regional lung perfusion ...
De Backer Daniel - - 2013
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss the role of the invasive monitoring techniques pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) and transpulmonary thermodilution (TPD) for cardiopulmonary monitoring in the critically ill patient. RECENT FINDINGS: Characterization of the nature of hemodynamic alterations and hemodynamic optimization can be achieved both with PAC and TPD. Some recent ...
Menendez Carmen - - 2013
OBJECTIVES:: Acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome are characterized by increased pulmonary artery pressure and ventilation-perfusion mismatch. We analyzed the changes in the pulmonary vascular function in a model of ventilator-induced acute lung injury. DESIGN:: Controlled in vivo laboratory study. SETTING:: Animal research laboratory. SUBJECTS:: Anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley ...
Bech-Hanssen Odd - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Several treatment options are available for pulmonary vascular disease, and more patients are considered for right heart catheterization. The aims of this study were to evaluate the diagnostic ability of echocardiography to detect pulmonary hypertension and increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). METHODS: This retrospective study comprised 118 patients investigated ...
Lafitte Stéphane - - 2013
BACKGROUND: To date, Doppler echocardiography is the most widespread and well-recognized technique for the noninvasive evaluation of systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP). However, recent studies have reported reservations about the relevance of Doppler echocardiography or the tool's reliability in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH). Thus, ...
Mauri Tommaso - - 2013
OBJECTIVE:: Acute respiratory distress syndrome is characterized by collapse of gravitationally dependent lung regions that usually diverts tidal ventilation toward nondependent regions. We hypothesized that higher positive end-expiratory pressure and enhanced spontaneous breathing may increase the proportion of tidal ventilation reaching dependent lung regions in patients with acute respiratory distress ...
Smith Benjamin M - - 2013
Left ventricular (LV) mass is an important predictor of heart failure and cardiovascular mortality, yet determinants of LV mass are incompletely understood. Pulmonary hyperinflation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may contribute to changes in intrathoracic pressure that increase LV wall stress. We therefore hypothesized that residual lung volume in ...
Briones Claudett Killen Harold - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) in patients with acute respiratory failure has been traditionally determined based on clinical assessment and changes in blood gases, with NIV support pressures manually adjusted by an operator. Bilevel positive airway pressure-spontaneous/timed (BiPAP S/T) with average volume assured pressure support (AVAPS) uses a fixed tidal ...
Kilickaya Oguz - - 2013
The lung-protective mechanical ventilation strategy has been standard practice for management of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) for more than a decade. Observational data, small randomized studies and two recent systematic reviews suggest that lung protective ventilation is both safe and potentially beneficial in patients who do not have ARDS ...
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