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Withers Philip C PC Animal Biology M092, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia; 2Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas 76203; 3Department of Herpetology, California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, California 94118; 4Department of Biology, Portland State University, Portland, Oregon - - 2014
Abstract Dehydration tolerance of anuran amphibians is directly related to their ability to mobilize lymphatic reserves, with more terrestrial species having more effective lymph mobilization dependent on specialized skeletal muscles acting directly on the lymph sacs and via pulmonary ventilation. Consequently, we tested the hypothesis that pulmonary compliance, lung volume, ...
Xia Jingen J From the Department of Intensive Care Medicine, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, P. R. China (J.X., Q.Z.); and Beijing Institute of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, P. R. China (H.Z., B.S., R.Y., - - 2014
It has been proved that spontaneous breathing (SB) with biphasic positive airway pressure (BIPAP) can improve lung aeration in acute respiratory distress syndrome compared with controlled mechanical ventilation. The authors hypothesized that SB with BIPAP would attenuate lung injury in acute respiratory distress syndrome compared with pressure-controlled ventilation. Twenty male ...
Bellani Giacomo G aDepartment of Health Science, University of Milan-Bicocca bDepartment of Emergency and Intensive Care, San Gerardo Hospital, Monza, - - 2014
Spontaneous breathing has been shown to induce both positive and negative effects on the function and on injury of lungs and diaphragm during critical illness; thus, monitoring of the breathing effort generated by the patient might be valuable for a better understanding of the mechanisms of disease and to set ...
Smith Bradford - - 2014
Mechanical ventilation of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a necessary life support measure which may lead to ventilator induced lung injury, a complication that can be reduced or ameliorated by using appropriate tidal volumes and positive end-expiratory pressures. However, the optimal mechanical ventilation parameters are almost certainly ...
Keszler Martin M Department of Pediatrics, Women and Infants Hospital of Rhode Island, Brown University, Providence, Rhode - - 2014
Background Surgical closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is associated with adverse outcomes. Surgical exposure requires retraction of the lung, resulting in decreased aeration and compliance. Optimal respiratory support for PDA surgery is unknown. Experience with volume guarantee (VG) ventilation at our institution led us to hypothesize that surgery would be ...
van Os Sylvia S Neonatal Research Unit, Royal Alexandra Hospital, Alberta Health Services, Edmonton, - - 2014
Respiratory support in the delivery room remains challenging. Assessing chest rise is imprecise and mask leak and airway obstruction are common problems. We describe recordings of respiratory signals during delivery room resuscitations and discuss guidance on positive pressure ventilation using respiratory parameters and exhaled carbon dioxide (ECO2 ) during neonatal ...
Bruchim Y Y Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Teaching Hospital, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, 76100, - - 2014
To assess the usefulness of clinical and clinicopathological parameters as prognostic markers of survival in dogs undergoing positive pressure ventilation. Retrospective study of case records of 58 client-owned dogs undergoing positive pressure ventilation. Dogs were divided into two groups; inadequate oxygenation due to pulmonary parenchymal disease (Group 1) and inadequate ...
Krebs Joerg - - 2014
The ideal ventilation strategy for patients with massive brain damage requires better elucidation. We hypothesized that in the presence of massive brain injury, a ventilation strategy using low (6 milliliters per kilogram ideal body weight) tidal volume (VT) ventilation with open lung positive end-expiratory pressure (LVT/OLPEEP) set according to the ...
Lan Chou-Chin CC Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei Tzuchi Hospital, The Buddhist Tzuchi Medical Foundation, New Taipei City, Republic of China ; School of Medicine, Tzuchi University, Hualien, Republic of - - 2014
Thoracotomy is a common procedure. However, thoracotomy leads to lung atelectasis and deteriorates pulmonary gas exchange in operated side. Therefore, different positions with operated side lowermost or uppermost may lead to different gas exchange after thoracotomy. Besides, PEEP (positive end-expiratory pressure) influence lung atelectasis and should influence gas exchange. The ...
Zieleskiewicz Laurent L From the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, North Hospital, Aix Marseille University, Marseille, France (L.Z., C.C., C.B., M.T., A.V., F.A., C.M., and M.L.); Intensive Care Unit, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Nîmes University, Nîmes, France (L.M.); and North Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aix Marseille University, Marseille, France - - 2014
The role of lung ultrasound has never been evaluated in parturients with severe preeclampsia. The authors' first aim was to assess the ability of lung ultrasound to detect pulmonary edema in severe preeclampsia. The second aim was to highlight the relation between B-lines and increased left ventricular end-diastolic pressures. This ...
Xu Yu Y 1 Department of Respiratory Medicine, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University , Chongqing, China - - 2014
Abstract Xu, Yu, Yuliang Liu, Junze Liu, and Guisheng Qian. Meta-analysis of clinical efficacy of sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitor on high altitude hypoxia and its complications. High Alt Med Biol. 15:46-51, 2014.-Objective: High altitude illness can be life-threatening if left untreated. Acute mountain sickness and high altitude pulmonary hypertension ...
Pearsall Matthew F MF From the General Anesthesia Division, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Perelman School of Medicine/University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, - - 2014
Physiologic dead space is defined as the volume of the lung where gas exchange does not occur. Apparatus dead space increases dead space volume, causing either increased PaCO2 or the need to increase minute ventilation to maintain normocapnia. Children are especially vulnerable because small increases in apparatus dead space can ...
Sutherasan Yuda Y Department of Surgical Sciences and Integrated Diagnostics, University of Genoa, IRCCS San Martino - IST, Genoa, - - 2014
Mechanical ventilation (MV) is the main supportive treatment in respiratory failure due to different etiologies. However, MV might aggravate ventilator-associated lung injury (VALI). Four main mechanisms leading to VALI are: 1) increased stress and strain, induced by high tidal volume (VT); 2) increased shear stress, i.e. opening and closing, of ...
Rubini Alessandro A 1Department of Biomedical Sciences, Section Physiology, University of Padova , Padova , - - 2014
ABSTRACT Aim: To investigate the volume dependence of respiratory system stress relaxation in anesthetized, positive-pressure ventilated rats. Materials and methods: The effects on respiratory system stress relaxation of changing the end inflation volume while keeping tidal volume constant, and of changing the tidal volume while maintaining constant end inflation volume, ...
Cakmak Sabit S Population Studies Division, Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Health Canada, 50 Columbine Driveway, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9, Canada. Electronic address: - - 2014
Studying the physiologic effects of components of fine particulate mass (PM2.5) could contribute to a better understanding of the nature of toxicity of air pollution. We examined the relation between acute changes in cardiovascular and respiratory function, and PM2.5-associated-metals. Using generalized linear mixed models, daily changes in ambient PM2.5-associated metals ...
Kelly Julia L JL Sleep and Ventilation Department, NIHR Respiratory Disease Biomedical Research Unit at the Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Foundation Trust and National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, - - 2014
Effective non-invasive ventilation (NIV) therapy is dependent on optimal ventilator settings to maximize clinical benefit and patient tolerance. Intelligent volume-assured pressure support (iVAPS) is a hybrid mode of servoventilation, providing constant automatic adjustment of pressure support (PS) to achieve a target ventilation determined by the patient's requirements. In a randomized ...
Pellegrino Riccardo Giovanni RG 1Allergologia e Fisiopatologia - - 2014
Obesity is associated with important decrements in lung volumes. Despite this, ventilation remains normally or near normally distributed at least for moderate decrements in functional residual capacity (FRC). We tested the hypothesis that this is because maximum flow increases presumably as a result of an increased lung elastic recoil. Forced ...
Alzahrany Mohammed M Department of Mechanical Engineering & Mechanics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015, United - - 2014
A large Eddy simulation (LES) based computational fluid dynamics study was performed to investigate gas transport and mixing in patient specific human lung models during high frequency oscillatory ventilation. Different pressure-controlled waveforms (sinusoidal, exponential and square) and ventilator frequencies (15, 10 and 6Hz) were used (tidal volume=50mL). The waveforms were ...
Beer Alison A University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Occupational Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa, United - - 2014
Between 10-57% of lung transplant (LTx) recipients develop primary graft dysfunction (PGD) within 72 hours of LTx. PGD is clinically and histologically analogous to the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In patients at risk for, or with ARDS, lung protective ventilation strategies (low tidal volumes and positive end expiratory pressure) ...
Quintel Michael - - 2014
Ventilator-induced lung injury and ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction are major complications in mechanically ventilated patients with acute respiratory failure. Invasive ventilation adds a further burden by increasing the risk of infections. An approach that protects both lung and diaphragm is pivotal. Mirabella and colleagues compared conventional controlled ventilation with a mode ...
Limper U U Department of Anesthesiology and Surgical Intensive Care Medicine, Merheim Medical Center, Hospitals of Cologne, University Witten/Herdecke, Ostmerheimer Strasse 200, 51109, Cologne, Germany, - - 2014
Commercial parabolic flights accessible to customers with a wide range of health states will become more prevalent in the near future because of a growing private space flight sector. However, parabolic flights present the passengers' cardiovascular system with a combination of stressors, including a moderately hypobaric hypoxic ambient environment (HH) ...
Mukerji A A Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, - - 2014
Objective:To examine the role of frequency in high-frequency ventilation (HFV) on carbon-dioxide (CO2) elimination and lung injury, independent of its effect on tidal volume.Study Design:An anatomically representative lung model was attached to a mechanical ventilator capable of providing HFV with a constant volume. CO2 was infused directly into the lung, ...
Putensen Christian - - 2014
External noise is introduced by computer-generated random levels of pressure assistance during noisy pressure support ventilation (PSV). In patients, noisy PSV was associated with higher tidal volume variability but not improved cardio-pulmonary function compared with conventional PSV. The potential role of noisy PSV in the management of critically ill patients ...
Hikal Walid M WM Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409, USA; Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut 71516, Egypt. Electronic address: - - 2014
The diffusion coefficients of explosives are crucial in their trace detection and lifetime estimation. We report on the experimental values of diffusion coefficients of three of the most important explosives in both military and industry: TNT, PETN, and RDX. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to determine the sublimation rates of ...
Yoshinaga Keiichiro K Department of Molecular Imaging, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Kita 15 Nishi 7, Kita-Ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan, 060-8638, - - 2014
The right ventricle (RV) has a high capacity to adapt to pressure or volume overload before failing. However, the mechanisms of RV adaptation, in particular RV energetics, in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) are still not well understood. We aimed to evaluate RV energetics including RV oxidative metabolism, power and ...
Ghasemzadeh Nima N Division of Cardiology, Emory Clinical Cardiovascular Research Institute, 1462 Clifton Rd NE, Suite 507, Atlanta GA 30322. - - 2014
Oxidative stress contributes to the development of pulmonary hypertension in experimental models, but this association in humans is unknown. We investigated the relationship between pulmonary artery systolic pressure measured by echocardiography and plasma aminothiol oxidative stress markers, with the hypothesis that oxidative stress will be higher in those with pulmonary ...
Prisk G Kim GK University of California, San Diego, - - 2014
The structure of the lung, with its delicate network of airspaces and capillaries, means that gravity has a profound influence on its function. Studies of lung function in the absence of gravity provide valuable insight into how, for we Earth-bound individuals, its unavoidable effects shape our lung function. Gravity causes ...
Cikach Frank S FS - - 2014
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive and devastating condition characterized by vascular cell proliferation and is associated with several metabolic derangements. We hypothesized that metabolic derangements in PAH can be detected by measuring metabolic by-products in exhaled breath. We collected breath and blood samples from patients with PAH at ...
Akoumianaki Evangelia E 1 Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital of Heraklion, Heraklion, Crete, - - 2014
This report summarizes current physiological and technical knowledge on esophageal pressure (Pes) measurements in patients receiving mechanical ventilation. The respiratory changes in Pes are representative of changes in pleural pressure. The difference between airway pressure (Paw) and Pes is a valid estimate of transpulmonary pressure. Pes helps determine what fraction ...
Syed Khalid A KA Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Musculoskeletal Health and Arthritis Program, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, - - 2014
The aim of this study was to compare the effect of supine versus lateral position on clinical signs of fat embolism during orthopedic trauma surgery. Dogs served as the current study model, which could be extended and/or serve as a basis for future in vivo studies on humans. It was ...
Ferrando Carlos C From the *Anesthesiology and Critical Care Department, Hospital Clinico Universitario of Valencia, Valencia, Spain; and †Department of Anesthesiology, Hospital Privado de Comunidad, Mar de Plata, - - 2014
We investigated whether individualized positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) improves oxygenation, ventilation, and lung mechanics during one-lung ventilation compared with standardized PEEP. Thirty patients undergoing thoracic surgery were randomly allocated to the study or control group. Both groups received an alveolar recruitment maneuver at the beginning and end of one-lung ventilation. ...
Soh Rui Ya - - 2014
Miscellaneous Case Report PostersSESSION TYPE: Case Report PosterPRESENTED ON: Sunday, March 23, 2014 at 01:15 PM - 02:15 PMINTRODUCTION: Hyperventilation refers to rapid or deep breathing and is commonly associated with panic and anxiety. Other common causes include somatisation, severe pain, infection, ketoacidosis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary embolism ...
Schuurmans Macé - - 2014
Transplantation PostersSESSION TYPE: Poster PresentationsPRESENTED ON: Saturday, March 22, 2014 at 01:15 PM - 02:15 PMPURPOSE: Hypertension is frequent among lung transplant recipients (LTRs) and is generally considered the consequence of long-term calcineurin inhibitor use. Therefore LTRs frequently require antihypertensive medication. Blood pressure (BP) measurements guiding medication optimization in our ...
Klecka Mary - - 2014
Pleural CasesSESSION TYPE: Case ReportsPRESENTED ON: Sunday, March 23, 2014 at 09:00 AM - 10:00 AMINTRODUCTION: Patients with large pleural effusions often experience dramatic relief from dyspnea after thoracentesis. While this is well-recognized, the physiological basis for such relief remains poorly understood. One commonly held belief is that thoracentesis allows ...
Toba A A Institute for East China Sea Research, Nagasaki University, 1551-7, Tairamachi, Nagasaki 851-2213, - - 2014
Air was stored in 90% of Boleophthalmus pectinirostris burrows in summer breeding months when fish were active on the mudflat surface during low tide but only in 50% of burrows in overwintering months when the fish confined themselves to burrows. The volume of gas recovered from the burrows ranged from ...
Moens Yves - - 2014
The use of alveolar recruitment maneuvers during general anaesthesia of horses is a potentially useful therapeutic option for the ventilatory management. While the routine application of recruitments would benefit from the availability of dedicated large animal ventilators their impact on ventilation and perfusion in the horse is not yet well ...
Heulitt Mark J MJ From the Sections of *Pediatric Critical Care Medicine and †Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences College of Medicine; and ‡Respiratory Care, Arkansas Children's Hospital, Little Rock, - - 2014
The objective of this study was to evaluate 2 transport ventilators utilizing both a test lung and a pediatric animal model. Two transport ventilators were utilized for evaluations. A test lung or intubated, sedated pigs (n = 9) with healthy and injured lungs were ventilated using control and support modes. ...
Villar Adolfo - - 2014
Pulmonary Hypertension Posters IISESSION TYPE: Poster PresentationsPRESENTED ON: Saturday, March 22, 2014 at 01:15 PM - 02:15 PMPURPOSE: The prevalence of PAH in patients with IPF is not well known. There has been no prospective study to date. The purpose of our study was to know the prevalence of PAH ...
Crocker George H GH Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, - - 2014
We tested the hypothesis that oleic-acid (OA) infusion impairs gas exchange, decreases total cardiopulmonary O2 delivery and lowers maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max). We infused 0.05ml OA kg(-1) (∼3ml) and ∼563ml saline into the right atria of four goats [59.1±14.0 (SD) kg] prior to running them on a treadmill at VO2max ...
Jauncey-Cooke Jacqui J School of Nursing & Midwifery, The University of Queensland, Australia; Paediatric Critical Care Research Group, PICU, Mater Children's Hospital, Brisbane, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2014
Lung recruitment is used as an adjunct to lung protective ventilation strategies. Lung recruitment is a brief, deliberate elevation of transpulmonary pressures beyond what is achieved during tidal ventilation levels. The aim of lung recruitment is to maximise the number of alveoli participating in gas exchange particularly in distal and ...
Navaneethan Sankar D SD Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute,, ‡Respiratory Institute,, §Medicine Institute, and, ‖Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, †Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine and, ¶Department of Nephrology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, - - 2014
Pulmonary hypertension is associated with higher mortality rates. The associations of nondialysis-dependent CKD and all-cause mortality in patients with pulmonary hypertension were studied. The study population included those patients who underwent right heart catheterization for confirmation of pulmonary hypertension between 1996 and January 2011. Pulmonary hypertension was defined as the ...
Zuo Li L Radiologic Sciences and Respiratory Therapy Division, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, - - 2014
Hypertension, commonly recognized as high blood pressure, is a serious disease that affects millions of people worldwide. Similar to many physiological disorders, hypertension consists of several different cellular signaling pathways that involve various molecular messengers. Recent studies have shown that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a substantial role in the ...
Elias-Al-Mamun Md M Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of - - 2014
Background: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a fatal disease characterized by pulmonary artery (PA) remodeling, elevated PA pressure and right ventricular (RV) failure. It has been previously demonstrated that treatment with a Rho-kinase inhibitor, fasudil, ameliorates PH in animal models. Here, whether combination therapy with fasudil and sildenafil further ameliorates PH in ...
Räsänen Jukka J Department of Anesthesiology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, - - 2014
To evaluate the effect of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on sound propagation through injured lungs, we injected a multifrequency broad-band sound signal into the airway of eight anesthetized, intubated and mechanically ventilated pigs, while recording transmitted sound at three locations bilaterally on the chest wall. Oleic acid injections effected a ...
Krabbe Vera B VB Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Leiden University Medical Center, J6-S, PO Box 9600, 2300 RC, Leiden, The - - 2014
Both disposable and non-disposable T-piece resuscitator (TPR) devices are used. Accuracy of the disposable and non-disposable infant TPR was compared. Peak inspiratory pressures (PIP) and positive end-expiratory pressures (PEEP) were measured during ventilation of a test lung. Measured PIP ±1 cmH2O and PEEP ±0.5 cmH2O of the desired pressures were considered acceptable. ...
Polglase Graeme R - - 2014
Sustained inflations (SI) are advocated for the rapid establishment of FRC after birth in preterm and term infants requiring resuscitation. However, the most appropriate way to deliver a SI is poorly understood. We investigated whether a volume-limited SI improved the establishment of FRC and ventilation homogeneity and reduced lung inflammation/injury ...
Pica Silvia S Division of Cardiology, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, - - 2014
We tested the hypothesis that analysis of longitudinal right ventricular (RV) function and analysis of transverse RV function by echocardiography provide different clinical information in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH). Indices of longitudinal and transverse RV function were obtained with different echocardiographic techniques in 30 patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial ...
Ishimaru Kazuhiko K Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, 565-0871, Japan, - - 2014
Patients who undergo right ventricular (RV) outflow augmentation inevitably develop RV remodeling due to pulmonary insufficiency-related volume overload (VOL). However, the reversibility of this remodeling is not fully understood. The goal of this study was to establish an animal model of VOL and unloading to characterize the functional and pathological ...
Nelson J A JA Department of Biological Sciences, Towson University, Towson, MD 21252-0001, - - 2014
Several taxonomically disparate groups of fishes have evolved the ability to extract oxygen from the air with elements of their gut. Despite perceived difficulties with balancing digestive and respiratory function, gut air breathing (GAB) has evolved multiple times in fishes and several GAB families are among the most successful fish ...
Schranz C C Institute of Technical Medicine, Furtwangen University, Jakob-Kienzle-Str. 17, 78054 Villingen-Schwenningen, - - 2014
Mechanical ventilation carries the risk of ventilator-induced-lung-injury (VILI). To minimize the risk of VILI, ventilator settings should be adapted to the individual patient properties. Mathematical models of respiratory mechanics are able to capture the individual physiological condition and can be used to derive personalized ventilator settings. This paper presents model-based ...
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