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Bruchim Y Y Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Teaching Hospital, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, 76100, - - 2014
To assess the usefulness of clinical and clinicopathological parameters as prognostic markers of survival in dogs undergoing positive pressure ventilation. Retrospective study of case records of 58 client-owned dogs undergoing positive pressure ventilation. Dogs were divided into two groups; inadequate oxygenation due to pulmonary parenchymal disease (Group 1) and inadequate ...
Krebs Joerg - - 2014
The ideal ventilation strategy for patients with massive brain damage requires better elucidation. We hypothesized that in the presence of massive brain injury, a ventilation strategy using low (6 milliliters per kilogram ideal body weight) tidal volume (VT) ventilation with open lung positive end-expiratory pressure (LVT/OLPEEP) set according to the ...
Sutherasan Yuda Y Department of Surgical Sciences and Integrated Diagnostics, University of Genoa, IRCCS San Martino - IST, Genoa, - - 2014
Mechanical ventilation (MV) is the main supportive treatment in respiratory failure due to different etiologies. However, MV might aggravate ventilator-associated lung injury (VALI). Four main mechanisms leading to VALI are: 1) increased stress and strain, induced by high tidal volume (VT); 2) increased shear stress, i.e. opening and closing, of ...
Rubini Alessandro A 1Department of Biomedical Sciences, Section Physiology, University of Padova , Padova , - - 2014
ABSTRACT Aim: To investigate the volume dependence of respiratory system stress relaxation in anesthetized, positive-pressure ventilated rats. Materials and methods: The effects on respiratory system stress relaxation of changing the end inflation volume while keeping tidal volume constant, and of changing the tidal volume while maintaining constant end inflation volume, ...
Pearsall Matthew F MF From the General Anesthesia Division, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Perelman School of Medicine/University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, - - 2014
Physiologic dead space is defined as the volume of the lung where gas exchange does not occur. Apparatus dead space increases dead space volume, causing either increased PaCO2 or the need to increase minute ventilation to maintain normocapnia. Children are especially vulnerable because small increases in apparatus dead space can ...
Xu Yu Y 1 Department of Respiratory Medicine, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University , Chongqing, China - - 2014
Abstract Xu, Yu, Yuliang Liu, Junze Liu, and Guisheng Qian. Meta-analysis of clinical efficacy of sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitor on high altitude hypoxia and its complications. High Alt Med Biol. 15:46-51, 2014.-Objective: High altitude illness can be life-threatening if left untreated. Acute mountain sickness and high altitude pulmonary hypertension ...
Zieleskiewicz Laurent L From the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, North Hospital, Aix Marseille University, Marseille, France (L.Z., C.C., C.B., M.T., A.V., F.A., C.M., and M.L.); Intensive Care Unit, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Nîmes University, Nîmes, France (L.M.); and North Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aix Marseille University, Marseille, France - - 2014
The role of lung ultrasound has never been evaluated in parturients with severe preeclampsia. The authors' first aim was to assess the ability of lung ultrasound to detect pulmonary edema in severe preeclampsia. The second aim was to highlight the relation between B-lines and increased left ventricular end-diastolic pressures. This ...
Lan Chou-Chin CC Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei Tzuchi Hospital, The Buddhist Tzuchi Medical Foundation, New Taipei City, Republic of China ; School of Medicine, Tzuchi University, Hualien, Republic of - - 2014
Thoracotomy is a common procedure. However, thoracotomy leads to lung atelectasis and deteriorates pulmonary gas exchange in operated side. Therefore, different positions with operated side lowermost or uppermost may lead to different gas exchange after thoracotomy. Besides, PEEP (positive end-expiratory pressure) influence lung atelectasis and should influence gas exchange. The ...
Cakmak Sabit S Population Studies Division, Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Health Canada, 50 Columbine Driveway, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9, Canada. Electronic address: - - 2014
Studying the physiologic effects of components of fine particulate mass (PM2.5) could contribute to a better understanding of the nature of toxicity of air pollution. We examined the relation between acute changes in cardiovascular and respiratory function, and PM2.5-associated-metals. Using generalized linear mixed models, daily changes in ambient PM2.5-associated metals ...
Kelly Julia L JL Sleep and Ventilation Department, NIHR Respiratory Disease Biomedical Research Unit at the Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Foundation Trust and National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, - - 2014
Effective non-invasive ventilation (NIV) therapy is dependent on optimal ventilator settings to maximize clinical benefit and patient tolerance. Intelligent volume-assured pressure support (iVAPS) is a hybrid mode of servoventilation, providing constant automatic adjustment of pressure support (PS) to achieve a target ventilation determined by the patient's requirements. In a randomized ...
Pellegrino Riccardo Giovanni RG 1Allergologia e Fisiopatologia - - 2014
Obesity is associated with important decrements in lung volumes. Despite this, ventilation remains normally or near normally distributed at least for moderate decrements in functional residual capacity (FRC). We tested the hypothesis that this is because maximum flow increases presumably as a result of an increased lung elastic recoil. Forced ...
Beer Alison A University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Occupational Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa, United - - 2014
Between 10-57% of lung transplant (LTx) recipients develop primary graft dysfunction (PGD) within 72 hours of LTx. PGD is clinically and histologically analogous to the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In patients at risk for, or with ARDS, lung protective ventilation strategies (low tidal volumes and positive end expiratory pressure) ...
Alzahrany Mohammed M Department of Mechanical Engineering & Mechanics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015, United - - 2014
A large Eddy simulation (LES) based computational fluid dynamics study was performed to investigate gas transport and mixing in patient specific human lung models during high frequency oscillatory ventilation. Different pressure-controlled waveforms (sinusoidal, exponential and square) and ventilator frequencies (15, 10 and 6Hz) were used (tidal volume=50mL). The waveforms were ...
Quintel Michael - - 2014
Ventilator-induced lung injury and ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction are major complications in mechanically ventilated patients with acute respiratory failure. Invasive ventilation adds a further burden by increasing the risk of infections. An approach that protects both lung and diaphragm is pivotal. Mirabella and colleagues compared conventional controlled ventilation with a mode ...
Mukerji A A Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, - - 2014
Objective:To examine the role of frequency in high-frequency ventilation (HFV) on carbon-dioxide (CO2) elimination and lung injury, independent of its effect on tidal volume.Study Design:An anatomically representative lung model was attached to a mechanical ventilator capable of providing HFV with a constant volume. CO2 was infused directly into the lung, ...
Limper U U Department of Anesthesiology and Surgical Intensive Care Medicine, Merheim Medical Center, Hospitals of Cologne, University Witten/Herdecke, Ostmerheimer Strasse 200, 51109, Cologne, Germany, - - 2014
Commercial parabolic flights accessible to customers with a wide range of health states will become more prevalent in the near future because of a growing private space flight sector. However, parabolic flights present the passengers' cardiovascular system with a combination of stressors, including a moderately hypobaric hypoxic ambient environment (HH) ...
Yoshinaga Keiichiro K Department of Molecular Imaging, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Kita 15 Nishi 7, Kita-Ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan, 060-8638, - - 2014
The right ventricle (RV) has a high capacity to adapt to pressure or volume overload before failing. However, the mechanisms of RV adaptation, in particular RV energetics, in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) are still not well understood. We aimed to evaluate RV energetics including RV oxidative metabolism, power and ...
Hikal Walid M WM Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409, USA; Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut 71516, Egypt. Electronic address: - - 2014
The diffusion coefficients of explosives are crucial in their trace detection and lifetime estimation. We report on the experimental values of diffusion coefficients of three of the most important explosives in both military and industry: TNT, PETN, and RDX. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to determine the sublimation rates of ...
Putensen Christian - - 2014
External noise is introduced by computer-generated random levels of pressure assistance during noisy pressure support ventilation (PSV). In patients, noisy PSV was associated with higher tidal volume variability but not improved cardio-pulmonary function compared with conventional PSV. The potential role of noisy PSV in the management of critically ill patients ...
Ghasemzadeh Nima N Division of Cardiology, Emory Clinical Cardiovascular Research Institute, 1462 Clifton Rd NE, Suite 507, Atlanta GA 30322. - - 2014
Oxidative stress contributes to the development of pulmonary hypertension in experimental models, but this association in humans is unknown. We investigated the relationship between pulmonary artery systolic pressure measured by echocardiography and plasma aminothiol oxidative stress markers, with the hypothesis that oxidative stress will be higher in those with pulmonary ...
Prisk G Kim GK University of California, San Diego, - - 2014
The structure of the lung, with its delicate network of airspaces and capillaries, means that gravity has a profound influence on its function. Studies of lung function in the absence of gravity provide valuable insight into how, for we Earth-bound individuals, its unavoidable effects shape our lung function. Gravity causes ...
Ferrando Carlos C From the *Anesthesiology and Critical Care Department, Hospital Clinico Universitario of Valencia, Valencia, Spain; and †Department of Anesthesiology, Hospital Privado de Comunidad, Mar de Plata, - - 2014
We investigated whether individualized positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) improves oxygenation, ventilation, and lung mechanics during one-lung ventilation compared with standardized PEEP. Thirty patients undergoing thoracic surgery were randomly allocated to the study or control group. Both groups received an alveolar recruitment maneuver at the beginning and end of one-lung ventilation. ...
Heulitt Mark J MJ From the Sections of *Pediatric Critical Care Medicine and †Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences College of Medicine; and ‡Respiratory Care, Arkansas Children's Hospital, Little Rock, - - 2014
The objective of this study was to evaluate 2 transport ventilators utilizing both a test lung and a pediatric animal model. Two transport ventilators were utilized for evaluations. A test lung or intubated, sedated pigs (n = 9) with healthy and injured lungs were ventilated using control and support modes. ...
Toba A A Institute for East China Sea Research, Nagasaki University, 1551-7, Tairamachi, Nagasaki 851-2213, - - 2014
Air was stored in 90% of Boleophthalmus pectinirostris burrows in summer breeding months when fish were active on the mudflat surface during low tide but only in 50% of burrows in overwintering months when the fish confined themselves to burrows. The volume of gas recovered from the burrows ranged from ...
Crocker George H GH Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, - - 2014
We tested the hypothesis that oleic-acid (OA) infusion impairs gas exchange, decreases total cardiopulmonary O2 delivery and lowers maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max). We infused 0.05ml OA kg(-1) (∼3ml) and ∼563ml saline into the right atria of four goats [59.1±14.0 (SD) kg] prior to running them on a treadmill at VO2max ...
Moens Yves - - 2014
The use of alveolar recruitment maneuvers during general anaesthesia of horses is a potentially useful therapeutic option for the ventilatory management. While the routine application of recruitments would benefit from the availability of dedicated large animal ventilators their impact on ventilation and perfusion in the horse is not yet well ...
Syed Khalid A KA Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Musculoskeletal Health and Arthritis Program, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, - - 2014
The aim of this study was to compare the effect of supine versus lateral position on clinical signs of fat embolism during orthopedic trauma surgery. Dogs served as the current study model, which could be extended and/or serve as a basis for future in vivo studies on humans. It was ...
Akoumianaki Evangelia E 1 Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital of Heraklion, Heraklion, Crete, - - 2014
This report summarizes current physiological and technical knowledge on esophageal pressure (Pes) measurements in patients receiving mechanical ventilation. The respiratory changes in Pes are representative of changes in pleural pressure. The difference between airway pressure (Paw) and Pes is a valid estimate of transpulmonary pressure. Pes helps determine what fraction ...
Cikach Frank S FS - - 2014
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive and devastating condition characterized by vascular cell proliferation and is associated with several metabolic derangements. We hypothesized that metabolic derangements in PAH can be detected by measuring metabolic by-products in exhaled breath. We collected breath and blood samples from patients with PAH at ...
Jauncey-Cooke Jacqui J School of Nursing & Midwifery, The University of Queensland, Australia; Paediatric Critical Care Research Group, PICU, Mater Children's Hospital, Brisbane, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2014
Lung recruitment is used as an adjunct to lung protective ventilation strategies. Lung recruitment is a brief, deliberate elevation of transpulmonary pressures beyond what is achieved during tidal ventilation levels. The aim of lung recruitment is to maximise the number of alveoli participating in gas exchange particularly in distal and ...
Navaneethan Sankar D SD Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute,, ‡Respiratory Institute,, §Medicine Institute, and, ‖Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, †Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine and, ¶Department of Nephrology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, - - 2014
Pulmonary hypertension is associated with higher mortality rates. The associations of nondialysis-dependent CKD and all-cause mortality in patients with pulmonary hypertension were studied. The study population included those patients who underwent right heart catheterization for confirmation of pulmonary hypertension between 1996 and January 2011. Pulmonary hypertension was defined as the ...
Zuo Li L Radiologic Sciences and Respiratory Therapy Division, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, - - 2014
Hypertension, commonly recognized as high blood pressure, is a serious disease that affects millions of people worldwide. Similar to many physiological disorders, hypertension consists of several different cellular signaling pathways that involve various molecular messengers. Recent studies have shown that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a substantial role in the ...
Elias-Al-Mamun Md M Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of - - 2014
Background: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a fatal disease characterized by pulmonary artery (PA) remodeling, elevated PA pressure and right ventricular (RV) failure. It has been previously demonstrated that treatment with a Rho-kinase inhibitor, fasudil, ameliorates PH in animal models. Here, whether combination therapy with fasudil and sildenafil further ameliorates PH in ...
Räsänen Jukka J Department of Anesthesiology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, - - 2014
To evaluate the effect of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on sound propagation through injured lungs, we injected a multifrequency broad-band sound signal into the airway of eight anesthetized, intubated and mechanically ventilated pigs, while recording transmitted sound at three locations bilaterally on the chest wall. Oleic acid injections effected a ...
Krabbe Vera B VB Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Leiden University Medical Center, J6-S, PO Box 9600, 2300 RC, Leiden, The - - 2014
Both disposable and non-disposable T-piece resuscitator (TPR) devices are used. Accuracy of the disposable and non-disposable infant TPR was compared. Peak inspiratory pressures (PIP) and positive end-expiratory pressures (PEEP) were measured during ventilation of a test lung. Measured PIP ±1 cmH2O and PEEP ±0.5 cmH2O of the desired pressures were considered acceptable. ...
Pica Silvia S Division of Cardiology, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, - - 2014
We tested the hypothesis that analysis of longitudinal right ventricular (RV) function and analysis of transverse RV function by echocardiography provide different clinical information in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH). Indices of longitudinal and transverse RV function were obtained with different echocardiographic techniques in 30 patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial ...
Polglase Graeme R - - 2014
Sustained inflations (SI) are advocated for the rapid establishment of FRC after birth in preterm and term infants requiring resuscitation. However, the most appropriate way to deliver a SI is poorly understood. We investigated whether a volume-limited SI improved the establishment of FRC and ventilation homogeneity and reduced lung inflammation/injury ...
Ishimaru Kazuhiko K Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, 565-0871, Japan, - - 2014
Patients who undergo right ventricular (RV) outflow augmentation inevitably develop RV remodeling due to pulmonary insufficiency-related volume overload (VOL). However, the reversibility of this remodeling is not fully understood. The goal of this study was to establish an animal model of VOL and unloading to characterize the functional and pathological ...
Nelson J A JA Department of Biological Sciences, Towson University, Towson, MD 21252-0001, - - 2014
Several taxonomically disparate groups of fishes have evolved the ability to extract oxygen from the air with elements of their gut. Despite perceived difficulties with balancing digestive and respiratory function, gut air breathing (GAB) has evolved multiple times in fishes and several GAB families are among the most successful fish ...
Schranz C C Institute of Technical Medicine, Furtwangen University, Jakob-Kienzle-Str. 17, 78054 Villingen-Schwenningen, - - 2014
Mechanical ventilation carries the risk of ventilator-induced-lung-injury (VILI). To minimize the risk of VILI, ventilator settings should be adapted to the individual patient properties. Mathematical models of respiratory mechanics are able to capture the individual physiological condition and can be used to derive personalized ventilator settings. This paper presents model-based ...
Kleinsasser Axel T AT From the Department of Anesthesiology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria (A.T.K., I.P., S.T., B.T.); Department of Anesthesiology and CCM II, Klinikum Wels, Wels, Austria (H.K.); and Department of Anesthesiology and CCM, Hanusch Hospital, Vienna, Austria - - 2014
During emergence from anesthesia, breathing 100% oxygen is frequently used to provide a safety margin toward hypoxemia in case an airway problem occurs. Oxygen breathing has been shown to cause pulmonary gas exchange disorders in healthy individuals. This study investigates how oxygen breathing during emergence affects lung function specifically whether ...
Meric Henri H Centre d'Investigation Clinique - Innovations Technologiques, Services de Physiologie - Explorations Fonctionnelles, Hôpital Raymond Poincaré, AP-HP; E.A. 4497, Université de Versailles-Saint Quentin en Yvelines, 92380 Garches, - - 2014
Neurally adjusted ventilator assist (NAVA) assists spontaneous breathing in proportion to diaphragmatic electrical activity (EAdi). Here, we evaluate the effects of various levels of NAVA and PSV on the breathing pattern and, thereby, on PaCO2 homeostasis in 10 healthy volunteers. For each ventilation mode, four levels of support (delivered pressure ...
Suarez-Sipmann F F Servicio de Medicina Intensiva, Hospital Universitario de Uppsala, Laboratorio Hedenstierna, Departamento de Ciencias Quirúrgicas, Universidad de Uppsala, Uppsala, Suecia. Electronic address: - - 2014
Recent major advances in mechanical ventilation have resulted in new exciting modes of assisted ventilation. Compared to traditional ventilation modes such as assisted-controlled ventilation or pressure support ventilation, these new modes offer a number of physiological advantages derived from the improved patient control over the ventilator. By implementing advanced closed-loop ...
Prunet Bertrand B *Intensive Care Unit, Sainte Anne Military Teaching Hospital, Toulon; and †UMR MD2, P2COE, University of Aix-Marseille, School of Medicine, Marseille, France; ‡U.S. Army Institute of Surgical Research, Fort Sam Houston, Texas; and §Department of Emergency Medicine and Intensive Care, Timone University Hospital, Marseille; and ∥Intensive Care Unit, Laveran Military Teaching Hospital; and ¶Department of Anesthesiology, Pique Military Teaching Hospital, Bordeaux, - - 2014
Background: This study compared three different fluid resuscitation strategies in terms of respiratory tolerance and hemodynamic efficacy in a pig model of blunt chest trauma with lung contusion and controlled hemorrhagic shock. We hypothesized that the choice of fluid resuscitation strategy (type and amount of fluids) may impact differently contused ...
Ugurlucan Murat M Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Istanbul University Istanbul Medical Faculty, Istanbul, - - 2014
Objective: Cardiopulmonary bypass deteriorates pulmonary functions to a certain extent. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are associated with increased mortality and morbidity risks in the postoperative period of open-heart surgery. In this study we compared 2 different mechanical ventilation modes, pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) and volume-controlled ventilation (VCV), in ...
Sharifian Attar Alireza A Department of Anesthesiology, Ghaem Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR - - 2014
Hypoxia occurs during one-lung ventilation (OLV) due to the arteriovenous shunt of unsaturated pulmonary venous blood. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) acts as a defense mechanism against shunting. In thoracic surgery, anesthetics with minimal inhibitory effect on HPV and minimal hemodynamic changes are preferred. The present study aimed to evaluate the ...
Amorim Erica de Freitas ED Divisions of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Hospital das Clinicas of Ribeirao Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, - - 2014
To test the tolerance and safety of an alveolar recruitment manoeuvre performed in the immediate postoperative period of corrective open heart surgery in children with congenital heart disease associated with excessive pulmonary blood flow and pulmonary arterial hypertension due to left-to-right shunt. Ten infants aged 1-24 months with congenital heart ...
Kang Woon-Seok WS Department of Anaesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Konkuk University Hospital, Konkuk University Medical Center; Research Institute of Medical Science, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, - - 2014
Impaired pulmonary gas exchange after cardiac surgeries with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) often occurs, and the selection of mechanical ventilation mode, pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) or volume-controlled ventilation (VCV), may be important for preventing hypoxia and improving oxygenation. The authors hypothesized that patients with PCV would show better oxygenation, compared with VCV, ...
Phillip Veit - - 2014
Ascites is a major and common complication of liver cirrhosis. Large or refractory ascites frequently necessitates paracentesis. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of paracentesis on hemodynamic and respiratory parameters in critically ill patients. Observational study comparing hemodynamic and respiratory parameters before and after paracentesis in ...
Jha Ajay Kumar AK Department of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India. Electronic address: - - 2014
The unique series arrangement of the cerebral and pulmonary circulation in bidirectional superior cavopulmonary anastomosis (BCPA) makes the pulmonary blood flow dependent upon the cerebral blood flow. Until now, several investigators have tried to correct post-BCPA hypoxemia with various methods such as induced hyperventilation, the addition of carbon dioxide, and ...
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