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Results 501 - 550 of 2122
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Radicioni M - - 2012
Experience with terlipressin (TP) in the neonatal field is scarce. We describe the effects of TP on pulmonary circulation, studied with echocardiography, in an asphyxiated septic cooled infant with pulmonary hypertension (PH) who developed catecholamine-resistant hypotension and exacerbation of PH shortly after the beginning of the rewarming. TP was added ...
Kim Sh - - 2012
Prolonged inspiratory to expiratory (I:E) ratio ventilation may have both positive and negative effects on respiratory mechanics and oxygenation during one-lung ventilation (OLV), but definitive information is currently lacking. We therefore compared the effects of volume-controlled ventilation with I:E ratios of 1:1 and 1:2 on respiratory mechanics and oxygenation during ...
Fan Xiao-Fang - - 2012
To explore the effects of safflower injection on prevention and treatment of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension and clarify the function of the endoplasmic reticulum stress apoptosis pathway during the process. Thirty male SD rats were randomly grouped as normal control group, hypoxia-hypercapnia group and hypoxia+safflower group. The latter two groups were ...
Charalampopoulos Athanasios - - 2012
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is defined as an increase in mean pulmonary arterial pressure > or = 25 mmHg at rest as assessed invasively by right heart catheterisation. It can affect patients at any age and presents with non-specific symptoms. Accurate diagnosis is important as while PH is a potentially lethal ...
De Meester Pieter - - 2012
Elevated pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) causes functional tricuspid valve insufficiency (TI). However, the differential contribution of pressure load and right ventricular (RV) dilatation is not well established. The study aim was to evaluate both variables in relation to TI. A cross-sectional study was performed of consecutive transthoracic echocardiographic studies ...
Simon Bruce - - 2012
Despite the prevalence and recognized association of pulmonary contusion and flail chest (PC-FC) as a combined, complex injury pattern with interrelated pathophysiology, the mortality and morbidity of this entity have not improved during the last three decades. The purpose of this updated EAST practice management guideline was to present evidence-based ...
Bräunlich Jens J Department of Respiratory Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany. - - 2013
A high flow of air applied by large bore nasal cannulae has been suggested to improve symptoms of chronic respiratory insufficiency. In pediatric patients, nasal high-flow (nHF) ventilation was similarly effective compared to noninvasive ventilation with a face mask. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe changes in ...
Iversen N K - - 2012
Recent advances of nanotechnology in clinical settings have spurred the development of various complex engineered nanoparticles (NPs). NPs share characteristics with ultrafine particles (UFPs; <1 μm) that can cross the pulmonary epithelium and disturb cardiovascular functions. Since these particles are injected directly into the blood stream, it is imperative to ...
Moraes Davi J A - - 2012
Why should researchers in charge of basic and clinical investigation of hypertension also pay attention to respiration? More than its primary role to orchestrate the diaphragm, chest, and abdominal muscle contraction and relaxation, essential for O(2) and CO(2) pulmonary exchanges, the brain stem respiratory network is also precise and timely ...
West John B - - 2012
Abstract Medical problems occur at high altitude because of the low inspired PO2 which in turn is caused by the reduced barometric pressure. The classical physiological responses to high altitude include hyperventilation, polycythemia, hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction increased intracellular oxidative enzymes, and increased capillary density in muscle. However with the discovery ...
Klein K U - - 2012
BACKGROUND: /st>Cyclic recruitment and derecruitment (R/D) play a key role in the pathomechanism of acute lung injury (ALI) leading to respiration-dependent oscillations of arterial partial pressure of oxygen (). These oscillations could also be forwarded to the cerebral microcirculation. METHODS: /st>In 12 pigs, partial pressure of oxygen was measured in ...
Regli Adrian - - 2012
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) causes atelectasis, reduces lung volumes and increases respiratory system elastance. Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in the setting of IAH and healthy lungs improves lung volumes but not oxygenation. However, critically ill patients with IAH often suffer from acute lung injury (ALI). This study therefore examined ...
Miedema Martijn - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: To monitor regional changes in end-expiratory lung volume (EELV), tidal volumes, and their ventilation distribution during different levels of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) and nasal biphasic positive airway pressure (BiPAP) in stable preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN: By using electrical impedance tomography and respiratory inductive plethysmography, we measured ...
Corley Amanda - - 2012
PURPOSE: Endotracheal suctioning causes significant lung derecruitment. Closed suction (CS) minimizes lung volume loss during suction, and therefore, volumes are presumed to recover more quickly postsuctioning. Conflicting evidence exists regarding this. We examined the effects of open suction (OS) and CS on lung volume loss during suctioning, and recovery of ...
Ballard-Croft Cherry - - 2012
Our original venovenous perfusion-induced systemic hyperthermia (vv-PISH) system appeared to significantly improve the survival of patients with lung cancer, but was too complex with numerous dialysis problems. We tested a simplified vv-PISH circuit that includes the Avalon Elite (Avalon Laboratories, LLC, Rancho Dominguez, CA) double lumen cannula, a modified heat ...
Dupont Matthias - - 2012
Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction frequently occurs and independently prognosticates in left-sided heart failure. It is not clear which RV afterload measure has the greatest impact on RV function and prognosis. We examined the determinants, prognostic role, and response to treatment of pulmonary arterial capacitance (PAC, ratio of stroke volume over ...
Solevåg Anne L - - 2012
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In newborn resuscitation the recommended rate of chest compressions should be 90 per minute and 30 ventilations should be delivered each minute, aiming at achieving a total of 120 events per minute. However, this recommendation is based on physiological plausibility and consensus rather than scientific evidence. With focus ...
Cao Jie J - - 2012
BACKGROUND: -Cardiac hemodynamics affect pulmonary vascular pressure and flow but little is known of the effects of hemodynamics on lung perfusion at the tissue level. We sought to investigate the relationship between hemodynamic abnormalities in patients with left heart failure and global and regional lung perfusion using lung perfusion quantitation ...
James Mollie M - - 2012
The treatment of respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation has advanced significantly over the last 20 years. The goal of therapy in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome should be to optimize oxygenation while minimizing the risk of ventilator-induced lung injury and providing adequate ventilation. Appropriate use of ventilation modes and ...
Wrobel Jeremy P - - 2012
PURPOSE: Recent studies have suggested that pretransplant secondary pulmonary hypertension (PHT) may be associated with worse outcomes following lung transplantation. We sought to determine whether COPD patients with secondary PHT have inferior intensive care outcomes following lung transplantation. METHODS: This is a single-center, retrospective analysis of all lung transplant recipients ...
Bonderman D - - 2012
Precapillary pulmonary hypertension (PH) is diagnosed when mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) equals or exceeds 25 mmHg and the pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) is equal or lower than 15 mmHg. Because both parameters can only be derived from invasive hemodynamic assessment, right heart catheter (RHC) is still a gold ...
Antoniou Theofani - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hemodynamic effects of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) plus aerosolized iloprost in patients with pulmonary hypertension/right ventricular dysfunction after cardiac surgery. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: A single center. PARTICIPANTS: Eight consecutive patients with valve disease and postextracorporeal circulation (ECC) pulmonary ...
Rodriguez Pablo O - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Selection of positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) associated with the best compliance of the respiratory system during decremental PEEP titration can be used for the treatment of patients suffering from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We describe changes in transpulmonary pressure (Ptp) and gas exchange during a decremental PEEP ...
Tehrani Fleur T - - 2012
A system for automatic control of the fraction of inspired oxygen (F(IO2)), and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) for patients on mechanical ventilation is presented. In this system, F(IO2) is controlled by using two interacting mechanisms; a fine control mechanism and a fast stepwise procedure used when patient's oxygen saturation level ...
Luján Manel - - 2012
BACKGROUND: New home ventilators are able to provide clinicians data of interest through built-in-software. Monitoring of tidal volume is a key point in the assessment of the efficacy of home mechanical ventilation. OBJECTIVE: To assess the reliability of the tidal volume (VT) provided by five ventilators in a bench test. ...
Strunden Mike S - - 2012
PURPOSE: The endothelial glycocalyx (GLX) is pivotal to vascular barrier function. We investigated the consequences of GLX degradation on pulmonary microvascular perfusion and, prompted by evidence that hydroxyethyl starch (HES) improves microcirculation, studied the effects of two HES preparations during GLX diminution. METHODS: C57 BL/6 black mice lungs were explanted ...
Leuchte Hanno H - - 2012
Background: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) of various causes leads to a poor prognosis. Pulmonary vasoreactivity testing during right heart catheterization (RHC) has prognostic and therapeutic consequences. Objective: To characterize the acute hemodynamic response to short-term oxygen supplementation (SHOT) in adult PH patients and its impact on prognosis. Methods: After a stable ...
Leme Silva P - - 2012
Recent data show an alarming increasing trend in obesity around the world. Mechanical ventilation in this population requires specific ventilatory settings due to the mechanical and inflammatory alterations observed in obesity. In this line, end-expiratory lung volume is decreased, leading to impairment in the mechanics of the respiratory system, lung ...
Kunugiyama Sujen K - - 2012
High-frequency percussive ventilation (HFPV) has been used for patients with severe respiratory compromise refractory to conventional mechanical ventilation. It frequently results in equivalent or improved oxygenation and ventilation at lower peak pressures than conventional ventilation, thus minimizing secondary ventilator-associated lung injury. The only ventilator currently available that delivers HFPV is ...
Fletcher Alexander M - - 2012
The best method of hemodynamic monitoring to guide the resuscitation and management of the critically ill patient is unclear. The evaluated article presents data from a prospective randomized controlled trial that recruited 120 shocked patients (n = 60 in each arm) to compare volume-limited versus pressure-limited hemodynamic management. Patients were ...
Yeung Jonathan C - - 2012
The evaluation of donor lungs by normothermic ex vivo acellular perfusion has improved the safety of organ utilization. However, this strategy requires a critical re-evaluation of the parameters used to assess lungs during ex vivo perfusion compared with those traditionally used to evaluate the donor lung in vivo. Using a ...
Swenson Erik R - - 2012
High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), a not uncommon form of acute altitude illness, can occur within days of ascent above 2500 to 3000 m. Although life-threatening, it is avoidable by slow ascent to permit acclimatization or with drug prophylaxis. The critical pathophysiology is an excessive rise in pulmonary vascular resistance or ...
Bang Jae Ouk - - 2012
The use of positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) in patients with acute lung injury (ALI) improves arterial oxygenation by alleviating pulmonary shunting, helping the respiratory muscles to decrease the work of breathing, decreasing the rate of infiltrated and atelectatic tissues, and increasing functional residual capacity. In a rabbit model of ...
Yang Binou - - 2012
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on the lung fluid transport of rabbits with acute lung injury caused by endotoxin and evaluate its therapeutic action. A total of 24 rabbits were randomly divided into control, simple acute lung injury (ALI) and ...
Megalou Aikaterini J AJ Department of Cardiology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, - - 2012
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) inhibition is an investigational therapy for pulmonary arterial hypertension with promising results in experimental studies. The present work compared this approach with endothelin-receptor blockade and evaluated the effects of combined administration. Pulmonary arterial hypertension was induced by single monocrotaline injection (60 mg/kg) in 75 Wistar rats ...
West John B - - 2012
Extraordinary advances in respiratory physiology occurred between 1941 and 1956 in the Department of Physiology, University of Rochester. These were principally the result of a collaboration between Wallace Fenn, Hermann Rahn and Arthur Otis. Remarkably all three scientists had worked in very dissimilar areas of physiology before and, by their ...
Carlucci Annalisa - - 2012
PURPOSE: To assess the behaviour of a pressure-preset volume-guaranteed (V(TG)) mode of ventilation in the presence of non-intentional leaks in single-limb circuit (SLC) home ventilators. METHODS: All SLC home ventilators commercially available in Italy can be used in a V(TG) mode with an intentional leak ("vented") or a true expiratory ...
Wu Chun-Shan - - 2012
The noisy component of bubble continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is thought to contribute to breathing efficiency and lung volume recruitment, mainly because of stochastic resonance. The magnitude and frequency of the superimposed noise are vital to this process. We wanted to evaluate the in vitro effect of changing various parameters ...
Zampi Jeffrey D - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: The hybrid stage I procedure is an alternative palliative strategy for patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome who traditionally have undergone the Norwood operation. At our institution, the hybrid stage I procedure is employed only for patients with high operative risk. Our objective was to describe our use of ...
Cove Matthew E - - 2012
ABSTRACT: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has a substantial mortality rate and annually affects more than 140,000 people in the USA alone. Standard management includes lung protective ventilation but this impairs carbon dioxide clearance and may lead to right heart dysfunction or increased intracranial pressure. Extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal has ...
McDonald Birgitte I BI Center for Marine Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Scholander Hall, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 9500 Gilman Drive no. 0204, La Jolla, CA 92093-0204, USA. - - 2012
Lung collapse is considered the primary mechanism that limits nitrogen absorption and decreases the risk of decompression sickness in deep-diving marine mammals. Continuous arterial partial pressure of oxygen profiles in a free-diving female California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) revealed that (i) depth of lung collapse was near 225 m as ...
Malik Anuj A Division of Cardiology, Electrophysiology Section, San Francisco, CA, - - 2013
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is common after open-chest procedures, but the etiology remains poorly understood. Lung transplant procedures allow for the study of novel contributing factors. Records of lung transplant procedures performed at a single center between 2002 and 2009 were reviewed. Of 174 patients, 27 (16%) had AF a median ...
Schmalisch G - - 2012
Uncuffed endotracheal tubes (ET) are commonly used for mechanically ventilated infants to protect airways, but this bears the risk of an air leak around the ET. In contrast to the measurements of tidal volume and respiratory mechanics, very little is known about the effect of ET leaks on capnographic measurements. ...
Niehues S M - - 2012
Minipigs are frequently used for scientific research as they are easy to handle and the dimensions of their vascular system does not change after 20 months of age. Although surgical interventions under anaesthesia are often performed in the supine position the effects of this positioning on lung functionality in minipigs ...
Schiffer Tomas A - - 2012
Breath-hold divers report transient, severe neurological symptoms that could be caused by arterial gas embolism after glossopharyngeal insufflation. This technique is often used to overinflate the lungs and stretch the chest prior to breath-holding and can increase the transpulmonary pressure to around 7-8 kPa, so introducing risk of pulmonary barotrauma. Airway ...
Cleary Stuart - - 2012
Our objective was to study the intensity and duration of the effects of lung volume recruitment, a manual breath stacking technique, on pulmonary function and coughing in individuals with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Twenty-nine individuals with ALS participated in this study. A cross-over research design was used to compare effects ...
Venturelli Elena - - 2012
Objective:To evaluate whether temporary positive expiratory pressure provides benefit in patients with lung diseases and chronic hypersecretion.Design:Single blind multicentre randomized trial.Setting:Five Italian rehabilitation centres.Participants:Ninety-eight patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and/or chronic bronchitis (n=78), or bronchiectasis (n=20), with a peak cough expiratory flow >150 l/min and sputum production >30 ml/day, ...
Forgiarini Luiz Alberto LA - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: To verify the impact of ischemic time on lung cell viability in an experimental model of lung ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury and its repercussion on lung performance after reperfusion. METHODS: Twenty-four animals were subjected to selective clamping of the left pulmonary artery and divided into four groups (n = 6) according to ...
Ghobadi Ghazaleh - - 2012
INTRODUCTION: The risk of early radiation-induced lung toxicity (RILT) limits the dose and efficacy of radiation therapy of thoracic tumors. In addition to lung dose, coirradiation of the heart is a known risk factor in the development RILT. The aim of this study was to identify the underlying physiology of ...
Platz Elke - - 2012
AIMS: Quantification of linear lung ultrasound (LUS) artefacts (B-lines) represents a novel, non-invasive approach to assess pulmonary congestion. We investigated the relationship between the number of B-lines (vertical artefacts arising from the pleural line) and intracardiac pressures. METHODS AND RESULTS: Prior to scheduled right heart catheterization (RHC), 100 subjects underwent ...
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