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Results 501 - 550 of 2029
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Pichot C C Critical Care, Epinal Hospital, Epinal, - - 2012
As alpha-2 agonists preserve ventilator drive, patients presenting with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, Pa02/FiO2 < 200) were managed using sedation with an alpha-2 agonist, clonidine, combined to spontaneous ventilation (SV) + pressure support ventilation (PS). Sedation was provided by an alpha-2 agonist, clonidine 1-2 microg x kg(-1( x h(-1), ...
Feld Yair - - 2011
We hypothesized that attachment of elastic coil to the left ventricular (LV) wall, capable of exerting outward forces may allow the transfer of energy from systole to diastole and improve diastolic function. An extra-ventricular-device, composed of a series of elastic elements interposed between spiral screws attached to the epimyocardium of ...
Hahn J-O - - 2011
This paper presents a new approach to the estimation of unknown central aortic blood pressure waveform from a directly measured peripheral blood pressure waveform, in which a physics-based model is employed to solve for a subject- and state-specific Individualized Transfer Function (ITF). The ITF provides the means to estimate the ...
Himura Takahiro - - 2011
We investigate the pressure effect on the layered Dirac fermion system, which is realized in quasi-two-dimensional organic compound α-(BEDT-TTF)(2)I(3). The trajectory of the contact points is investigated using the tight-binding model with the transfer integrals determined by x-ray diffraction experiments. Vanishing of the Dirac fermion spectrum, opening of the gap, ...
Iwasaki Ken-Ichi - - 2012
We examined changes in cerebral circulation in 15 healthy men during exposure to mild +Gz hypergravity (1.5 Gz, head-to-foot) using a short-arm centrifuge. Continuous arterial pressure waveform (tonometry), cerebral blood flow (CBF) velocity in the middle cerebral artery (transcranial Doppler ultrasonography), and partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETco(2)) were ...
Fahimi Fanak - - 2011
Pressurized metered dose inhalers are commonly used in patients with asthma. However, the need to coordinate inhalation with inhaler actuation means that they are not suitable for use per se. Valved holding chamber devices were developed to overcome some of the problems of pressurized metered dose inhalers. Several types of ...
Mitzner Wayne - - 2011
Major advances in respiratory mechanics occurred primarily in the latter half of the 20th century, and this is when much of our current understanding was secured. The earliest and ancient investigations involving respiratory physiology and mechanics were frequently done in conjunction with other scientific activities and often lacked the ability ...
Pedersen Ole F - - 2011
Expiratory flow limitation occurs when flow ceases to increase with increasing expiratory effort. The equal pressure point concept has been largely successful in providing intuitive understanding of the phenomenon, wherein maximal flows are determined by lung recoil and resistance upstream of the site where bronchial transmural pressure is zero (the ...
Weber Thomas - - 2011
The prognostic value of central systolic blood pressure has been established recently. At present, its noninvasive assessment is limited by the need of dedicated equipment and trained operators. Moreover, ambulatory and home blood pressure monitoring of central pressures are not feasible. An algorithm enabling conventional automated oscillometric blood pressure monitors ...
Shih Yuan-Ta - - 2011
BackgroundThe accuracy of the central aortic systolic (SBP-C) and pulse (PP-C) blood pressures estimated noninvasively by a generalized transfer function technique has been questioned. The purpose of the present study was to quantify precisely the impact of the input errors (differences between the oscillometric (SBP-O, DBP-O, PP-O) and invasive (SBP-B, ...
Kersten Hendrik - - 2011
We report on the development of a novel atmospheric pressure photoionization setup and its applicability for in situ degradation product studies of atmospherically relevant compounds. A custom miniature spark discharge lamp was embedded into an ion transfer capillary, which separates the atmospheric pressure from the low pressure region in the ...
Nicolle Jimmy - - 2011
Exfoliated graphene and few layer graphene samples supported on SiO2 have been studied by Raman spectroscopy at high pressure. For samples immersed on a alcohol mixture, an electron transfer of dn/dP~8 x10^12 cm-2 GPa-1 is observed for monolayer and bilayer graphene, leading to giant doping values of n~6 x10^13 cm-2 ...
McGrane Mary M - - 2011
Hypertension is a major risk factor for development of stroke, coronary heart disease, heart failure, and end-stage renal disease. In a systematic review of the evidence published from 2004 to 2009, the 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (DGAC) concluded there was moderate evidence of an inverse relationship between the intake ...
Kanellakis Peter - - 2011
BACKGROUND: CD4CD25Foxp3 regulatory T cells (Tregs) are potent inhibitors of inflammation and autoimmune diseases. Because inflammation has been associated with development of cardiac fibrosis in experimental hypertension, here we investigated whether adoptively transferred Tregs would inhibit development of cardiac fibrosis initiated by elevating blood pressure. METHODS: Cardiac fibrosis was induced ...
Grygoruk Cezary - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: To study fluid dynamics during ET. DESIGN: Computational fluid dynamics were applied to calculate fluid velocity changes, dynamic pressure differences, and shear stress in the transferred load for the following injection speeds: 0.1, 1, 6, 12, and 20 m/sec. SETTING: Academic research institute of mechanical engineering and reproduction biotechnology ...
Knupp Markus - - 2011
Distal tibia coronal plane malalignment predisposes the ankle joint to asymmetric load. The purpose of this cadaveric study was to quantify changes in pressure and force transfer in an ankle with a supramalleolar deformity. Seventeen cadaveric lower legs were loaded with 700 N after creating supramalleolar varus and valgus deformities. ...
Dalhoff Ernst - - 2011
Recently it was shown that distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) can be measured as vibration of the human tympanic membrane in vivo, and proposed to use these vibration DPOAEs to support a differential diagnosis of middle-ear and cochlear pathologies. Here, we investigate how the reverse transfer function (r-TF), defined as the ...
Rueff J-P - - 2011
Measurement of the Ce valence in the heavy fermion CeCu_{2}Si_{2} is reported for the first time under pressure and at low temperature (T=14  K) in proximity of the superconducting region. CeCu_{2}Si_{2} is considered as a strong candidate for a new type of pairing mechanism related to critical valence fluctuations which could ...
Davern Pamela J - - 2011
1. The amygdala is a part of the limbic system that is associated with mediating the emotional and hormonal response to stress and although studies have focused on the central amygdala, there is increasing evidence that the medial amygdala is a major region activated by stressful stimuli. 2. Neuroanatomical studies ...
Truijen Jasper - - 2011
Acute psychological stress challenges the cardiovascular system with an increase in BP (blood pressure), HR (heart rate) and reduced BRS (baroreflex sensitivity). β-adrenergic blockade enhances BRS during rest, but its effect on BRS during acute psychological stress is unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that BRS is higher during acute ...
Williams Teresa Ann - - 2011
Having intensive care patients sit out of bed improves their respiration and psyche and reduces complications of immobilization. To compare seating interface pressures to determine a preferred seating surface for patients sitting out of bed. The study was conducted in 2 phases among intensive care patients with impaired mobility who ...
Highland Krista B - - 2011
Objectives: To test for differences in stress-induced cardiovascular functioning among hypertensive and normotensive African American (AA) smokers. Methods: Participants (n = 35) were exposed to both stress and neutral mood inductions. Results: Repeated measures analyses of covariance produced a significant group x mood condition interaction for systolic blood pressure (P ...
Matthys Heinrich - - 2011
Altitude travel results in acute variations of barometric pressure, which induce different degrees of hypoxia, changing the gas contents in body tissues and cavities. Non ventilated air containing cavities may induce barotraumas of the lung (pneumothorax), sinuses and middle ear, with pain, vertigo and hearing loss. Commercial air planes keep ...
Badner N H - - 2011
In multiple study populations large tidal volumes (8 - 12 ml/kg) have deleterious effects on lung function in multiple study populations. The accepted approach to hypoxemia during one-lung ventilation is the application of continuous positive airway pressure to the non-ventilated lung first, followed by application of positive end-expiratory pressure to ...
Porhomayon J - - 2011
Obesity is known to be a major risk factor of a whole range of cardiovascular, metabolic and respiratory disorders. The pattern of regional fat distribution plays an important role in the pre-disposition of obese subjects to respiratory complications. Obesity is responsible for important changes in respiratory function both during spontaneous ...
Glenny Robb - - 2011
Local driving pressures and resistances within the pulmonary vascular tree determine the distribution of perfusion in the lung. Unlike other organs, these local determinants are significantly influenced by regional hydrostatic and alveolar pressures. Those effects on blood flow distribution are further magnified by the large vertical height of the human ...
Prisk G Kim - - 2011
Efficient gas exchange in the lung depends on the matching of ventilation and perfusion. However, the human lung is a readily deformable structure and as a result gravitational stresses generate gradients in both ventilation and perfusion. Nevertheless, the lung is capable of withstanding considerable change in the applied gravitational load ...
Glenny Robb W - - 2011
With increasing spatial resolution of regional ventilation and perfusion, it has become more apparent that ventilation and blood flow are quite heterogeneous in the lung. A number of mechanisms contribute to this regional variability, including hydrostatic gradients, pleural pressure gradients, lung compressibility, and the geometry of the airway and vascular ...
Ponganis Paul J - - 2011
The ability of diving mammals to forage at depth on a breath hold of air is dependent on gas exchange, both in the lung and in peripheral tissues. Anatomical and physiological adaptations in the respiratory system, cardiovascular system, blood and peripheral tissues contribute to the remarkable breath-hold capacities of these ...
Doolette David J - - 2011
Exposure to elevated ambient pressure (hyperbaric conditions) occurs most commonly in underwater diving, during which respired gas density and partial pressures, work of breathing, and physiological dead space are all increased. There is a tendency toward hypercapnia during diving, with several potential causes. Most importantly, there may be reduced responsiveness ...
Prisk G Kim - - 2011
The pulmonary circulation is subject to direct challenge from both altered pressure and altered gravity. To efficiently exchange gas, the pulmonary capillaries must be extremely thin-walled and directly exposed to the alveolar space. Thus, alterations in ambient pressure are directly transmitted to the capillaries with the potential to alter pulmonary ...
Huang Yan - - 2010
Respiratory epithelial cells are exposed to complex mechanical forces which are often modulated during pathological conditions such as Otitis Media and acute lung injury. The transduction of these mechanical forces into altered inflammatory signaling may play an important role in the persistence of disease conditions and inflammation. In this study, ...
Yang Xingbin - - 2010
A diet enriched in lupin kernel flour can lower blood pressure, but mechanisms responsible are unclear. Lupin is a source of polyphenols, protein, and L-arginine, factors that may influence blood pressure via effects on oxidative stress and vascular function. Therefore, we aimed to determine the effects of a lupin-enriched diet ...
Wu Bing - - 2010
To study potential ecological impacts of CO(2) leakage to shallow groundwater and soil/sediments from geologic CO(2) sequestration (GCS) sites, this work investigated the viability and metal reduction of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 under CO(2) stress. While MR-1 could grow under high-pressure nitrogen gas (500 psi), the mix of 1% CO(2) with ...
Albert-Seifried Sebastian - - 2010
We present broadband transient absorption spectroscopy on the fluorescent copolymer poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-benzothiadiazole) under hydrostatic pressure of up to 75 kbar. We observe a strong reduction of the stimulated emission intensity under pressure, coupled with slower decay kinetics and reduced fluorescence intensity. These observations indicate increased delocalization of photogenerated singlet excitons, facilitated by ...
Touyz Rhian M - - 2011
Increased vascular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS; termed oxidative stress) has been implicated in various chronic diseases, including hypertension. Oxidative stress is both a cause and a consequence of hypertension. Although oxidative injury may not be the sole etiology, it amplifies blood pressure elevation in the presence of other ...
Li Xin - - 2010
The effect of compressive stress on the electrochemical behavior of flexible supercapacitors assembled with single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) film electrodes and 1 M aqueous electrolytes with different anions and cations were thoroughly investigated. The under-pressed capacitive and resistive features of the supercapacitors were studied by means of cyclic voltammetry measurements ...
Beshara Monica - - 2010
The present study quantitatively explored the effects of mothers' perceived time pressure, as well as meal-related variables including mothers' convenience orientation and meal preparation confidence, on the healthiness of evening meals served to school-aged children (5-18 years old) over a 7-day period. A sample of 120 employed mothers, who identified ...
Roatta S - - 2011
Aims:  When assessing sympathetic activation in acute stress, the attention is often limited to the sympatho-neural axis, whereas sympatho-adrenal activation, that can only be detected with poor time resolution from the concentration of plasma catecholamines, is often neglected. This study is aimed at reinvestigating the role and the relevance of ...
Haghighipour Nooshin - - 2010
Excessive wall circumferential stress in arteries caused by luminal pressure leads to endothelial damage and clinical consequences. In addition to circumferential stress, arterial wall contains residual stress with compressive and tensile components on intima and adventitia sides. The intimal compressive component compensates part of tensile stress induced by blood pressure, ...
Maina Giovanni G Department of Traumatology, Orthopaedic and Occupational Medicine, University of Torino, Via Zuretti 29, Turin, Italy. - - 2011
To examine the association between two job stress models-the job strain (JDC) and the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model-and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in call handler operators. Participants included 74 women (age, 34.9 ± 9.9 years) and 26 men (age 36.0 ± 10.8 years) who were monitored on 2 workdays for ambulatory blood pressure. Measures of ...
Li Li - - 2010
A new data collection protocol for forced oscillation experiments using a multianvil high pressure device is reported. We derive the stress of the sample at high pressure and temperature from synchrotron x-ray diffraction that is synchronized with sample strain measurements from x-ray radiographs. This method yields stress directly from the ...
Cui Jian - - 2010
The mechanisms by which heat stress impairs the control of blood pressure leading to compromised orthostatic tolerance are not thoroughly understood. A possible mechanism may be an attenuated blood pressure response to a given increase in sympathetic activity. This study tested the hypothesis that whole body heating attenuates the blood ...
Nelson Michael D - - 2010
We examined biventricular function during passive heat stress in endurance trained (ET) and untrained (UT) men to evaluate whether aerobic fitness alters the volumetric response. Body temperature was elevated ~0.8°C above baseline in 20 healthy men (10 ET, 64.4 ± 3.0 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1); and 10 UT, 46.3 ± 6.2 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) by ...
Cabral Pablo D - - 2010
We showed that luminal flow stimulates nitric oxide (NO) production in thick ascending limbs. Ion delivery, stretch, pressure, and shear stress all increase when flow is enhanced. We hypothesized that shear stress stimulates NO in thick ascending limbs, whereas stretch, pressure, and ion delivery do not. We measured NO in ...
Boutsioukis Christos - - 2010
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of needle-insertion depth on the irrigant flow inside a prepared root canal during final irrigation with a syringe and two different needle types using a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model. A validated CFD model was used to simulate irrigant flow ...
Pozzoli Tiziana - - 2010
This study examined the role of pro-victim attitudes, personal responsibility, coping responses to observations of bullying, and perceived peer normative pressure in explaining defending the victim and passive bystanding behavior in bullying. A total of 462 Italian early adolescents (mean age = 13.4 years, SD = 9 months) participated in ...
Lee Alex Pui-Wai - - 2010
The impact of haemodynamic stress on left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony in heart failure with normal ejection fraction (HFNEF) remains unknown. We sought to evaluate the relationship and predictive value of dynamic changes of LV dyssynchrony on hypertensive HFNEF. A total of 131 subjects including 47 hypertensive HFNEF patients, 34 hypertensive ...
Boutsioukis C - - 2010
To evaluate the effect of root canal taper on irrigant flow inside a prepared root canal during final irrigation with a syringe and two types of needles, using a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model. A validated CFD model was used to simulate irrigant flow from either a side-vented or a ...
Rice Stephen - - 2010
S. Rice and D. Keller (2009) previously reported that participants who were put under time pressure tended to comply more with a diagnostic aid than participants who were not put under time pressure. The present study investigates whether or not learning the benefits of this time pressure heuristic carries over ...
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