Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 2114
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Dubois Mathilde - - 2013
Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), which fosters the formation of and stabilizes endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) as an active dimer, tightly regulates eNOS coupling / uncoupling. Moreover, studies conducted in genetically-modified models demonstrate that BH4 pulmonary deficiency is a key determinant in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension. The present study thus investigates biopterin ...
Nguyen T Dung - - 2013
Diastolic dysfunction in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) may result in pulmonary congestion and lung remodeling. We evaluated the usefulness of major diastolic echocardiographic parameters and of the deceleration rate of early transmitral diastolic velocity (E/DT) in predicting lung remodeling in a rat model of HFpEF. Rats underwent ...
Zhang Chun-Yan CY Department of Cardiac Surgery, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, New South Wales, - - 2013
Intravenous infusion of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) has been used to treat pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH); however, the efficacy and safety of inhaled PGE1 is unclear. To investigate the effect of inhaled PGE1 on PAH following corrective surgery for congenital heart disease. Sixty patients with postoperative residual PAH following corrective surgery ...
Sperber Jesper J Centre for Clinical Research Sörmland, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden ; Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases, Uppsala University, Uppsala, - - 2013
Low tidal volume ventilation is beneficial in patients with severe pulmonary dysfunction and would, in theory, reduce postoperative complications if implemented during routine surgery. The study aimed to investigate whether low tidal volume ventilation and high positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in a large animal model of postoperative sepsis would attenuate ...
Sakuramoto Hideaki - - 2013
Although endotracheal suctioning induces alveolar derecruitment during mechanical ventilation, it is not clear whether repeated endotracheal suctioning exacerbates lung injuries. The present study aimed to determine whether repeated open endotracheal suctioning (OS) exacerbates lung injury compared to closed endotracheal suctioning (CS) during mechanical ventilation in an animal model of acute ...
Taylor Bryan J BJ Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA. - - 2013
The mechanisms underlying the reactive component of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in heart failure (HF) are unclear. We examined whether resting systemic oxygen levels are related to pulmonary hemodynamics in HF. Thirty-nine HF patients underwent right heart catheterization. Subsequently, patients were classified as having: 1) no PH (n = 12); 2) passive PH ...
Roy Shreyas S Cardiopulmonary and Critical Care Laboratory, Department of Surgery, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY, USA. - - 2013
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) afflicts 200,000 patients annually with a mortality rate of 30% to 60% despite wide use of low tidal volume (LTV) ventilation, the present standard of care. High-permeability alveolar edema and instability occur early in the development of ARDS, before clinical signs of lung injury, and ...
Chen Wen-Chi WC Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, Tuxedo, - - 2013
The function of the right heart is to pump blood through the lungs, thus linking right heart physiology and pulmonary vascular physiology. Inflammation is a common modifier of heart and lung function, by elaborating cellular infiltration, production of cytokines and growth factors, and by initiating remodeling processes. Compared to the ...
Yang Wanjie W Intensive Care Unit, the Fifth Central Hospital of Tianjin, Tianjin, People's Republic of - - 2013
To accurately measure the end-expiratory pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP) with the "expiration holding" function on the ventilator and the "pulmonary artery wedge pressure review" software on the monitor. Fifty prospective measurements were made on 12 patients undergoing pulmonary artery catheter and mechanical ventilation. All measurements were divided into <8 ...
Silva Pedro L - - 2012
BACKGROUND:: Intravascular volume replacement is often required in the presence of increased pulmonary capillary leakage, for example in patients with volutrauma with major hemorrhage. In the present study, the effects of Ringer's acetate (RA), gelatin-polysuccinate (GEL), and a modern hydroxyethyl starch (HES, 6% 130/0.42) on lung and kidney function and ...
Fox Benjamin D - - 2012
What is the prevalence of occult left-heart disease in patients with scleroderma (SCL) and pulmonary hypertension (PH)? In patients with PH (mean pulmonary artery pressure mPAP≥25 ;mmHg), differentiation between pre/post capillary PH has been made according to pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP) less/more than15 ;mmHg, respectively.Retrospective chart review of 107 ...
Kopeć Grzegorz - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary artery (PA) hypertension (IPAH) is associated with severe PA remodelling. Although the resulting increase in pulse wave velocity (PWV) might be of major pathophysiological relevance, little is known about PA-PWV in IPAH. The aim of this study was to characterize PA-PWV and its predictors in patients with ...
Garnero A J - - 2012
The first generation of mechanical ventilators were controlled and cycled by pressure. Unfortunately, they did not allow control of the delivered tidal volume under changes in the dynamics of the respiratory system. This led to a second generation of ventilators that allowed volume control, hence favoring the ventilatory strategy based ...
Yoshida Takeshi - - 2012
OBJECTIVES:: The benefits of spontaneous breathing over muscle paralysis have been proven mainly in mild lung injury; no one has yet evaluated the effects of spontaneous breathing in severe lung injury. We investigated the effects of spontaneous breathing in two different severities of lung injury compared with muscle paralysis. DESIGN:: ...
Dixon Dani-Louise - - 2012
AIMS: Chronic heart failure leads to pulmonary vascular remodelling and thickening of the alveolar-capillary barrier. We examined whether this protective effect may slow resolution of pulmonary oedema consistent with decreased bi-directional fluid flux. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seven weeks following left coronary artery ligation, we measured both fluid flux during an ...
Cordioli Ricardo Luiz - - 2012
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mechanical ventilation is one of the most important life support tools in the ICU, but it may also be harmful by causing ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) and other deleterious effects. Advances in ventilator technology have allowed the introduction of numerous ventilator modes in an effort to improve ...
Costa Eduardo L V - - 2012
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the new (Berlin) definition of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and to propose potential improvements. RECENT FINDINGS: The Berlin definition resulted in the following modifications: a criterion of less than 7 days was used to define acute onset; the requirement of pulmonary artery wedge ...
Della Rocca Giorgio - - 2012
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review will analyze the risk factors of acute lung injury (ALI) in patients undergoing thoracic surgery. Evidence for the occurrence of lung injury following mechanical ventilation and one-lung ventilation (OLV) and the strategies to avoid it will also be discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Post-thoracotomy ALI has become ...
Rode Bojan - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Maintenance of the open lung alveoli in the expiration on mechanical ventilation in acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) remains challenging despite advances in lung imaging. The inspiratory lower inflection point (LIP) on the ventilator pressure-volume (P-V) curve estimates the required end-expiratory pressure for recruitment of alveolar consolidation. ...
Taleb Mohammed - - 2012
Background: Transthoracic echocardiography is commonly used to estimate pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP) and to diagnose pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, some recent studies have questioned the accuracy of Doppler echocardiography (DE) in the assessment of PASP. The present meta-analysis was performed to estimate the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of DE ...
Fujioka Hideki - - 2012
We developed a computational model of lung parenchyma, which is comprised of individual alveolar chamber models. Each alveolus is modeled by a truncated octahedron. Considering the force balance between the elastin and collagen fibers laying on the alveolar membrane and the pressures acting on the membrane, we computed the deformations ...
Weichenthal Scott - - 2012
Few studies have examined indoor air quality in First Nations communities and its impact on cardiorespiratory health. To address this need, we conducted a cross-over study on a First Nations reserve in Manitoba, Canada including 37 residents in 20 homes. Each home received an electrostatic air filter and a placebo ...
Kheir John N - - 2012
BACKGROUND. Lung recruitment maneuvers are frequently used in the treatment of children with lung injury. Here, we describe a pilot study to compare the acute effects of two commonly used lung recruitment maneuvers on lung volume, gas exchange and hemodynamic profiles in children with acute lung injury (ALI). METHODS. In ...
Pirr Sabine M - - 2012
Background: Endotracheal suctioning, which is frequently necessary in mechanically ventilated patients, might cause complications, especially in patients with compromised lung function such as extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW) neonates. Objectives: To investigate whether closed endotracheal suctioning (CS) reduces the frequency of hypoxemia and bradycardia in ELBW neonates compared to open suctioning (OS). ...
Trojik T - - 2012
(Full text is available at http://www.manu.edu.mk/prilozi). Recruitment manoeuvre (RM) can be defined as a strategy to increase transient transpulmonary pressure. This study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of e- sigh recruitment manoeuvre on patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Thirty patients who fulfilled ARDS criteria were included in ...
Schmidt Gregory A - - 2012
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Through shared anatomy, pressures, and endothelial connections, the respiratory and cardiovascular systems affect each other in complex but clinically important ways. RECENT FINDINGS: Lung injury has clinically important circulatory effects, especially with regards to right ventricular function. Mechanical ventilation and PEEP produce a host of circulatory consequences, ...
Cinnella Gilda - - 2012
BACKGROUND:: The authors tested the hypothesis that during laparoscopic surgery, Trendelenburg position and pneumoperitoneum may worsen chest wall elastance, concomitantly decreasing transpulmonary pressure, and that a protective ventilator strategy applied after pneumoperitoneum induction, by increasing transpulmonary pressure, would result in alveolar recruitment and improvement in respiratory mechanics and gas exchange. ...
Klein K U - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Cyclic alveolar recruitment and derecruitment play a role in the pathomechanism of acute lung injury and may lead to arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO(2) ) oscillations within the respiratory cycle. It remains unknown, however, if these PaO(2) oscillations are transmitted to the microcirculation. The present study investigates if ...
Höstman S - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Ventilation with low tidal volumes reduces mortality in acute respiratory distress syndrome. A further reduction of tidal volumes might be beneficial, and it is known that apneic oxygenation (no tidal volumes) with arteriovenous CO(2) removal can keep acid-base balance and oxygenation normal for at least 7 h in an acute ...
Liu Y H - - 2012
BACKGROUND: /st>Percutaneous transtracheal ventilation (PTV) via a jet ventilator (PTJV) is considered a rescue technique in difficult airway management. However, whether a conventional ventilator can generate adequate ventilation via PTV is not known. Our goal was to evaluate the tidal volume (V(T)) generated by a conventional ventilator during simulated PTV ...
Smith Bradford J BJ Vermont Lung Center, University of Vermont College of Medicine, 149 Beaumont Avenue, HSRF 228, Burlington, VT 05405-0075, - - 2013
Management of ALI/ARDS involves supportive ventilation at low tidal volumes (V t) to minimize the rate at which ventilator induced lung injury (VILI) develops while the lungs heal. However, we currently have few details to guide the minimization of VILI in the ALI/ARDS patient. The goal of the present study ...
Freitas F G R - - 2012
BACKGROUND: /st>The applicability of pulse pressure variation (ΔPP) to predict fluid responsiveness using lung-protective ventilation strategies is uncertain in clinical practice. We designed this study to evaluate the accuracy of this parameter in predicting the fluid responsiveness of septic patients ventilated with low tidal volumes (TV) (6 ml kg(-1)). METHODS: ...
Rydman Riikka - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Right ventricular (RV) involvement in pulmonary embolism (PE) is an ominous sign. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which the d-dimer level or simplified PE severity index (sPESI) indicates RV dysfunction in patients with preserved systemic arterial pressure. METHODS: Right ventricular function was studied ...
Duchateau Paul - - 2012
BACKGROUND. We measured tidal volume (VT) delivered from ICU ventilators after adding an external filter to the expiratory limb of the breathing circuit. This latter may protect the expiratory valve from water saturation in case of nebulisation and the environnement in case of lung infection with multi-drug-resistant micro-organisms or H1N1 ...
Lu Q - - 2012
OBJECTIVEC: Randomized trials fail to demonstrate a decrease in mortality when high Positive End-Expiratory Pressure (PEEP) is applied to patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Use of PEEP in all patients without taking into consideration specific lung morphology, potential for recruitment and risk of lung hyperinflation could be one of ...
Vegh T - - 2012
BACKGROUND: The ideal tidal volume (VT) during one-lung ventilation (OLV) remains controversial. High tidal volumes may increase the incidence of postoperative lung injury after thoracic surgery. There is nonetheless little evidence that the use of low tidal volume during OLV will fail to provide adequate arterial oxygenation. We evaluated the ...
Casserly Brian - - 2012
BACKGROUND: "Optimal" mean airway pressure (MAP) during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) can be defined as the pressure that allows for maximal alveolar recruitment while minimizing alveolar overdistension. Choosing a MAP near or just below the point of maximal curvature (PMC) of the volume-pressure characteristics of the lung can serve as ...
Zannin Emanuela - - 2012
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: It is well established that during mechanical ventilation of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome cyclic recruitment/derecruitment and overdistension are potentially injurious for lung tissues. We evaluated whether the forced oscillatory technique (FOT) could be used to guide the ventilator settings in order to minimize cyclic lung recruitment/derecruitment ...
Ambrosio Aline M - - 2012
BACKGROUND:: In acute lung injury positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and recruitment maneuver are proposed to optimize arterial oxygenation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of such a strategy on lung histological inflammation and hyperinflation in pigs with acid aspiration-induced lung injury. METHODS:: Forty-seven pigs were randomly ...
McNamara Patrick J - - 2012
OBJECTIVES:: Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn is a common problem with significant morbidity and mortality. Inhaled nitric oxide is the standard care, but up to 40% of neonates are nonresponders. Milrinone is a phosphodiesterase III inhibitor which increases the bioavailability of cyclic adenosine monophosphate and has been shown to ...
Engel Monique - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Recruitment manoeuvres are widely used in clinical practice to open the lung and prevent lung injury by derecruitment, although the evidence is still discussed. In this study two different recruitment manoeuvres were compared to no recruitment manoeuvres (control) in ventilated sheep with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), induced by ...
Jensen Morten Hasselstrøm - - 2012
Abstract Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) affects millions of people worldwide. A complication of COPD is exacerbations that result in increased utilization of healthcare services, readmissions to the hospital, and a decline in health-related quality of life. Home telehealth has been shown both to improve health-related quality of life ...
Radicioni M - - 2012
Experience with terlipressin (TP) in the neonatal field is scarce. We describe the effects of TP on pulmonary circulation, studied with echocardiography, in an asphyxiated septic cooled infant with pulmonary hypertension (PH) who developed catecholamine-resistant hypotension and exacerbation of PH shortly after the beginning of the rewarming. TP was added ...
Kim Sh - - 2012
Prolonged inspiratory to expiratory (I:E) ratio ventilation may have both positive and negative effects on respiratory mechanics and oxygenation during one-lung ventilation (OLV), but definitive information is currently lacking. We therefore compared the effects of volume-controlled ventilation with I:E ratios of 1:1 and 1:2 on respiratory mechanics and oxygenation during ...
Fan Xiao-Fang - - 2012
To explore the effects of safflower injection on prevention and treatment of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension and clarify the function of the endoplasmic reticulum stress apoptosis pathway during the process. Thirty male SD rats were randomly grouped as normal control group, hypoxia-hypercapnia group and hypoxia+safflower group. The latter two groups were ...
Charalampopoulos Athanasios - - 2012
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is defined as an increase in mean pulmonary arterial pressure > or = 25 mmHg at rest as assessed invasively by right heart catheterisation. It can affect patients at any age and presents with non-specific symptoms. Accurate diagnosis is important as while PH is a potentially lethal ...
De Meester Pieter - - 2012
Elevated pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) causes functional tricuspid valve insufficiency (TI). However, the differential contribution of pressure load and right ventricular (RV) dilatation is not well established. The study aim was to evaluate both variables in relation to TI. A cross-sectional study was performed of consecutive transthoracic echocardiographic studies ...
Simon Bruce - - 2012
Despite the prevalence and recognized association of pulmonary contusion and flail chest (PC-FC) as a combined, complex injury pattern with interrelated pathophysiology, the mortality and morbidity of this entity have not improved during the last three decades. The purpose of this updated EAST practice management guideline was to present evidence-based ...
Bräunlich Jens J Department of Respiratory Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany. - - 2013
A high flow of air applied by large bore nasal cannulae has been suggested to improve symptoms of chronic respiratory insufficiency. In pediatric patients, nasal high-flow (nHF) ventilation was similarly effective compared to noninvasive ventilation with a face mask. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe changes in ...
Iversen N K - - 2012
Recent advances of nanotechnology in clinical settings have spurred the development of various complex engineered nanoparticles (NPs). NPs share characteristics with ultrafine particles (UFPs; <1 μm) that can cross the pulmonary epithelium and disturb cardiovascular functions. Since these particles are injected directly into the blood stream, it is imperative to ...
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