Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 1441
< 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 >
Dudgeon D J - - 2001
The purposes of this cross-sectional study of 75 outpatients of a general oncology clinic were to assess the subjective and objective factors associated with dyspnea in cancer patients and to characterize factors that might contribute to respiratory muscle weakness demonstrated in a previous study. Patients with moderate to severe shortness ...
Ingenito E P - - 2001
Spirometry and pulmonary mechanics were measured pre- and postoperatively in 37 patients undergoing bilateral lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS). The relative contributions of changes in compliance (CL), recoil pressures (PTLC), small airway conductance (Gu), and airway closing pressures (Ptm') to changes in expiratory flows were examined with a Taylor series ...
Gupta D - - 2001
Pulmonary fibrosis is a common complication in progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS). Physical examination and/or routine pulmonary function tests can, however, detect only relatively advanced disease. We assessed the utility of static lung pressure-volume analysis in detecting lung involvement in patients of PSS without obvious clinical, radiological or spirographic evidence of ...
Maggiore S M - - 2001
The pressure-volume curve of the respiratory system is a physiological method used for diagnotic purposes to describe the static mechanical properties of the respiratory system. A renewal of interest in the pressure-volume curve has recently appeared because of experimental evidence regarding the information conveyed by the curve, a better understanding ...
Burns G P - - 2001
The response to deep inspiration (DI) has been reported in terms of specific airway conductance (SGaw) pre- and post-DI, and by comparing forced expiratory flows following both maximal and partial inspiration (M/P ratio). The lung volume at which M/P has been obtained has varied between studies. We have investigated how ...
Chetta A - - 2001
Expiratory muscle strength is a determinant of cough function. Mouth pressures during a maximal static expiratory effort (PE,max) are dependent on patient motivation and technique and low values are therefore difficult to interpret. This study hypothesized that a short, sharp and maximal expiration through a narrow aperture, a "whistle", might ...
De Robertis E - - 2001
Understanding of the elastic pressure/volume (Pel/V) curve is still limited in health and disease. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the Pel/V curve and elastance of the respiratory system (ERS) lung (EL) and chest wall (ECW) in healthy pigs. Six young (20.8 kg) and seven adult (58.9 ...
Filippelli M - - 2001
Lung and chest wall mechanics were studied during fits of laughter in 11 normal subjects. Laughing was naturally induced by showing clips of the funniest scenes from a movie by Roberto Benigni. Chest wall volume was measured by using a three-dimensional optoelectronic plethysmography and was partitioned into upper thorax, lower ...
Munegato G - - 2001
BACKGROUND: The computerized noninvasive measurement of respiratory mechanics enables new prospects in the study of respiratory physiopathology in surgical repair of large incisional hernias. STUDY DESIGN: We studied 10 patients with COPD ventilated with a Servo Ventilator 900C. We measured inspiratory flow by means ofa pneumotacograph, the volume by integrating ...
Cabezas G A - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Dopamine exerts inhibitory and excitatory effects on different systems. Its effect on human bronchial tone is controversial. It has been reported that dopamine has no acute effect on human airways from normal subjects or those with asthma background. However, inhaled or infused dopamine decreased histamine-induced bronchoconstriction in both normal ...
Aboussouan L S - - 2001
The impact of noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NIPPV) on pulmonary function studies, quality of life, and survival was assessed in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. NIPPV did not change the rate of decline of the forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV(1)) (2.31 and 2.09 ...
Kauczor H U - - 2001
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: To develop a validated post-processing routine for volumetry of the ventilated airspaces by 3He MRI. METHODS: 3Helium MRI and pulmonary function tests were performed in seven healthy volunteers. After segmentation of ventilated airspaces, their volumes were calculated. Functional residual capacity (FRC) was used as a reference. For ...
Göthberg S - - 2001
Monitoring lung volume is important in the treatment of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. However, there are no tools available for lung volume measurement to guide ventilator management during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) and during dynamic changes in conventional ventilation (CV). We studied the performance of a new respiratory inductive plethysmograph ...
Aliverti A - - 2001
To estimate the transfer impedance of the respiratory system (Ztr), we applied pressure forcing at the mouth from 1 to 24 Hz in eight healthy subjects and used optoelectronic plethysmography (OEP) to measure volume changes of the chest wall and its different compartments: pulmonary rib cage (RCp), abdominal rib cage ...
Reed J W - - 2001
With deep saturation diving a reduction in vital capacity caused by oxygen toxicity may be opposed by a training effect of respiratory muscles due to increased gas density and work of breathing. We measured lung and chest wall mechanics before and after a 28-day saturation dive to a pressure of ...
Hannam S - - 2001
Human infants have been observed making inspiratory efforts in response to chest compression. These may be a manifestation of the Hering-Breuer deflation reflex. We sought to stimulate the reflex in 33 term infants by rapidly reducing lung volume using an inflatable jacket. The effect of altering the timing, magnitude or ...
Albuquerque D A - - 2001
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a chemical sclerosing agent, aluminum hydroxide, on pleural remodeling and on respiratory mechanics in rats. Saline (2 mL) or aluminum hydroxide [2 mL (0.15 g/mL)] was instilled intrapleurally in anesthetized male rats. The animals were studied 7 or 30 ...
Kondili E - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: In mechanically ventilated patients with ARDS, determination of the lower (LIP) and upper (UIP) inflection points of the static pressure-volume curve (P-V) is crucial for planning ventilatory strategies. Recently, a simple new method was proposed for measuring the P-V curve by inflating the lung with constant low flow [14]. ...
Agostoni P - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Our hypothesis is that an enlarged heart may compete for space with the lungs, causing a restrictive pattern that is often seen in patients with chronic heart failure. METHODS: Eighty patients with stable congestive heart failure in New York Heart Association classes II and III participated in the study. ...
Gelb A F - - 2000
The current literature emphasizes the role of airway remodeling in chronic persistent asthma and its putative effect on causing fixed expiratory airflow limitation. We studied 18 adults with chronic persistent asthma; 12 men, six women, age 59 +/- 15 yr (mean +/- SD) with fixed expiratory airflow obstruction. We measured ...
Grimm D R - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: We administered aerosolized histamine to 32 subjects with tetraplegia to determine whether there were differences in spirometric and/or lung volume parameters between responders and nonresponders. RESULTS: Baseline pulmonary function parameters revealed mild to moderate restrictive dysfunction. We found that 25 subjects (78%) were hyperreactive to histamine (mean provocative concentration ...
Suki B - - 2000
In 11 isolated dog lung lobes, we studied the size distribution of recruited alveolar volumes that become available for gas exchange during inflation from the collapsed state. Three catheters were wedged into 2-mm-diameter airways at total lung capacity. Small-amplitude pseudorandom pressure oscillations between 1 and 47 Hz were led into ...
Kessler V - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: Analysis of dynamic respiratory system mechanics is generally based on a resistance-compliance model in which nonlinearities of the respiratory mechanics indices are not considered. The recently developed SLICE method analyzing consecutive volume slices of the tidal volume was used for determination of non-linear volume-dependent respiratory system mechanics. Volume-dependent compliance ...
Aggarwal A N - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To assess the utility of static lung pressure-volume measurements in identifying and categorizing pulmonary function test defects in survivors of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Pulmonary function laboratory at a tertiary referral hospital in northern India. PATIENTS: Six survivors of ARDS reporting for their first follow-up ...
Villena V - - 2000
The aim of therapeutic thoracentesis (TT) is to aspirate as much pleural fluid as possible. Monitoring pleural pressure (PlP) during TT has been proposed to avoid the adverse effects due to an unintended sharp drop in PlP. The objectives of this study are to ascertain the diagnostic value of the ...
D'Angelo E - - 2000
The purpose of the present investigation was to assess the effect of large tidal volumes and mean lung volumes on the viscoelastic properties of the respiratory system in normal humans; and to verify if in this case the results could be satisfactorily described by a simple linear viscoelastic model of ...
Topulos G P - - 2000
The pressure-volume (P-V) characteristics of the lung microcirculation are important determinants of the pattern of pulmonary perfusion and of red and white cell transit times. Using diffuse light scattering, we measured capillary P-V loops in seven excised perfused dog lobes at four lung volumes, from functional residual capacity (FRC) to ...
Clini E - - 2000
Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) production in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been loosely related to the severity of illness, being significantly reduced in the most severe cases. Pulmonary hypertension is associated with lower NO output from the lung. In this study expired NO was measured in patients with ...
Pieters T - - 2000
STUDY OBJECTIVES: In humans, malnutrition alters the respiratory system in different ways. It impairs the ventilatory drive, decreases respiratory muscle strength and reduces immune competence. In addition, typical emphysema-like changes were demonstrated in starved animals. The presence of emphysema has never been demonstrated in starved humans. Our objective was to ...
Powell L L - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Emphysema is a chronic disease of the lungs with destruction of terminal alveoli and airway obstruction. Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) is being investigated for the treatment of emphysema. Increasing resection volumes with LVRS may lead to worsening of carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (Dlco) despite improvement in compliance and ...
Sloots C E - - 2000
The barostat is a device that maintains a constant pressure within an air-filled polyethylene bag by means of a feedback mechanism. The system measures variations in rectal tone by recording changes in the intrarectal pressure and volume. Different procedures, such as ramp distension or intermittent distension, are used to test ...
Nève V - - 2000
We applied to 20 paralyzed ventilated children (0.15 to 14.3 yr, six with acute respiratory distress syndrome [ARDS]) the low-flow inflation (LFI) technique providing quasi-static volume-pressure (V-P) curves and compared the assessment of overdistension (OD) on dynamic and LFI (reference) inspiratory V-P curves. Dynamic curves were obtained at the airway ...
Taube C - - 2000
Expiratory airway collapse is a characteristic feature in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We hypothesized that this collapse might mask the effects of bronchodilators during forced expiration but not during forced inspiration, and that accordingly, the improvement in forced inspiration and not that in forced expiration with bronchodilator ...
Pauluhn J - - 2000
The pulmonary response of Wistar rats to a cumulative dose of 1 mg/kg body weight of a polymeric alpha,omega-diamine was examined using the intratracheal route of administration. Instillation of the test substance was on days 0 and 7 followed by a 3-month postobservation period. Static and dynamic pulmonary function tests, ...
Wu E Y - - 2000
To determine the role of mediastinal shift after pneumonectomy (PNX) on compensatory responses, we performed right PNX in adult dogs and replaced the resected lung with a custom-shaped inflatable silicone prosthesis. Prosthesis was inflated (Inf) to prevent mediastinal shift, or deflated (Def), allowing mediastinal shift to occur. Thoracic, lung air, ...
Miller M R - - 2000
Previous studies have shown that the added resistance of a mini-Wright peak expiratory flow (PEF) meter reduced PEF by approximately 8% in normal subjects because of gas compression reducing thoracic gas volume at PEF and thus driving elastic recoil pressure. We undertook a body plethysmographic study in 15 patients with ...
Cossette I - - 2000
We studied three professional flautists while playing to determine: (1) what respiratory muscles and percent vital capacity (%VC) were used; (2) how mouth pressure (Pm), embouchure resistance (Rem), embouchure aperture (Aem), flow (V) and velocity (Vel) affect sound loudness (I) and frequency (F). We measured Pm, esophageal, gastric, transdiaphragmatic, transpulmonary ...
Menezes S L - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: Diaphragmatic reconstruction may cause several respiratory changes. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the respiratory changes induced by two methods of diaphragmatic reconstruction. METHODS: Two groups of rats with an experimental diaphragmatic defect were studied. In one group (n = 5), diaphragmatic resection was followed by ...
Kárason S - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Lung mechanics are usually measured using static or quasistatic methods, abandoning normal ventilatory treatment. We have developed a method to calculate the alveolar pressure during dynamic/therapeutic conditions, "the dynostatic pressure" (P(dyn)), using airway pressure (P) measured in the trachea and volume (V) and flow (V) at the Y-piece. METHODS: ...
Kuwahira I - - 2000
OBJECT: The fold plication method is a new operative procedure for lung volume reduction surgery whereby the target area is obliterated by plicating the folded tissue using a knifeless stapler, without the use of bovine pericardium. The effectiveness of this new method was evaluated in patients with advanced pulmonary emphysema. ...
Couëtil L L - - 2000
The purpose of this study was to assess whether our method of inducing forced expiration detects small airway obstruction in horses. Parameters derived from forced expiratory flow-volume (FEFV) curves were compared with lung mechanics data obtained during spontaneous breathing in nine healthy horses, in three after histamine challenge, and in ...
Corsico A - - 2000
According to a recent hypothesis, airway smooth muscle regulates airway calibre mostly at high lung volume, whereas the mucosa and adventitia dimensions dominate at low lung volumes. It was thought that if inhaled steroids decrease the thickness of airway wall in asthma, then forced vital capacity (FVC), which reflects the ...
Gómez-Hospital J A - - 2000
STUDY OBJECTIVES: This study was performed to assess the changes in pulmonary function after a successful percutaneous balloon mitral valvotomy (PBMV) in 23 consecutive patients with symptomatic mitral stenosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Lung function preprocedure and postprocedure were evaluated by spirometric flow, static pulmonary volumes, and diffusion capacity of the ...
Lai Y L - - 2000
Mice have been widely used in immunologic and other research to study the influence of different diseases on the lungs. However, the respiratory mechanical properties of the mouse are not clear. This study extended the methodology of measuring respiratory mechanics of anesthetized rats and guinea pigs and applied it to ...
Wagers S S - - 2000
We present a case in which the pressure-volume (P-V) curve proved invaluable in the diagnostic workup of a patient. The patient was a 43-year-old man who presented with progressive dyspnea on exertion, restrictive spirometry, exercise desaturation, and an unremarkable CT scan. Because of the unexpected finding of an unremarkable CT ...
Morice A H - - 2000
The performance of dry powder inhaler (DPI) devices, particularly reservoir DPIs, may be influenced by environmental conditions. This study compared the bronchodilator efficacy and in vitro aerosol characteristics of salbutamol, delivered via a novel reservoir DPI (Clickhaler) and a conventional pressurized metered-dose inhaler (MDI) before and after use of the ...
Tarazona-Santos E - - 2000
This study investigates the relationships among hematological variables, pulmonary function, and age in a sample of high-altitude natives. The following anthropometric and physiological variables were examined in 77 adult Quechua males from the Peruvian Central Andes (Huancavelica, 3,680 m): height, weight, sitting height, chest diameters, chest and abdominal circumferences, forced ...
Mason N P - - 2000
The aims of the present study were to determine the changes in forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) and peak expiratory flow (PEF), during an ascent to 5,300 m in the Nepalese Himalayas, and to correlate the changes with arterial oxygen saturation measured by pulse ...
Kunst P W - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: A new noninvasive method, electrical impedance tomography (EIT), was used to make pressure-impedance (PI) curves in a lung lavage model of acute lung injury in pigs. The lower inflection point (LIP) and the upper deflection point (UDP) were determined from these curves and from the traditional pressure-volume (PV) curves ...
Dueck R - - 2000
Flow/volume (F/V) spirometry is routinely used for assessing the type and severity of lung disease. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and timed vital capacity (FEV1) provide the best estimates of airflow obstruction in patients with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and emphysema. Computerized spirometers are now available for early home ...
< 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 >