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Results 251 - 300 of 1435
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Sharma Mukesh - - 2004
In this study, the authors assessed the relationship between daily changes in respiratory health and particulate levels with diameters of (a) less than 10 microm (PM10) and (b) less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5) in Kanpur, India. The subjects (N = 91) were recruited from 3 areas in Kanpur: (1) Indian ...
Johnson Arthur T - - 2004
The airflow perturbation device (APD) is a recently redesigned instrument to measure resistance in the respiratory system. The APD is small and easy to use, gives rapid resistance measurements, and can easily separate inhalation from exhalation components. It also possesses some operational characteristics similar to forced oscillation (FO). Excised sheep ...
Tepper Robert S - - 2004
Respiratory system compliance (Crs) in infants with cystic fibrosis (CF) has been reported as decreased or not different compared with healthy control subjects; however, the reported measurements of Crs were "quasi-static" or by the single-breath occlusion technique, with all measurements limited to tidal lung volume, as well as using inspiratory ...
Laghi Franco - - 2004
STUDY OBJECTIVES: We previously reported that patients with emphysema show an increase in diaphragmatic neuromechanical coupling at 3 months after lung volume reduction surgery. Diaphragmatic neuromechanical coupling was quantified as the quotient of tidal volume (normalized to total lung capacity) to tidal change in transdiaphragmatic pressure (normalized to maximal transdiaphragmatic ...
Gattinoni Luciano - - 2004
The importance of chest wall elastance in characterizing acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome patients and in setting mechanical ventilation is increasingly recognized. Nearly 30% of patients admitted to a general intensive care unit have an abnormal high intra-abdominal pressure (due to ascites, bowel edema, ileus), which leads to an ...
Dimitriou G - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Infants with severe respiratory failure are frequently transferred to high volume strategy, high frequency oscillation (HFO). Mean airway pressure (MAP) is then elevated, the aim being to open up atelectatic lungs and hence improve gas exchange. AIM: To test the hypothesis that lung volume prior to transfer would predict ...
Peces-Barba G - - 2004
We evaluated the effect of prone positioning on gas-transfer characteristics in normal human subjects. Single-breath (SB) and rebreathing (RB) maneuvers were employed to assess carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DlCO), its components related to capillary blood volume (Vc) and membrane diffusing capacity (Dm), pulmonary tissue volume (Vti), and cardiac output (Qc). ...
Hantos Z - - 2004
The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the mechanism of recruitment and the lower knee of the pressure-volume curve in the normal lung are primarily determined by airway reopenings via avalanches rather than simple alveolar recruitments. In isolated dog lung lobes, the pressure-volume loops were measured, ...
Grasso Salvatore - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the shape of the airway pressure-time (Paw-t) curve during constant flow inflation corresponds to radiologic evidence of tidal recruitment or tidal hyperinflation in an experimental model of acute lung injury. DESIGN: Prospective randomized laboratory animal investigation. SETTING: Department of Clinical Physiology, University of Uppsala, Sweden. SUBJECTS: ...
Zecha-Stallinger Angelika - - 2004
When ventilating an unintubated patient with a standard adult self-inflating bag, high peak inspiratory flow rates may result in high peak airway pressures with subsequent stomach inflation. In a previous study we have tested a newly developed mouth-to-bag-resuscitator (max. volume, 1500 ml) that limits peak inspiratory flow, but the possible ...
Verschuren Franck - - 2004
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare the diagnostic performance of volumetric capnography (VCap), which is the plot of the expired CO(2) partial pressure against the expired volume during a single breath, with the PaCO(2) to end-tidal CO(2) (EtCO(2)) gradient, in the case of suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). DESIGN: Single-center, prospective study. SETTING: ...
Dellacà Raffaele L - - 2004
We simultaneously evaluated the mechanical response of the total respiratory system, lung, and chest wall to changes in posture and to bronchoconstriction. We synthesized the optimal ventilation waveform (OVW) approach, which simultaneously provides ventilation and multifrequency forcing, with optoelectronic plethysmography (OEP) to measure chest wall flow globally and locally. We ...
Black Lauren D - - 2004
Measures of airway resistance (Raw) during deep inspiration (DI) suggest that asthmatic subjects possess stiffer, more reactive airway smooth muscle. There is evidence that one can enhance airway reactivity in healthy lungs by prohibiting DI for an extended period. The present study had two goals. First, we determined whether the ...
Downie John M - - 2004
To better understand strategies for recruiting and maintaining lung volume in acute lung injury, we examined relationships between steady-state lung volume and cumulative cyclic recruitment/derecruitment volume history and the quasi-static pressure-volume curve, in an animal saline lavage lung injury model. Small-volume tidal pressure-volume loops performed after inflation from functional residual ...
Deakin Charles D - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Two mechanisms by which firm external paddle force decreases transthoracic impedance (TTI) have been proposed. Decreased impedance at the paddle-skin interface has been assumed to be the primary mechanism, but expulsion of air from the lungs, reducing lung volume is also likely to contribute. The relative contribution of each ...
Bianchi Roberto - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Pursed-lip breathing (PLB) is a strategy often spontaneously employed by patients with COPD during distress situations. Whether and to what extent PLB affects operational lung volume is not known. Also, conflicting reports deal with PLB capability of decreasing breathlessness. Participants and measurements: Twenty-two patients with mild-to-severe COPD were studied. ...
El-Dawlatly Abdelazeem Ali - - 2004
BACKGROUND:The effects of pneumoperitoneum (PPM) on respiratory mechanics during bariatric surgery were investigated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 10 patients with BMI 50.5+/-8 kg/m(2) (range 40.9- 66.8) who underwent laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding with the Swedish band under general anesthesia were studied. Besides routine monitoring of vital signs and lung volumes, respiratory ...
Luecke Thomas - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies suggest setting positive end-expiratory pressure during conventional ventilation according to the static pressure-volume (P-V) curve, whereas data on how to adjust mean airway pressure (P(aw)) during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) are still scarce. The aims of the current study were to (1) examine the respiratory and hemodynamic ...
Wohlgemuth M - - 2003
Spirometry and maximal respiratory pressures are pulmonary function parameters commonly used to evaluate respiratory function. Prediction values are available for conventional lung function devices using a standard tube or flanged type of mouthpiece connection. This equipment is not suitable for patients with facial or buccal muscle weakness, because of air ...
Weiner Paltiel - - 2003
BACKGROUND: It is well documented that the perception of dyspnea (POD), subjectively reported by patients, is an important index used to guide treatment. The severity of dyspnea following methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction and added mechanical loads is increasing in popular. No formal attention has been addressed to the reduction in dyspnea following ...
Albaiceta Guillermo M - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a new technique for pressure-volume curve tracing. DESIGN: Prospective experimental study. SETTING: Animal research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Six anesthetized rats. INTERVENTIONS: Two pressure-volume curves were obtained by means of the super-syringe method (gold standard) and the continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) method. For the CPAP method, the ventilator ...
DePalo Vera A - - 2004
The diaphragm and abdominal muscles can be recruited during nonrespiratory maneuvers. With these maneuvers, transdiaphragmatic pressures are elevated to levels that could potentially provide a strength-training stimulus. To determine whether repeated forceful nonrespiratory maneuvers strengthen the diaphragm, four healthy subjects performed sit-ups and biceps curls 3-4 days/wk for 16 wk ...
Kallet Richard H - - 2003
The interpretation of P-V curves is uncertain for several reasons: the influence of chest wall compliance, differences in regional lung compliance and intrapulmonary gas distribution, lung volume history, lung recruitment beyond the LIP, peripheral airway fluid movement, expiratory-flow limitation, differences between inflation and deflation limb characteristics, and interobserver variability in ...
Albaiceta Guillermo M - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To assess the differences in the deflation pressure-volume (PV) curves between acute respiratory distress syndrome from pulmonary (ARDSp) and extrapulmonary (ARDSe) origin. DESIGN:. Prospective study. SETTING: Twenty-bed intensive care unit in an university hospital. PATIENTS: Ten patients within the first 24 h from meeting ARDS criteria, classified as ARDSp ...
Contador Renata S - - 2003
To develop a reproducible model of atelectasis, 15 mechanically ventilated Wistar rats were wrapped around the thorax/abdomen with a sphygmomanometer. The cuff was inflated to transpulmonary pressures (PL) of -4 cmH2O (group A) and -8 cmH2O (group B) for 5 sec. Group C was not compressed. Airflow, volume, tracheal and ...
Maggiore S M - - 2003
Mechanical impairment of the respiratory system was recognised soon after the description of acute respiratory distress syndrome. The analysis of the pressure/volume (P/V) curve of the respiratory system contributed a lot to the understanding of the pathophysiology of acute lung injury and formed the basis for lung protection. The lower ...
Mehta Sangeeta - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: To assess the reproducibility of the static pressure-volume curve of the respiratory system by using a "mini-syringe" technique; to assess the temporal change in upper (UIP) and lower inflection points (LIP) measured from pressure-volume curves of the respiratory system; to assess the inter- and intraobserver variability in detection of ...
Unoki Takeshi - - 2003
INTRODUCTION: Expiratory rib cage compression is a chest physiotherapy technique known as "squeezing" technique in Japan. It has been claimed that rib cage compression effectively treats and/or prevents lung collapse, but no studies have been reported on rib cage compression focused on improving ventilation and/or oxygenation in subjects with collapsed ...
Pereira Cécile - - 2003
To assess incidence and magnitude of the "lower inflection point" of the chest wall, the sigmoidal equation was used in 36 consecutive patients intubated and mechanically ventilated with acute lung injury (ALI). They were 21 primary and 5 secondary ALI, 6 unilateral pneumonia, and 4 cardiogenic pulmonary edema. The lower ...
Man William D-C - - 2003
Maximal expiratory mouth pressure is a well established test that is used to assess expiratory muscle strength. However, low values are difficult to interpret, as they may result from technical difficulties in performing the test, particularly in patients with facial muscle weakness or bulbar dysfunction. We hypothesized that measuring the ...
Vassiliou M P - - 2003
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is accompanied by significant increase of the respiratory system elastic and resistive properties. These changes are completely abolished after peritoneal deflation. In the present study we examine the volume and flow dependence of respiratory mechanics during four operation phases. METHODOLOGY: Airway pressure and flow were recorded from ...
Rohdin M - - 2003
Both in normal subjects exposed to hypergravity and in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, there are increased hydrostatic pressure gradients down the lung. Also, both conditions show an impaired arterial oxygenation, which is less severe in the prone than in the supine posture. The aim of this study was ...
Iiyori Nao - - 2003
Short-term chest compression has been shown to decrease tidal volume and increase respiratory frequency. The present study was designed to assess and characterize the effect of long-term chest compression on breathing pattern and blood gases in awake rats. Chest compression was carried out by inflating a pneumatic cuff placed around ...
de Dios Escolar Juan - - 2003
The bronchus is an imperfect elastic structure because part of the energy transmitted in inspiration is not recovered in expiration. This phenomenon is known as bronchial hysteresis. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate bronchial hysteresis using morphometric techniques: differences in the wall and the bronchial lumen, between inspiration ...
Takayama Tetsuro - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Patients with severe pulmonary emphysema have a greatly increased oxygen cost of breathing (O(2) cost), and this is the cause of serious malnutrition, or respiratory cachexia, in such patients. STUDY OBJECTIVES: To clarify the effect of lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) on respiratory function and the nutritional state of ...
Hantos Zoltán - - 2003
A tracking impedance estimation technique was developed to follow the changes in total respiratory impedance (Zrs) during slow total lung capacity maneuvers in six anesthetized and mechanically ventilated BALB/c mice. Zrs was measured with the wave-tube technique and pseudorandom forced oscillations at nine frequencies between 4 and 38 Hz during ...
Klein Wilfried - - 2003
The surgical removal of the post-hepatic septum (PHS) in the tegu lizard, Tupinambis merianae, significantly reduces resting lung volume (V(Lr)) and maximal lung volume (V(Lm)) when compared with tegus with intact PHS. Standardised for body mass (M(B)), static lung compliance was significantly less in tegus without PHS. Pleural and abdominal ...
Girgis Reda E - - 2003
A deficiency in airway nitric oxide (NO) could contribute to pulmonary vaso-occlusion in sickle cell disease (SCD). We measured the fractional expired concentration of NO (FE(NO)) by chemiluminescence during a slow vital capacity maneuver against a positive pressure of 16 cm H(2)O at an expiratory flow rate of 50 mL/sec ...
Lausberg Henning F - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The crippling effects of emphysema are due in part to dynamic hyperinflation, resulting in altered respiratory mechanics, an increased work of breathing, and a pervasive sense of dyspnea. Because of the extensive collateral ventilation present in emphysematous lungs, we hypothesize that placement of stents between pulmonary parenchyma and large ...
Sedeek Khaled A - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: High-frequency oscillation has been proposed for use in adult acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, limited data are available on the effect of pressure amplitude and rate (Hz) on tidal volumes delivered during high-frequency oscillation in adults. DESIGN: Prospective, animal model, lung injury study. SETTING: Large-animal laboratory of a university-affiliated ...
Escolar J D - - 2003
The resistance to airflow that develops in most obstructive processes takes place in the small airways. The aim of the present paper is to describe bronchial hysteresis morphometrically in a respiratory cycle model. As a working hypothesis, it is proposed that the changes that take place in the respiratory tract ...
Gronkvist Mikael - - 2003
This study assessed the effects of increased gravity in the head-to-foot direction (+G(z)) and anti-G suit (AGS) pressurization on functional residual capacity (FRC), the volume of trapped gas (V(TG)), and ventilation distribution by using inert- gas washout. Normalized phase III slope (Sn(III)) analysis was used to determine the effects on ...
Díaz O - - 2002
Two previous uncontrolled studies have suggested that noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) in patients with hypercapnic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) improves arterial blood gas tensions by decreasing lung hyperinflation with the consequent reduction in inspiratory loads and changes in ventilatory pattern. The aim of this randomised placebo-controlled study was to ...
Loer S A - - 2002
During partial liquid ventilation perfluorocarbons are eliminated mainly by evaporation via the airways. The effects of intrapulmonary perfluorocarbon volume, respiratory rate, tidal volume, as well as the level of end-expiratory pressure on perfluorocarbon elimination from isolated lungs, were studied. Nonperfused rabbit lungs underwent partial liquid ventilation (2-15 mL x kg(-1) ...
Lum Sooky - - 2002
While the use of the raised volume rapid thoraco-abdominal compression (RVRTC) technique has been shown to provide new insights into airway and pulmonary pathophysiology in infants, and appears to resemble the spirometric techniques used in older subjects, there is as yet no consensus regarding measurement procedures, which are known to ...
Prisk G Kim - - 2003
The analysis of the gas in a single expirate has long been used to estimate the degree of ventilation-perfusion (Va/Q) inequality in the lung. To further validate this estimate, we examined three measures of Va/Q inhomogeneity calculated from a single full exhalation in nine anesthetized mongrel dogs under control conditions ...
Ingenito Edward P - - 2003
Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR), a minimally invasive procedure based on tissue engineering principles, was performed in six sheep with papain-induced experimental emphysema (EMPH). Physiologic measurements, at baseline, after generation of EMPH, and at 3 and 9 weeks after BLVR, included lung volumes, diffusing capacity (DL(CO)), pressure-volume relationships for the ...
Aliverti A - - 2003
To estimate diaphragm fiber length from thoracoabdominal configuration, we measured axial motion of the right-sided area of apposition by ultrasonography and volumes displaced by chest wall compartments [pulmonary, abdominal rib cage, and abdomen (Vab)] by optoelectronic plethysmography in four normal men during quiet breathing and incremental exercise without and with ...
Villars Penelope S - - 2002
Like the windbag of a bagpipe, the functional residual capacity (FRC) is the lung volume that acts as a reservoir of air for physiologic use. This reserve volume is particularly important during the period of apnea that occurs during induction of general anesthesia. The balance of the inward elastic recoil ...
Lundblad Lennart K A - - 2002
Presently, unrestrained plethysmography is widely used to assess bronchial responsiveness in mice. An empirical quantity known as enhanced pause is derived from the plethysmographic box pressure [P(b)(t), where t is time] and assumed to be an index of bronchoconstriction. We show that P(b)(t) is determined largely by gas conditioning when ...
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