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Giuliodori Mauricio J - - 2010
We developed a model to demonstrate how a hopping kangaroo breathes. Interestingly, a kangaroo uses less energy to breathe while hopping than while standing still. This occurs, in part, because rather than using muscle power to move air into and out of the lungs, air is pulled into (inspiration) and ...
Tantucci Claudio - - 2011
Background. The presence and extent of tidal airway closure is not routinely assessed in asthma. The objective of this study was to provide a simple functional tool able to detect tidal airway closure during bronchoconstriction in asthma. Methods. In 20 subjects with mild persistent asthma, we sequentially performed the measurement ...
Elliott Judy - - 2010
This article outlines the actions taken by one acute trust to implement evidence-based, best practice recommendations for pressure ulcer prevention. Initially, an exploratory study identified specific areas for practice development, particularly improving early risk assessment, intervention and focus on heel ulcers. Further actions included recruiting tissue viability support workers to ...
Striegl Amanda M - - 2011
The mechanical in-exsufflator (MIE) is commonly used to augment cough in patients with neuromuscular disease from infancy to adulthood. Little is known about the alveolar pressures, lung volumes, and expiratory flow rates generated by the MIE when used via tracheostomy tube in infants and children. A high-fidelity mechanical lung model ...
Butler Jane E - - 2011
. Spinal cord injury (SCI) patients have respiratory complications because of abdominal muscle weakness and paralysis, which impair the ability to cough. . This study aims to enhance cough in high-level SCI subjects (n = 11, SCI at or above T6) using surface electrical stimulation of the abdominal muscles via ...
Baydur Ahmet - - 2010
BACKGROUND: The impact on respiratory function of gunshot injuries to the chest is unknown. The objective is to assess pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength (RMS) in patients who have recently sustained an isolated gunshot injury to the chest. METHODS: After institutional review board approval, patients with isolated gunshot injuries ...
Mitchell G - - 2011
We have measured lung mass and trachea dimensions in 46 giraffes of both genders ranging in body mass from 147 kg to 1441 kg, calculated static and dynamic lung volumes, and developed allometric equations that relate changes in them to growth. We found that relative lung mass is 0.6±0.2% of ...
Moore Alastair J - - 2010
Hyperinflation is a recognized adverse prognostic factor in COPD. As the sniff inspiratory nasal pressure (SnIP) principally reflects the severity of hyperinflation in COPD, we hypothesized that it might also be a predictor of mortality. We therefore compared the SnIP to the inspiratory capacity-to-total lung capacity (IC/TLC) ratio as predictors ...
Brunelli Alessandro - - 2011
Background: The objective of this prospective observational study was to evaluate the association between the airflow and intrapleural pressures digitally recorded during the immediate postoperative period after lobectomy and their ability to predict the risk of subsequent prolonged air leak (PAL). Methods: A total of 145 consecutive patients underwent pulmonary ...
Banzatto Melissa Guerato Pires - - 2010
The aim of this paper is to study the respiratory muscle strength by evaluating the maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximal expiratory pressure (MEP) and lung volume before and 3 and 6 months after adenotonsillectomy. This is an interventional, before and after trial. It was set at the Department of Otolaryngology, ...
Baldi Simonetta - - 2010
The effects of full lung inflation on respiratory conductance (Grs) and reactance (Xrs) were measured in 15 subjects with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and 11 matched healthy control subjects. Airway distensibility was estimated from the ratio of the difference of Grs between functional residual capacity and ...
Tanaka Kunihiko - - 2010
INTRODUCTION: In space, mobility of the current extravehicular activity space suit is limited due to the pressure differential between the inside and outside of the suit. We have previously demonstrated that an elastic glove increased mobility when compared with a non-elastic glove such as that found in the current suit. ...
Squier Samuel B - - 2010
The relationship between changes in absolute end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) and collapsibility has not been rigorously quantified. We hypothesized that pharyngeal collapsibility varies inversely with absolute lung volume in sleeping humans during 1) conventional and 2) isovolume measurements of passive critical pressure (Pcrit). Eighteen healthy subjects (11 male, 7 female) ...
Kondo Tetsuri - - 2010
We obtained flow-volume (F-V) curves in anesthetized rats by applying positive pressure on the body surface. To obtain the best curve, tracheal intubation with either a 12 or 13 gauge catheter and a surface pressure greater than 56 cmH(2)O was necessary. Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and forced vital capacity ...
Patroniti Nicol? - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: It is commonly assumed that lung volume at zero end-expiratory pressure (functional residual capacity) is not affected by positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) even in presence of alveolar recruitment, and it is often ignored when measuring lung recruitment by pressure-volume curves. Aim of the study was to investigate the effect ...
Heinze Hermann - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Measurement of functional residual capacity (FRC) is now possible at bedside, during mechanical ventilation. OBJECTIVES: To determine the relationship of measured absolute and relative predicted FRC values to oxygenation and respiratory-system compliance, and to identify variables that influence FRC in ventilated patients after cardiac surgery. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed ...
Gunda Chandrakala P - - 2010
Hypotensive episodes are a common complication of spinal anesthesia during Cesarean section. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness and the side effects of vasopressors, ephedrine and phenylephrine, administered for hypotension during elective Cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. The study consisted of 100 selected ASA I/II females ...
Almeida Sara Regina Meira - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: To verify how efficient respiratory parameters are in the follow-up of subjects with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and to observe possible correlations between respiratory and nutritional functions. METHOD: Sixteen patients with probable or defined ALS were selected and evaluated over eight months using the following respiratory parameters: spirometry, maximum ...
Antonaglia Vittorio - - 2010
The results of the studies on pulmonary gas distribution during constant-flow controlled-volume inflation (VCV) and inspiratory constant pressure inflation (PCV) in experimental studies are conflicting. In a mathematical model, with the characteristics of two lung compartments including tissue viscoelastic properties, pulmonary gas distribution was tested by simulating PCV and VCV ...
Wellman Tyler J - - 2010
Regional specific lung volume change (sVol), defined as the regional tidal volume divided by the regional end-expiratory gas volume, is a key variable in lung mechanics and in the pathogenesis of ventilator-induced lung injury. Despite the usefulness of PET to study regional lung function, there is no established method to ...
Cohuet Anna - - 2010
In human malaria, transmission intensity is highly dependent on the vectorial capacity and competence of local mosquitoes. Most mosquitoes are dead ends for the parasite, and only limited ranges of Anopheles are able to transmit Plasmodium to humans. Research to understand the determinants of vectorial capacity and competence has greatly ...
Kirkpatrick Andrew W - - 2010
Prone ventilation (PV) is a ventilatory strategy that frequently improves oxygenation and lung mechanics in critical illness, yet does not consistently improve survival. While the exact physiologic mechanisms related to these benefits remain unproven, one major theoretical mechanism relates to reducing the abdominal encroachment upon the lungs. Concurrent to this ...
Teixeira Illene I Biomedical Instrumentation Laboratory, Institute of Biology, Faculty of Engineering, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. - - 2010
The aim of this work is to describe a new instrument based on the negative expiratory pressure technique able to detect expiratory flow limitation (EFL) in patients with respiratory diseases. First, we describe the design details of a virtual instrument able to apply a low pressure at the mouth during ...
Zelenika Diana - - 2009
The aim of this study was to investigate the diffusion lung capacity in patients with untreated hypertension. For this purpose, a total of 30 cases and 30 controls were included in the present study, which was based on several spirometry indicators in the analysis. The measurements were based on "single ...
Behazin Negin - - 2010
To explore mechanisms of restrictive respiratory physiology and high pleural pressure (P(Pl)) in severe obesity, we studied 51 obese subjects (body mass index = 38-80.7 kg/m(2)) and 10 nonobese subjects, both groups without lung disease, anesthetized, and paralyzed for surgery. We measured esophageal and gastric pressures (P(Es), P(Ga)) using a ...
Salome Cheryl M - - 2010
In obese people, the presence of adipose tissue around the rib cage and abdomen and in the visceral cavity loads the chest wall and reduces functional residual capacity (FRC). The reduction in FRC and in expiratory reserve volume is detectable, even at a modest increase in weight. However, obesity has ...
Kilding Andrew E - - 2010
Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) has been shown to improve time trial performance in competitive athletes across a range of sports. Surprisingly, however, the effect of specific IMT on surface swimming performance remains un-investigated. Similarly, it is not known whether any ergogenic influence of IMT upon swimming performance is confined to ...
Varela Gonzalo - - 2010
To our knowledge, no reports have been published describing the effect of suction on pleural pressures after different types of lobectomy. Improving knowledge of pleural physiology in the postoperative period could lead to better postoperative care. The aim of this investigation is to evaluate the effect of postoperative suction on ...
te Pas Arjan B - - 2009
The effect of inflation length on lung aeration pattern, tidal volumes, and functional residual capacity (FRC) immediately after birth was investigated. Preterm rabbits (28 d), randomized into four groups, received a 1-, 5-, 10-, or 20-s inflation (SI) followed by ventilation with 5 cm H2O end-expiratory pressure. Gas volumes were ...
Sun Yanping - - 2009
We measured regional ventilation at 1l above functional residual capacity (FRC+1L) and total lung capacity (TLC) in three normal subjects and four elite breath-hold divers, and above TLC after glossopharyngeal insufflation (TLC+GI) in the divers. Hyperpolarized (3)He MRI was used to map the local ventilation per unit volume over the ...
Tawhai Merryn H - - 2009
The explanation for prone and supine differences in tissue density and pleural pressure gradients in the healthy lung has been inferred from several studies as compression of dependent tissue by the heart in the supine posture; however, this hypothesis has not been directly confirmed. Differences could also arise from change ...
Brandao Daniella Cunha - - 2009
Jet nebulization (JN) and non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) through bi-level pressure is commonly used in emergency and intensive care of patients experiencing an acute exacerbation of asthma. However, a scientific basis for effect of JN coupled with NIMV is unclear. Objective. To evaluate the effect of jet nebulization administered during ...
Kim HoJoong - - 2009
The presently used impairment rating guidelines in Korea do not accurately reflect the injury in various lung diseases. Therefore, they need to be made more objective and quantitative with new measurements, using indicators to more precisely represent impairment in the major respiratory diseases. We develop a respiratory impairment rating guideline ...
Gläser Sven - - 2009
BACKGROUND: There is strong evidence that IGF-I and IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), as central mediators of endocrine and finally metabolic or anabolic effects of GH, were associated with increased lung size in acromegaly or a decrease of respiratory muscle pressures in patients with GH deficiency. The aim of the ...
Jared Carlos - - 2009
When toads (Rhinella) are threatened they inflate their lungs and tilt the body towards the predator, exposing their parotoid macroglands. Venom discharge, however, needs a mechanical pressure onto the parotoids exerted by the bite of the predator. The structure of Rhinella jimi parotoids was described before and after manual compression ...
Pellegrino Riccardo - - 2009
Chest wall strapping has been recently shown to be associated with an increase in airway responsiveness to methacholine. To investigate whether this is the result of the decreased lung volume or an increased heterogeneity due to chest wall distortion, ten healthy volunteers underwent a methacholine challenge at control conditions and ...
Graf Jerónimo - - 2009
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pleural effusions (PLEF) occur frequently in mechanically ventilated patients (MVP). There have been improvements in bedside diagnosis, quantification, and drainage techniques. Nevertheless, information on the impact of PLEF on heart-lung performance and pathophysiologic considerations for drainage in MVP is limited. RECENT FINDINGS: Only four studies on physiological ...
Krieger Bruce P - - 2009
Clinically, the symptoms and limited exercise capabilities of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) correlate better with changes in lung volumes than with airflow measurements. The realization of the clinical importance of hyperinflation has been overshadowed for decades by the use of forced expiratory volume during 1 s (FEV(1)) ...
Markhorst D G - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to assess the value of electrical impedance tomography (EIT) as an indicator of tidal (V(T)) and end expiratory lung volume (EELV). METHODS: EIT measurements were performed in seven healthy piglets during constant tidal volume ventilation at incremental and decremental positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) levels. Tidal ...
Haberthür Christoph - - 2009
INTRODUCTION: The effect of expiratory endotracheal tube (ETT) resistance on dynamic lung inflation is unknown. We hypothesized that ETT resistance causes dynamic lung hyperinflation by impeding lung emptying. We further hypothesized that compensation for expiratory ETT resistance by automatic tube compensation (ATC) attenuates dynamic lung hyperinflation. METHODS: A ventilator equipped ...
Cecchini S S Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, University Campus Bio-Medico of Rome, - - 2009
A theoretical analysis of the forces acting on the laryngoscope during the lifting of the epiglottis is carried out by applying the basic principles of statics. The static model of a laryngoscope equipped with a straight and a curved blade and the forces variation, as a function of the introduction ...
Oswald-Mammosser M - - 2009
The aim of our study was to compare four algorithms for the measurement of respiratory resistance in adults using the interrupter technique. Four methods to estimate alveolar pressure from the mouth pressure during occlusion were assessed in 122 normal adults (57 males, 65 females, aged 18-79 yr, mean 41.2 +/- ...
Walker Paul P - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The non-specific bronchial hyper-responsiveness reported in mild to moderate COPD is usually attributed to reduced airway calibre accentuating the effect of airway smooth muscle shortening. We hypothesized that in more severe COPD the fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) seen during methacholine challenge would result from ...
Zucker Tal - - 2008
The effectiveness of high-frequency chest wall oscillation (HF-CWO) is directly related to the level of oscillated flow (osc) in the airways. We used the Vest system to investigate the effects of HFCWO on chest wall and pleural pressures and we correlated these pressures to the resultant osc. We also compared ...
Owens Robert L - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Previously published methods to assess the chest wall effect on total respiratory system pressure-volume (P-V) curves in acute respiratory distress syndrome have been performed on the lung and chest wall in isolation. We sought to quantify the effect of the chest wall by considering the chest wall and lung ...
Williams Ryan L - - 2008
Human chemical exposures resulting from transfer of surface deposition on indoor nylon carpets may be estimated by measuring transferable residues (mu g chemical/cm2 carpet). A weighted roller developed at California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) has been extensively used to sample transferable residue for estimates of human exposure in ...
Heinze Hermann - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Our primary objective was to investigate the effects of three different endotracheal suctioning procedures on functional residual capacity (FRC). METHODS: Using a crossover design, postoperative cardiac surgery patients (n = 20) received three different suctioning methods in randomized order: closed suctioning during pressure-controlled ventilation, closed suctioning during volume-controlled ventilation, ...
Amini R - - 2008
A normalized P-V curve is proposed for quantitative comparisons of quasistatic P-V curves from different sources, including data from different investigators, airway pressure-volume curves versus transpulmonary pressure-volume curves, normal versus injured respiratory system, and animal tests versus clinical data. Similarities and differences among five different data groups we analyzed are ...
Koefoed-Nielsen Jacob - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The underlying pathophysiology causing different shapes of static pressure-lung volume (PV) curves is not fully elucidated. In this study the aim was to examine the influence of a solitary lobar collapse on inflation-deflation PV curves. The hypothesis was that a lobar collapse would induce the same changes in the ...
Scichilone Nicola - - 2008
In patients with mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the effect of deep inspirations (DIs) to reverse methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction is largely attenuated. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the effectiveness of DI is reduced with increasing disease severity and that this is associated with a reduction in the ...
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