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Cohuet Anna - - 2010
In human malaria, transmission intensity is highly dependent on the vectorial capacity and competence of local mosquitoes. Most mosquitoes are dead ends for the parasite, and only limited ranges of Anopheles are able to transmit Plasmodium to humans. Research to understand the determinants of vectorial capacity and competence has greatly ...
Teixeira Illene - - 2010
The aim of this work is to describe a new instrument based on the negative expiratory pressure technique able to detect expiratory flow limitation (EFL) in patients with respiratory diseases. First, we describe the design details of a virtual instrument able to apply a low pressure at the mouth during ...
Kirkpatrick Andrew W - - 2010
Prone ventilation (PV) is a ventilatory strategy that frequently improves oxygenation and lung mechanics in critical illness, yet does not consistently improve survival. While the exact physiologic mechanisms related to these benefits remain unproven, one major theoretical mechanism relates to reducing the abdominal encroachment upon the lungs. Concurrent to this ...
Zelenika Diana - - 2009
The aim of this study was to investigate the diffusion lung capacity in patients with untreated hypertension. For this purpose, a total of 30 cases and 30 controls were included in the present study, which was based on several spirometry indicators in the analysis. The measurements were based on "single ...
Behazin Negin - - 2010
To explore mechanisms of restrictive respiratory physiology and high pleural pressure (P(Pl)) in severe obesity, we studied 51 obese subjects (body mass index = 38-80.7 kg/m(2)) and 10 nonobese subjects, both groups without lung disease, anesthetized, and paralyzed for surgery. We measured esophageal and gastric pressures (P(Es), P(Ga)) using a ...
Salome Cheryl M - - 2010
In obese people, the presence of adipose tissue around the rib cage and abdomen and in the visceral cavity loads the chest wall and reduces functional residual capacity (FRC). The reduction in FRC and in expiratory reserve volume is detectable, even at a modest increase in weight. However, obesity has ...
Kilding Andrew E - - 2010
Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) has been shown to improve time trial performance in competitive athletes across a range of sports. Surprisingly, however, the effect of specific IMT on surface swimming performance remains un-investigated. Similarly, it is not known whether any ergogenic influence of IMT upon swimming performance is confined to ...
Varela Gonzalo - - 2010
To our knowledge, no reports have been published describing the effect of suction on pleural pressures after different types of lobectomy. Improving knowledge of pleural physiology in the postoperative period could lead to better postoperative care. The aim of this investigation is to evaluate the effect of postoperative suction on ...
te Pas Arjan B - - 2009
The effect of inflation length on lung aeration pattern, tidal volumes, and functional residual capacity (FRC) immediately after birth was investigated. Preterm rabbits (28 d), randomized into four groups, received a 1-, 5-, 10-, or 20-s inflation (SI) followed by ventilation with 5 cm H2O end-expiratory pressure. Gas volumes were ...
Sun Yanping - - 2009
We measured regional ventilation at 1l above functional residual capacity (FRC+1L) and total lung capacity (TLC) in three normal subjects and four elite breath-hold divers, and above TLC after glossopharyngeal insufflation (TLC+GI) in the divers. Hyperpolarized (3)He MRI was used to map the local ventilation per unit volume over the ...
Tawhai Merryn H - - 2009
The explanation for prone and supine differences in tissue density and pleural pressure gradients in the healthy lung has been inferred from several studies as compression of dependent tissue by the heart in the supine posture; however, this hypothesis has not been directly confirmed. Differences could also arise from change ...
Brandao Daniella Cunha - - 2009
Jet nebulization (JN) and non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) through bi-level pressure is commonly used in emergency and intensive care of patients experiencing an acute exacerbation of asthma. However, a scientific basis for effect of JN coupled with NIMV is unclear. Objective. To evaluate the effect of jet nebulization administered during ...
Kim HoJoong - - 2009
The presently used impairment rating guidelines in Korea do not accurately reflect the injury in various lung diseases. Therefore, they need to be made more objective and quantitative with new measurements, using indicators to more precisely represent impairment in the major respiratory diseases. We develop a respiratory impairment rating guideline ...
Gläser Sven - - 2009
BACKGROUND: There is strong evidence that IGF-I and IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), as central mediators of endocrine and finally metabolic or anabolic effects of GH, were associated with increased lung size in acromegaly or a decrease of respiratory muscle pressures in patients with GH deficiency. The aim of the ...
Jared Carlos - - 2009
When toads (Rhinella) are threatened they inflate their lungs and tilt the body towards the predator, exposing their parotoid macroglands. Venom discharge, however, needs a mechanical pressure onto the parotoids exerted by the bite of the predator. The structure of Rhinella jimi parotoids was described before and after manual compression ...
Pellegrino Riccardo - - 2009
Chest wall strapping has been recently shown to be associated with an increase in airway responsiveness to methacholine. To investigate whether this is the result of the decreased lung volume or an increased heterogeneity due to chest wall distortion, ten healthy volunteers underwent a methacholine challenge at control conditions and ...
Graf Jerónimo - - 2009
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pleural effusions (PLEF) occur frequently in mechanically ventilated patients (MVP). There have been improvements in bedside diagnosis, quantification, and drainage techniques. Nevertheless, information on the impact of PLEF on heart-lung performance and pathophysiologic considerations for drainage in MVP is limited. RECENT FINDINGS: Only four studies on physiological ...
Cecchini S - - 2009
A theoretical analysis of the forces acting on the laryngoscope during the lifting of the epiglottis is carried out by applying the basic principles of statics. The static model of a laryngoscope equipped with a straight and a curved blade and the forces variation, as a function of the introduction ...
Krieger Bruce P - - 2009
Clinically, the symptoms and limited exercise capabilities of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) correlate better with changes in lung volumes than with airflow measurements. The realization of the clinical importance of hyperinflation has been overshadowed for decades by the use of forced expiratory volume during 1 s (FEV(1)) ...
Markhorst D G - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to assess the value of electrical impedance tomography (EIT) as an indicator of tidal (V(T)) and end expiratory lung volume (EELV). METHODS: EIT measurements were performed in seven healthy piglets during constant tidal volume ventilation at incremental and decremental positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) levels. Tidal ...
Haberthür Christoph - - 2009
INTRODUCTION: The effect of expiratory endotracheal tube (ETT) resistance on dynamic lung inflation is unknown. We hypothesized that ETT resistance causes dynamic lung hyperinflation by impeding lung emptying. We further hypothesized that compensation for expiratory ETT resistance by automatic tube compensation (ATC) attenuates dynamic lung hyperinflation. METHODS: A ventilator equipped ...
Oswald-Mammosser M - - 2009
The aim of our study was to compare four algorithms for the measurement of respiratory resistance in adults using the interrupter technique. Four methods to estimate alveolar pressure from the mouth pressure during occlusion were assessed in 122 normal adults (57 males, 65 females, aged 18-79 yr, mean 41.2 +/- ...
Walker Paul P - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The non-specific bronchial hyper-responsiveness reported in mild to moderate COPD is usually attributed to reduced airway calibre accentuating the effect of airway smooth muscle shortening. We hypothesized that in more severe COPD the fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) seen during methacholine challenge would result from ...
Zucker Tal - - 2008
The effectiveness of high-frequency chest wall oscillation (HF-CWO) is directly related to the level of oscillated flow (osc) in the airways. We used the Vest system to investigate the effects of HFCWO on chest wall and pleural pressures and we correlated these pressures to the resultant osc. We also compared ...
Owens Robert L - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Previously published methods to assess the chest wall effect on total respiratory system pressure-volume (P-V) curves in acute respiratory distress syndrome have been performed on the lung and chest wall in isolation. We sought to quantify the effect of the chest wall by considering the chest wall and lung ...
Williams Ryan L - - 2008
Human chemical exposures resulting from transfer of surface deposition on indoor nylon carpets may be estimated by measuring transferable residues (mu g chemical/cm2 carpet). A weighted roller developed at California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) has been extensively used to sample transferable residue for estimates of human exposure in ...
Heinze Hermann - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Our primary objective was to investigate the effects of three different endotracheal suctioning procedures on functional residual capacity (FRC). METHODS: Using a crossover design, postoperative cardiac surgery patients (n = 20) received three different suctioning methods in randomized order: closed suctioning during pressure-controlled ventilation, closed suctioning during volume-controlled ventilation, ...
Amini R - - 2008
A normalized P-V curve is proposed for quantitative comparisons of quasistatic P-V curves from different sources, including data from different investigators, airway pressure-volume curves versus transpulmonary pressure-volume curves, normal versus injured respiratory system, and animal tests versus clinical data. Similarities and differences among five different data groups we analyzed are ...
Koefoed-Nielsen Jacob - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The underlying pathophysiology causing different shapes of static pressure-lung volume (PV) curves is not fully elucidated. In this study the aim was to examine the influence of a solitary lobar collapse on inflation-deflation PV curves. The hypothesis was that a lobar collapse would induce the same changes in the ...
Scichilone Nicola - - 2008
In patients with mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the effect of deep inspirations (DIs) to reverse methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction is largely attenuated. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the effectiveness of DI is reduced with increasing disease severity and that this is associated with a reduction in the ...
Cohen Judith - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of volumetric and densitometric software to localize and quantify signs of regional air trapping after methacholine bronchoprovocations in asthma. METHODS: Eight atopic subjects with mild-to-moderate asthma using short-acting beta2-agonists only, with hyperresponsiveness to methacholine, were evaluated. Low-dose baseline expiratory 16-slice multidetector computed tomography scans before ...
Demory Didier - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To assess the hysteresis of the pressure-volume curve (PV curve) as to estimate, easily and at the bedside, the recruitability of the lung in ARDS patients. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Twelve medico-surgical ICU beds of a general hospital. PATIENTS: Twenty-six patients within the first 24 h from meeting ARDS ...
Zosky Graeme R - - 2008
The double sigmoidal nature of the mouse pressure-volume (PV) curve is well recognized but largely ignored. This study systematically examined the effect of inflating the mouse lung to 40 cm H2O transrespiratory pressure (Prs) in vivo. Adult BALB/c mice were anesthetized, tracheostomized, and mechanically ventilated. Thoracic gas volume was calculated ...
Chiumello Davide - - 2008
RATIONALE: Lung injury caused by a ventilator results from nonphysiologic lung stress (transpulmonary pressure) and strain (inflated volume to functional residual capacity ratio). OBJECTIVES: To determine whether plateau pressure and tidal volume are adequate surrogates for stress and strain, and to quantify the stress to strain relationship in patients and ...
Ziegler Bruna - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition might be expected to result in reduced maximum respiratory pressure and pulmonary function in cystic fibrosis (CF). OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between nutritional status and maximum respiratory pressures in patients with CF. METHODS: We performed a prospective cross-sectional study of patients > or = 16 y old ...
Augusto V S - - 2008
Pulmonary abnormalities are observed in chronic hepatopathy. The measurement of the maximum inspiratory and expiratory pressure may evaluate lung function and the risks associated with hepatic transplantation. Thus, the present work sought to evaluate the respiratory muscle strength of 29 patients between 17 and 63 years old who were enrolled ...
Matsuoka Shin - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to determine the attenuation threshold value for the detection and quantification of air trapping using paired inspiratory and expiratory volumetric MDCT scans and to assess whether the densitometric parameter can be used for the quantification of airway dysfunction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ...
Albaiceta Guillermo M - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this article is to describe the physiologic utility, correlation with lung morphology, difficulties in interpretation and current clinical applications of static respiratory system pressure-volume curves at the bedside in patients with acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome. RECENT FINDINGS: Complex interpretation of ...
Chawla G - - 2008
BACKGROUND: In patients breathing spontaneously during anaesthesia, expiratory muscle activity can be a prominent feature. This activity is triggered or exaggerated by opioid administration, which causes a prompt increase in intra-abdominal pressure. The effect of this increased expiratory activity on end-expiratory lung volume is not described. METHODS: Nine patients having ...
Guérin Claude - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: Tidal expiratory flow limitation (EFL) has been reported in humans with acute lung injury (ALI) and assumed to be associated with small airway closure. Detection of EFL is important because by selecting positive end-expiratory pressure at such a level that EFL is no longer present in the tidal breath, ...
Aiello Marina - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Cough is an important defense mechanism, whose main function is to remove mucus and/or foreign bodies from the airways. In patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), respiratory muscle function may be affected and cough may be impaired. OBJECTIVES: Respiratory muscle strength and voluntary cough efficacy were determined in MS patients ...
Chambers S - - 2008
This essay explores the link in Gerard Manley Hopkins's imagination between sensations of the body and the changing textures of intensity that characterize experiences of the mind. I argue that one of the first functions of Hopkins's stylistic experiments in The Wreck of the Deutschland and later poems is to ...
Terzano Claudio - - 2008
In this study, we analyzed maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP) values in a stable COPD population compared with normal subjects. We evaluated the possible correlation between functional maximal respiratory static pressures and functional and anthropometric parameters at different stages of COPD. Furthermore, we considered the possible ...
Huang Chih-Hung - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Cervical epidural anesthesia has been used widely for surgery of upper limbs. Although cervical epidural anesthesia with local anesthetic of 2% lidocaine (plain) has demonstrated the safety in respiratory function in spite of unavoidable phrenic and intercostal palsies to certain extent, the replacement of local anesthetics with 2% lidocaine ...
von Ungern-Sternberg Britta S - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To characterize factors that contribute to lung function impairment after cardiopulmonary bypass, we assessed functional residual capacity and ventilation homogeneity during the perioperative period in children with congenital heart disease who are to undergo surgical repair. METHODS: Functional residual capacity and lung clearance index were measured by using a ...
Thamrin Cindy - - 2008
Respiratory system input impedance (Zrs) at low to medium frequencies below 100 Hz, and study of its volume dependence, have been used extensively to quantify airway and tissue mechanics. Zrs at high oscillation frequencies including the first antiresonant frequency (far,1) may contain important information about airway mechanics. Changes in high-frequency ...
Falk Jeremy A - - 2007
BACKGROUND: It has been postulated that right ventricular (RV) function may improve after lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) for severe emphysema due to improvement in lung elastic recoil. Improved lung elastic recoil after LVRS is hypothesized to "tether" open extraalveolar vessels, thereby leading to a decrease in pulmonary vascular resistance ...
Adam Clayton J - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Scoliosis has been associated with reduced pulmonary capacity; however, the source of the reduction in capacity (left, right, or both lungs) is not clear. The objective of this study was to investigate trends in left, right, and total lung volume and left/right lung volume asymmetry with spinal curve severity ...
Mahesh V - - 2007
In this work, an attempt to classify respiratory abnormality using a pulmonary function test and neural networks is reported. The flow - volume curves generated by spirometric pulmonary function tests were recorded from subjects under study. The pressure and resistance parameters were derived using theoretical approximation of the activation function ...
Feller-Kopman David - - 2007
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Therapeutic thoracentesis is one of the most commonly performed medical procedures. The availability of handheld ultrasound machines has greatly enhanced the evaluation and management of patients with pleural effusions, with advantages including the absence of radiation, ease of use, portability and real-time/dynamic imaging. Pleural manometry refers to ...
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