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Results 451 - 500 of 1421
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van der Schans C P - - 1997
Mucus hypersecretion and impaired mucus clearance are well-known symptoms in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cystic fibrosis. These symptoms should not be considered as innocent but they deserve treatment. A well known therapy to improve mucus transport is chest physiotherapy. Forced expiratory manoeuvres are probably the most effective ...
Roth E J - - 1997
Weakness and spasticity of chest wall muscles are known to adversely affect pulmonary function in spinal cord-injured patients. To test the assertion that impaired strength and increased tone contribute to ventilation deficits, 52 patients with recent acute traumatic cervical and high thoracic spinal cord injury underwent complete pulmonary function testing. ...
Duranti R - - 1997
Lung volumes are decreased by tense ascites and increase after large volume paracentesis (LVP). The overall effect of ascites and LVP on the respiratory function is poorly understood. We studied eight cirrhotic patients with tense ascites before and after LVP. Inspiratory muscle force (maximal transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi,max), and the lowest ...
Barnas G M - - 1997
We examined how the changes in the acini caused by emphysema affected gas transfer out of the acinus (Taci) and lung and chest wall mechanical properties. Measurements were taken from five dogs before and 3 mo after induction of severe bilateral emphysema by exposure to papain aerosol (170-350 mg/dose) for ...
West J B - - 1997
The lung is exquisitely sensitive to gravity, and so it is of interest to know how its function is altered in the weightlessness of space. Studies on National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Spacelabs during the last 4 years have provided the first comprehensive data on the extensive changes in ...
Moreira L F - - 1997
Pneumoperitoneum may give rise to several respiratory changes; nevertheless, no comprehensive analysis of respiratory mechanics has been performed under this condition. Respiratory mechanics and thoracoabdominal morphometry were evaluated in six sedated, anaesthetized, paralysed, and mechanically-ventilated rats before (control) and during pneumoperitoneum. After airway occlusion at end-inspiration, respiratory system, pulmonary, and ...
Korman B - - 1997
During induction with high inspired concentrations of nitrous oxide, net uptake of gas produces a contraction in volume and a concentrating effect. In turn, this results in concentration and second gas effects. Most explanations of these effects are based on the common "rectangle" diagram devised by Stoelting and Eger and ...
te Nijenhuis F C - - 1997
We studied the effect of increasing alveolar volume on pulmonary carbon monoxide transfer (DLCO) and its components, i.e. membrane diffusing capacity (DM) and capillary blood volume (Qc), during mechanical ventilation in eight anaesthetized and paralysed healthy pigs (mean weight 11.2 kg). We used an inspiratory pause procedure for simulation of ...
Conti G - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate respiratory mechanics in the early phase of decompensation in a group of seven patients with severe kyphoscoliosis (KS) (Cobb angle > 90 degrees) requiring mechanical ventilatory support. DESIGN: Prospective clinical study with a control group. SETTING: General intensive care unit at University of Rome "La Sapienza". PATIENTS: ...
Servillo G - - 1997
Pressure-volume (P-V) curves of the respiratory system allow determination of compliance and lower and upper inflection points (LIP and UIP, respectively). To minimize lung trauma in mechanical ventilation the tidal volume should be limited to the P-V range between LIP and UIP. An automated low flow inflation (ALFI) technique, using ...
Russi E W - - 1997
Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) is performed to alleviate dyspnoea of selected patients with severe pulmonary emphysema, and to improve their pulmonary function, performance in daily activity and quality of life. By resection of targeted emphysematous lung tissue, the achievable changes in pulmonary function consist of: 1) an increase in ...
Aires S T - - 1997
This study was performed to evaluate the role of diethylcarbamazine (DEC), the drug of choice for treating Lymphatic Filariasis and Tropical Pulmonary Eosinophilia, on respiratory mechanics of higid rats. Thus, during 30 days two groups of six rats each received intraperitoneally either isotonic saline solution, or 12 mg/kg per day ...
Kaminsky D A - - 1997
The effects of hyperpnea on parenchymal lung mechanics are unknown, but they may contribute to the resultant airflow limitation commonly seen in asthma. To investigate these effects, we measured the following parameters in seven asthmatic and six normal subjects before and after 5 min of hyperpnea: specific conductance, upstream resistance, ...
Tomalak W - - 1997
Assuming homogeneity of alveolar pressure, the relationship between airway flow and flow at the chest during forced oscillation at the airway opening [flow transfer function (FTF)] is related to lung and chest wall tissue impedance (Zti): FTF = 1 + Zti/Zg, where Zg is alveolar gas impedance, which is inversely ...
Reiterer F - - 1997
We report our experience with pulmonary function testing in 11 out of 22 full-term neonates with severe respiratory failure, treated at the ECMO center Graz (Austria) during the period from 1990 to 1995. Altogether 17 out of 22 patients survived ECMO and all of them were successfully weaned from ECMO. ...
Laghi F - - 1997
The clinical application of transdiaphragmatic twitch pressure (Pdi,tw) response to phrenic nerve stimulation has been hindered by the requirement for placement of oesophageal and gastric balloons. Investigators have reported that mouth twitch pressure (Pmo,tw) estimates Pdi,tw accurately at lung volumes above and below functional residual capacity (FRC). However, it is ...
Pelosi P - - 1997
The effects of inspiratory flow and inflation volume on the mechanical properties of the respiratory system in eight sedated and paralyzed postoperative morbidly obese patients (aged 37.6 +/- 11.8 yr who had never smoked and had normal preoperative seated spirometry) were investigated by using the technique of rapid airway occlusion ...
Poole D C - - 1997
In emphysema, the diaphragm shortens by losing sarcomeres. We hypothesized that unless capillaries undergo a similar shortening, capillary geometry must be altered. Without quantifying this geometry, capillary length and surface area per fiber volume, which are critical measurements of the structural potential for blood-tissue exchange, cannot be resolved. Five months ...
Mink S N - - 1997
A canine model of unilobar papain-induced emphysema was used to examine the extent to which differences in alveolar pressures (PA) would develop between an emphysematous right lower lobe (RLL) and normal left lower lobe (LLL) during forced vital capacity (FVC) deflation. RLL and LLL PA (PARLL and PALLL, respectively) were ...
Kossmann S - - 1997
Workers of a chemical plant department producing dust and liquid pesticides (37 males and 17 females) exposed to dust containing free silica, organic solvents and active substances, among others: organophosphate compounds, pyrethroids, triazines, carbamates and dithiocarbamates, 2,4-D, captan, carboxine, carbendazim and dodine were studied. Spirometric investigations, including evaluation of vital ...
Laurikainen K - - 1997
In an open, randomized crossover study two different types of dry powder inhalers (DPIs) were compared. Twenty-five adult asthmatic patients inhaled a single dose of 200 micrograms of salbutamol (CAS 18559-94-9) on two separate days. Salbutamol was administered either from a novel multidose DPI (Easyhaler, test DPI) or from another ...
Cheung D - - 1997
Airway hyperresponsiveness is characterized by an increase in sensitivity and excessive airway narrowing to inhaled bronchoconstrictor stimuli. There is experimental evidence that maximal airway narrowing is related to lung elasticity in normal and asthmatic subjects. We hypothesized that reduced lung elasticity by parenchymal destruction increases the level of maximal airway ...
Hahn A - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship between disease progression, pulmonary volumes, respiratory muscle strength (maximum inspiratory [MIP] and expiratory [MEP] pressure), and arterial blood gases for patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). DESIGN: An inception cohort study of pulmonary volumes, MIPs, and MEPs, correlated with age and PaCO2 levels and with ...
Gounden P - - 1997
The purpose of this study was to examine ventilatory muscle strength as represented by static respiratory pressures in 30 tetraplegic patients with a complete lesion between the fifth and the eighth cervical vertebrae. The Inspiratory/Expiratory Pressure Meter was used to obtain maximum static expiratory mouth pressure (PEmax) and maximum static ...
Buyse B - - 1997
This study aimed to determine the relationship between pulmonary function, respiratory muscle function and neurological function in multiple sclerosis (MS). Sixty patients (27 males and 33 females) aged 27-75 yrs (mean +/- SD 48 +/- 12 yrs) were prospectively studied. The Kurtzke Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS; range 0-10) score ...
McFawn P K - - 1997
Maturational changes in the specific compliance could potentially contribute to the development or clinical presentation of respiratory diseases in infants and children. Changes in the specific compliance during development and its structural basis have been well characterized, but changes in bronchial compliance and the mechanisms involved have received little attention. ...
Beckett W S - - 1996
In a 3-year survey, respiratory symptoms, spirometry, and methacholine reactivity were measured annually in welders (n = 51) and non-welder controls subjects (n = 54) to determine whether welding-related symptoms are associated with accelerated decline in lung function or changes in airway reactivity. In the cross-workshift study, maximal midexpiratory flow ...
Sahebjami H - - 1996
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine pulmonary function test (PFT) profile and respiratory muscle strength (RMS) of a group of obese individuals who did not have evidence of obstructive airway disease or other underlying diseases affecting their respiratory system. DESIGN: Prospective, open. SETTING: PFT laboratory, VA Medical Center. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-three consecutive obese ...
Svantesson C - - 1996
Respiratory mechanics was studied in 11 rabbits at tidal volumes (VT) of 6.7, 10, and 20 ml/kg. Flow interruptions were performed during the full respiratory cycle. The viscoelastic pressure (Pve) was measured as the dynamic elastic pressure (Pel(dyn)) after flow cessation minus the static elastic pressure (Pel(st)). Static elastic and ...
Gelb A F - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the mechanism of airflow limitation before and 6 and 12 months after targeted emphysematous resection in 10 male patients aged 67 +/- 8 years (mean +/- SD) with very severe COPD undergoing bilateral thoracoscopic stapling techniques. DESIGN: Lung function, including static lung elastic recoil, was measured 2 ...
Tschernko E M - - 1996
Recently, lung volume reduction [LVR] removal of about 20% of lung volume), has been performed to treat severe emphysema. Little is known, however, about the mechanism and time course of functional improvement, and the reasons that such patients can be tracheally extubated very early. Therefore, we studied changes in ventilatory ...
Merola B - - 1996
We have described impairment of the respiratory function in adult patients with childhood-onset growth hormone (GH) deficiency. The aim of the present study was to evaluate lung volumes and respiratory muscle strength in patients diagnosed as GH deficient before and after 6 and 12 months of recombinant GH treatment. Ten ...
Regnis J A - - 1996
Ventilatory mechanics were measured at rest and during steady-state (25%, 50%, 75%) and maximal exercise (W-Max) on a cycle-ergometer in eight adult patients (FEV1 22 to 114% of predicted) with cystic fibrosis (CF). Tidal flow-volume loops were measured at rest and during exercise and placed within the maximal pre- and ...
Wahba R M - - 1996
PURPOSE: The literature describing the pulmonary mechanisms of increased PA-PaO2 during general anaesthesia was examined to define the role of airway closure and sub-radiological atelectasis. SOURCE: A Medline search was designed to include articles dealing with the stated purpose, which is thus selective rather than a meta-analysis. The MeSH consisted ...
Guleria R - - 1996
To understand the pathophysiology of dyspnoea in patients with hyperthyroidism, lung function, maximum inspiratory, expiratory respiratory muscle pressures (MIP and MEP) and intensity of dyspnoea (after six minutes walking test) were recorded in 12 consecutive patients with active Graves' disease. Reassessment was done after achieving euthyroidism with 8-12 wk of ...
Yan S - - 1996
Intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEPi) due to dynamic hyperinflation has been measured as a plateau airway opening pressure during airway occlusion (PEEPi,stat). PEEPi has also been dynamically determined as a fall in esophageal pressure (Pes) before the inspiratory flow starts (PEEPi,dyn). The aims of the current study were to systematically ...
Gelb A F - - 1996
We prospectively investigated the mechanism of airflow limitation before and after targeted emphysematous resection in 12 consecutively studied adult patients 68 +/- 4 yr of age (mean +/- SD) with very severe COPD undergoing bilateral thoracoscopic stapling techniques. Lung function, static lung elastic recoil, and airway conductance was measured 2 ...
Papastamelos C - - 1996
Respiratory muscle weakness is the primary cause of respiratory dysfunction in neuromuscular disease (NMD), but structural abnormalities of the chest wall also play a role. In adults with NMD, restrictive lung disease is in part caused by reduced chest wall compliance (C(W)), believed to reflect stiffening of connective tissue resulting ...
Hubmayr R D - - 1996
Using the parenchymal marker technique in normal anesthetized dogs, we compared the dynamics of regional lung expansion between two ventilation strategies designed to increase mean thoracic volume. Dynamic hyperinflation (DH was produced by ventilating the lungs at a rate of 50 breaths/min and with a duty cycle of 0.5. Static ...
Baydur A - - 1996
Pulmonary function changes in interstitial lung disease are characterized by loss of lung volume, increase in ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity, and decrease in carbon monoxide diffusion capacity. Recent developments in the assessment of respiratory mechanics in infiltrative lung disease have elucidated volume ...
Pelosi P - - 1996
We investigated the effects of prone position on functional residual capacity (FRC), the mechanical properties (compliance and resistance) of the total respiratory system, lung and chest wall, and the gas exchange in 10 anesthetized and paralyzed obese (body mass index more than 30 kg/m2) patients, undergoing elective surgery. We used ...
Teschler H - - 1996
Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) in patients with severe lung emphysema restores the thoracic configuration to a more normal functional capacity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether reduction in intrathoracic volume by LVRS improves the inspiratory muscle force generation of the respiratory pump. Pulmonary function tests, maximal ...
Gelb A F - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To determine the contributions of (1) chest wall (Pcw) and (2) lung elastic recoil pressure (PL) to (3) total elastic recoil pressure exerted by the respiratory system (Prs) in 18 patients (12 men) aged 66 +/- 6 years (mean +/- 1 SD) with severe emphysema who underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic ...
Nikolaizik W H - - 1996
To assess the airway response to inhaled tobramycin we measured flow volume curves in 12 patients with cystic fibrosis. Immediately and/or 2 min after tobramycin inhalations there was a significant fall in lung function regardless of the concentration used; isotonic saline caused similar obstruction but not a complete cessation of ...
Le Merre C - - 1996
PURPOSE: To test the hypothesis that a physiological compensatory mechanism maintains respiratory gas exchange during normovolaemic haemodilution. METHODS: Pulmonary gas exchange capacity was evaluated in seven healthy subjects by measuring the lung diffusion of carbon monoxide (DLCO). During the measurement, various breath-holding times, inspiratory volumes, and sitting or supine positions, ...
Petitjean M - - 1996
BACKGROUND: A diaphragmatic phonomyogram (PMG) evoked by maximal phrenic nerve stimulation at end expiratory lung volume (FRC) has been previously described as a good index of changes in diaphragmatic contractility with fatigue. A study was undertaken to assess whether this conclusion could be extended to different lung volumes. METHODS: Diaphragmatic ...
Chihara K - - 1996
In five normal men, we divided the rib cage into lung-apposed [pulmonary rib cage (RCp)] and diaphragm-apposed [abdominal rib cage (RCab)] compartments and calculated their absolute cross-sectional areas (Arc,p and Arc,ab) by anteroposterior and lateral dimensions measured by magnetometry. Distortion was quantified as the displacement of RCp and RCab produced ...
Baylor P - - 1996
The diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide is partially dependent on lung volume at which it is measured. As a consequence, the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide is often indexed to the simultaneously measured lung volume (VA), giving rise to the term DL/VA. This reflects the diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide ...
Gauger P G - - 1996
Functional residual capacity (FRC) is an important oxygen reserve that is often depleted in acute respiratory failure. Recent interest in the mechanisms of liquid ventilation and limited experience in measuring FRC in paralyzed, mechanically ventilated, normal and lung-injured animal models have mandated development of accurate laboratory techniques. Eight sheep, from ...
Feher A - - 1996
Forced expiratory maneuvers generated by rapid thoracic compression have been used to assess airway function in infants. It remains unclear whether flow limitation can be achieved in healthy infants because low pressure transmission across the chest wall and inspiratory effort may limit the maximum transpulmonary pressure developed during the maneuver. ...
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