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Results 151 - 200 of 1853
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Fava Cristiano - - 2013
Continuous positive airway pressure (cPAP) is considered the therapy of choice for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), but the extent to which it can reduce blood pressure (BP) is still under debate.We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to quantify the effect size of the reduction ...
Qaseem Amir - - 2013
The American College of Physicians (ACP) developed this guideline to present the evidence and provide clinical recommendations on the management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in adults. This guideline is based on published literature from 1966 to September 2010 that was identified by using MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of ...
Liesching Timothy - - 2013
Studies have shown different clinical outcomes of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) from those of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). We evaluated whether bilevel positive airway pressure (BPAP) more rapidly improves dyspnea, ventilation, and acidemia without increasing the myocardial infarction (MI) rate compared to continuous positive pressure ventilation (CPAP) in ...
Vasconcelos Renata Dos S - - 2013
Background: The digital Auto-Trak™ system is a technology capable of automatically adjusting the triggering and cycling mechanisms during pressure support ventilation (PSV). Objective: To compare Auto-Trak with conventional settings in terms of patient-ventilator synchrony and discomfort. Methods: Twelve healthy volunteers underwent PSV via the mouth by breathing through an endotracheal ...
Rittayamai Nuttapol - - 2013
To compare the short term benefit of high-flow nasal oxygen cannula (HFNC) with non-rebreathing mask in terms of change of dyspnea, physiologic variables, and patient comfort in subjects after endotracheal extubation. A randomized cross-over study was conducted in a 10-bed respiratory care unit in a university hospital. Seventeen mechanically ventilated ...
Wood Fiona E - - 2013
Face mask ventilation provides respiratory support to newly born or sick infants. It is a challenging technique and difficult to ensure that an appropriate tidal volume is delivered because large and variable leaks occur between the mask and face; airway obstruction may also occur. Technique is more important than the ...
van Vonderen Jeroen J - - 2013
Background: During mask ventilation, the mask volume can vary as it is pressurized or when it is squeezed. The change in volume of the mask may affect tidal volumes delivered and difference in inspired (Vti) and expired tidal volumes (Vte). Objectives: To investigate whether hand squeeze and distensibility of the ...
Kuo Alexander S - - 2013
To quantify inspiratory flow resistance of instrumented single-lumen and double-lumen endotracheal tubes. Bench-top in vitro experiments. Laboratory of a university hospital. In vitro lung simulator. A lung simulator was ventilated mechanically via several single- and double-lumen endotracheal tubes (ETT) that were instrumented with adult and pediatric bronchoscopes as well as ...
Derosa Savino - - 2013
Little is known about the small airways dysfunction in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). By computed tomography (CT) imaging in a porcine experimental model of early ARDS, we aimed at studying the location and magnitude of peripheral airway closure and alveolar collapse under high and low distending pressures and high ...
Ferdowsali Kameron - - 2013
Airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) is a mode of ventilation that has been around since the 1980s and was originally viewed as a type of continuous positive pressure mode of ventilation. Conceptually, APRV can be thought of as a type of inverse-ratio, pressure-controlled, intermittent mandatory ventilation during which the maintenance ...
Cerqueira Manoel Luiz de ML - - 2013
To evaluate the effects of physiotherapeutic respiratory maneuvers on cerebral and cardiovascular hemodynamics and blood gas variables. A descriptive, longitudinal, prospective, nonrandomized clinical trial that included 20 critical patients with severe craniocerebral trauma who were receiving mechanical ventilation and who were admitted to the intensive care unit. Each patient was ...
Wongsritrang Krongthong - - 2013
To compare the clinical outcomes and determine the difference in therapeutic pressure between Automatic positive airway pressure (APAP) and polysomnography manual titration. Fifty patients of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), moderate to severe cases, were randomized into two groups of intervention: 95-percentile pressure derived from APAP titration and an optimal pressure ...
Johnson Pamela L PL 1 David Read Laboratory, University of Sydney , Sydney, NSW Australia - - 2013
Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is very common at altitudes above 2500 m. There are few treatment options in the field where electricity availability is limited, and medical assistance or oxygen is unavailable or difficult to access. Positive airway pressure has been used to treat AMS at 3800 m. We hypothesized ...
Pitts Teresa - - 2013
Airway protection is the prevention and/or removal of material by behaviors, such as cough and swallow. We tested the hypothesis that cough and swallow, in response to aspiration, are a "meta-behavior" and thus are coordinated and have alterations in excitability to respond to aspiration risk and maintain homeostasis. Anesthetized animals ...
Vagheggini Guido - - 2013
Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) is a mode of ventilation wherein the delivered assistance is proportional to diaphragm electrical activity (EAdi) throughout inspiration. We assessed the physiologic response to varying levels of NAVA and pressure support ventilation (PSV) in 13 tracheostomised patients with prolonged weaning. Each patient randomly underwent 8 ...
Hartdorff Caroline M - - 2013
To assess the feasibility, stability and predictability of pCO2 measurement (PETCO2) using a main stream capnograph in a high frequency oscillatory ventilation circuit. A commercially available capnograph was mounted into a high frequency oscillatory ventilator patient circuit, adjustable CO2 flow was introduced into an artificial lung and the output of ...
Richard J C M - - 2013
Pressure preset ventilation (PPV) modes with set inspiratory time can be classified according to their ability to synchronize pressure delivery with patient's inspiratory efforts (i-synchronization). Non-i-synchronized (like airway pressure release ventilation, APRV), partially i-synchronized (like biphasic airway pressure), and fully i-synchronized modes (like assist-pressure control) can be distinguished. Under identical ...
Li Hui - - 2013
Whether bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) is advantageous compared with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPO) remains uncertain. The aim of the meta-analysis was to assess potential beneficial and adverse effects of CPAP compared with BiPAP in patients with ACPO. Randomized controlled trials comparing the ...
Al-Hegelan Mashael - - 2013
The overarching goal of positive pressure mechanical ventilation is to provide adequate gas exchange support while not causing harm. Indeed, positive pressure mechanical ventilators are only support technologies, not therapeutic technologies. As such they cannot be expected to "cure" disease; they can only "buy time" for other therapies (including the ...
De Jarnett Dewi - - 2013
Airway management in the morbidly obese, anesthetized patient can be especially challenging. Difficulties in fiberoptic intubation (FOI) can be experienced due to alterations in airway anatomy associated with morbid obesity and the effects of anesthesia. The loss of upper airway muscle tone that occurs during anesthesia compromises the structure of ...
Gonsaga Ricardo Alessandro Teixeira - - 2013
To evaluate gasometric differences of severe trauma patients requiring intubation in prehospital care. Patients requiring airway management were submitted to collection of arterial blood samples at the beginning of pre-hospital care and at arrival at the Emergency Room. We analyzed: Glasgow Coma Scale, respiratory rate, arterial pH, arterial partial pressure ...
Schädler Dirk - - 2013
To describe the principles and the first clinical application of a novel prototype automated weaning system called Evita Weaning System (EWS). EWS allows an automated control of all ventilator settings in pressure controlled and pressure support mode with the aim of decreasing the respiratory load of mechanical ventilation. Respiratory load ...
Hung Kuo-Chuan - - 2013
Insertion of a medical instrument into the esophagus may affect tracheal tube pressure. This study evaluated the potential effect of a calibrating orogastric tube insertion on tracheal cuff pressure in patients undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery. Adult patients who were scheduled for elective bariatric surgery requiring insertion of a calibrating orogastric ...
Vignaux Laurence - - 2013
To document the prevalence of asynchrony events during noninvasive ventilation in pressure support in infants and in children and to compare the results with neurally adjusted ventilatory assist. Prospective randomized cross-over study in children undergoing noninvasive ventilation. The study was performed in a PICU. From 4 weeks to 5 years. ...
Chanques G - - 2013
Background: High-flow-oxygen-therapy is provided by various techniques and patient interfaces, resulting in various inspired-fraction of oxygen (FiO2) and airway-pressure levels. However, tracheal measurements have never been performed Methods: Three oxygen-delivery-devices were evaluated: 1) standard-high-flow-oxygen-facemask with reservoir-bag, 2) Optiflow™-high-flow-nasal-cannulae and 3) Boussignac™-oxygen-therapy-system. Main judgment criteria were airway-pressure and FiO2 measured in ...
Hardison Lewis S LS - - 2013
Phosgene is a rare exposure with strong clinical implications. We report a phosgene exposure that resulted in the patient's death. A 58 year-old man arrived to the emergency department 1 hour after exposure to phosgene with complaints of a sore throat. Initial vital signs were blood pressure 175/118 mmHg, heart ...
Kam Karen - - 2013
Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) is a rare disorder of autonomic dysregulation, characterized by alveolar hypoventilation especially during sleep. As a result, lifelong ventilatory assistance is necessary in these patients. Many infants and children initially require positive pressure ventilation via tracheostomy for support. Associated complications and psychosocial pressure may prompt ...
Pinzon Anelise Dentzien - - 2013
To describe the effects of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) as a rescue ventilatory support in pediatric patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Twenty-five children (1 month < age < 17 years) admitted to a university hospital pediatric intensive care unit (ICU) with ARDS and submitted to HFOV for a ...
Murphy Caitriona - - 2013
The purpose of this Continuing Professional Development module is to describe anatomic and physiologic challenges in obese patients, review their effects on oxygenation and airway management, and propose strategies for perioperative management. The combination of excess adipose tissue deposition, increased oxygen consumption, reduced lung volumes, and increased airway resistance in ...
Qi D Y - - 2013
Background: Cardiovascular response to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation may be harmful in surgical patients with cardiovascular and cerebral diseases. The efficacy of intravenous lidocaine on attenuating the hemodynamic changes remains controversial. This systematic review aims to determine the efficacy of lidocaine versus placebo. Methods: PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases ...
Rubini Alessandro - - 2013
This study was designed to investigate the possible effects of acute hyperbaric hyperoxia on respiratory mechanics of anaesthetised, positive-pressure ventilated rats. We measured respiratory mechanics by the end-inflation occlusion method in nine rats previously acutely exposed to hyperbaric hyperoxia in a standard fashion. The method allows the measurements of respiratory ...
Tuzcu Kasim - - 2013
This study aimed to compare the effects of remifentanil and esmolol on the elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) and hemodynamic response. After approval of the institutional Ethics Committee and obtaining informed consent, 60 adult patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists I-II status undergoing elective, nonophthalmic surgery were included in the ...
Sundberg Johan - - 2013
Acoustic and aerodynamic properties of the voice source and vocal tract have been extensively analyzed during the last half century. Corresponding investigations of the subglottal system are rare but can be assumed to be relevant to voice production. In the present exploratory study, subglottal pressure was recorded in a male ...
Arslan Ilker Burak - - 2013
ObjectiveThis study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of topical lidocaine in attenuating the laryngeal reflex and blunting hemodynamic response by inhibition of the superior laryngeal nerve in laryngeal microsurgery, which would be helpful in preventing potential complications.Study DesignA prospective, randomized, double-blind study.SettingTertiary medical center.Subjects and MethodsFifty-four patients requiring glottic ...
Phillips Justin P - - 2013
Photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals were recorded from the fingers of 16 healthy volunteers with periods of timed and forced respiration. The aim of this pilot study was to compare estimations of arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) recorded using a dedicated pulse oximetry system while subjects were breathing regularly with and without a ...
Dow Douglas E - - 2013
Reliable information from patient monitors enhances treatment for critically ill patients. Redundant sources for information would aid identification of faulty sensors and leads, and improve presentation of physiological data. Respiratory information can be obtained from several sources, including airway pressure and central venous pressure (CVP). CVP signals have been analyzed ...
Kaczka David W DW Harvard Medical School, Boston, - - 2013
Lung inflation has been shown to dilate airways by altering the mechanical equilibrium between opposing airway and parenchymal forces. However, it is not known how heterogeneously such dilation occurs throughout the airway tree. In six anesthetized dogs, we measured the diameters of five to six central airway segments using high-resolution ...
Carteaux Guillaume - - 2013
During proportional assist ventilation with load-adjustable gain factors, peak respiratory muscle pressure can be estimated from the peak airway pressure and the percentage of assistance (gain). Adjusting the gain can, therefore, target a given level of respiratory effort. This study assessed the clinical feasibility of titrating proportional assist ventilation with ...
Chanques Gerald - - 2013
OBJECTIVES:: Breath-stacking asynchrony during assist-control-mode ventilation may be associated with increased tidal volume and alveolar pressure that could contribute to ventilator-induced lung injury. Methods to reduce breath stacking have not been well studied. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate 1) which interventions were used by managing clinicians to ...
Massery Mary - - 2013
Maintenance of upright posture involves complex neuromotor processes that include control of thoracic and abdominal pressures. Control of airflow by glottal structures is a primary determinant of thoracic pressure and may have a role in control of postural stability. This study aimed to investigate the effect of modulation of airway ...
Hawkes G A - - 2013
Assessment of effective ventilation in neonatal mask ventilation can be difficult. This study aims to determine whether manual ventilation with a T-piece resuscitator containing an inline CO2 detector (either a Pedi-Cap® CO2 detector or a Neo-StatCO2 <Kg® CO2 detector connected to a facemask) facilitates effective positive pressure ventilation compared to no ...
Fleck Robert J - - 2013
IMPORTANCE Positive pressure air is used during basic life support to provide respirations and applied as continuous positive airway pressure to maintain a patent airway during sleep or anesthesia. These functions are more critical in children with obstructive sleep apnea, who often have smaller airway dimensions and increased airway collapsibility. ...
Thakur Nikhil A - - 2013
Airway obstruction by wound hematoma is a serious adverse event associated with anterior cervical spine surgery. Although intrinsic airway edema is the most plausible pathophysiologic mechanism of obstruction, we hypothesized that extrinsic compression of the trachea by a hematoma can result in airway occlusion at an angle to the sagittal ...
Cortes-Puentes Gustavo A - - 2013
Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) may complicate monitoring of pulmonary mechanics owing to their impact on the respiratory system. However, recommendations for mechanical ventilation of patients with IAH/ACS and the interpretation of thoracoabdominal interactions remain unclear. Our study aimed to characterize the influence of elevated intra-abdominal pressure ...
Saikia Bhaskar - - 2013
Airway malacia is uncommon condition having symptoms similar to common respiratory illnesses. Any child having persistent wheeze during infancy should be evaluated for airway malacia. The authors report a case of isolated severe bilateral bronchomalacia managed with tracheostomy and continuous positive pressure ventilation.
Hwang J Y - - 2013
BACKGROUND: /st>Current tracheal tubes (TTs) cannot guarantee a perfect seal against pulmonary aspiration of upper airway secretions. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a gel layer between the tracheal tube with double cuffs (Double cuffs) prevents fluid leakage past TT cuffs. METHODS: /st>In vitro fluid leakage tests ...
Kim Yong Beom - - 2013
PURPOSE: This prospective, randomized trial was designed to assess whether the i-gel supraglottic airway device is suitable for volume-controlled ventilation while applying positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 5 cmH2O under general anesthesia. It was believed that this device might improve arterial oxygenation. METHODS: Forty adult patients (aged 20-60 years) scheduled for elective ...
Choi Ji Ho - - 2013
The aims of the present study were twofold. We sought to compare two methods of titrating the level of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) - auto-adjusting titration and titration using a predictive equation - with full-night manual titration used as the benchmark. We also investigated the reliability of the two ...
Rafiei Mohammad Reza - - 2013
Increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) results in dysfunction of vital organs. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of mechanical ventilation mode on IAP. In a cohort study, a total of 60 patients aged 20-70 years who were admitted to the ICU and underwent mechanical ventilation were ...
Taghavi Sharven - - 2013
Prehospital intubation does not result in a survival advantage in patients experiencing penetrating trauma, yet resistance to immediate transportation to facilitate access to definitive care remains. An animal model was developed to determine whether intubation provides a survival advantage during severe hemorrhagic shock. We hypothesized that intubation would not provide ...
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