Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 1219
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Suematsu Makoto - - 2003
Nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) serve as activators of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) in vitro, and the latter serves as a microvascular relaxant for the liver, a major organ for heme oxygenase-dependent heme degradation and gas generation. Another important determinant of local sGC activities is superoxide anion, which ...
Snygg Johan - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Nitric oxide regulates epithelial permeability and other properties of the intestinal mucosal barrier. It previously has been shown in animals that intestinal mucosal nitric oxide production is impaired during gut hypoperfusion. The study was performed to confirm the presence of intestinal mucosal nitric oxide production in humans and to ...
Siobal Mark S - - 2003
INTRODUCTION: Inhaled vasodilators such as nitric oxide and aerosolized prostacyclin (PGI(2)) are used to treat severe hypoxemia in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Preferential distribution of nitric oxide and PGI(2) to ventilated areas of the lung causes selective pulmonary vasodilation, improved ventilation/perfusion matching, and decreased hypoxemia. Because of the technical limitations ...
Maniscalco M - - 2003
Nasal nitric oxide (NO) levels increase greatly during humming compared to silent exhalation. In this study, the physiological and anatomical factors that regulate NO release during humming have been characterised in 10 healthy subjects and in a model of the sinus and the nose. Single-breath humming caused a large initial ...
Tanaka Mitsuaki - - 2003
The endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization of cells has a crucial role in regulating vascular tone, especially in microvessels. Nitric oxide (NO) and prostacyclin (PGI2), in addition to endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF), have been reported to hyperpolarize vascular smooth muscle in several organs. Studies have reported the hyperpolarizing effects of these factors are ...
Qiu Yuhong - - 2003
We have characterized a novel, potent, and selective phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, JNJ-10258859 ((R)-(-)-3-(2,3-dihydro-benzofuran-5-yl)-2-[5-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-pyrimidin-2-yl]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-pyrrolo[3,4-b]quinolin-9-one). Its inhibitory effects on phosphodiesterase 1-6 were determined using enzymes partially purified from human tissues. The compound inhibited phosphodiesterase type 5 with a K(i) of 0.23 nM and displayed excellent selectivity versus phosphodiesterase types 1-4 (>/=22,000 ...
Kosch Markus - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Endothelial function of large arteries is impaired in chronic haemodialysis patients and oxidative stress due to the dialysis procedure has been suggested as a causal factor. However, it is not clear whether different types of dialysis membranes affect endothelial function differently. Therefore we determined endothelium-dependent, flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of ...
Platt David R - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To determine if nitric oxide (NO) therapy can be reliably administered during high-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) using the INOvent delivery system. STUDY DESIGN: NO concentrations were measured just proximal to the endotracheal (ET) tube and at the distal tip of the ET tube during a bench evaluation. Measurements were ...
Quinn S - - 2003
PURPOSE: Vascular endothelial cell dysfunction has been noted in patients with normal pressure glaucoma. Although nitric oxide (NO) accounts for a large proportion of vasorelaxation in the posterior ciliary artery, considerable relaxation remains unexplained. We investigated the roles of haemoxygenase (HO) and cyclooxygenase (COX), which produce the vasodilators carbon monoxide ...
Brown R H - - 2003
Deep inspirations (DI) have been shown to have both bronchoprotective and bronchodilator effects in healthy subjects. The bronchodilator effects of a DI appear to be impaired in asthmatics compared with healthy subjects. This study investigated the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the bronchodilator role of a DI. In five ...
Taylor Mark S - - 2003
The endothelium is a critical regulator of vascular tone, and dysfunction of the endothelium contributes to numerous cardiovascular pathologies. Recent studies suggest that apamin-sensitive, small-conductance, Ca2+-activated K+ channels may play an important role in active endothelium-dependent vasodilations, and expression of these channels may be altered in disease states characterized by ...
Enkhbaatar Perenlei - - 2003
Nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to play a major role in acute lung injury (ALI) after smoke inhalation. In the present study, we developed an ovine sepsis model, created by exposing sheep to smoke inhalation followed by instillation of bacteria into the airway, that mimics human sepsis and pneumonia. ...
Kandler Michael A - - 2003
In pulmonary hypertension, systemic infusion of adrenomedullin (ADM), a potent vasodilator peptide, leads to pulmonary vasodilatation. However, systemic blood pressure declines alike. The present study investigated the effect of aerosolized ADM on pulmonary arterial pressure in surfactant-depleted newborn piglets with pulmonary hypertension. Animals randomly received aerosolized ADM (ADM, n = ...
Jensen Frank B - - 2003
Nitrite is a potential problem in aquatic environments. Freshwater fish actively take up nitrite across the gills, leading to high internal concentrations. Seawater fish are less susceptible but do take up nitrite across intestine and gills. Nitrite has multiple physiological effects. Its uptake is at the expense of chloride, leading ...
Ebrahimian Talin T Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) Unit 541, Hôpital lariboisiére, Cedex 10, - - 2003
Development of high blood pressure (BP) is associated with an increased expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in vascular smooth muscle cells. We investigated whether or not changes in intraluminal pressure affect nNOS expression in carotid arteries of normotensive rats. Expression of nNOS and other NOS isoforms was determined ...
Chin-Dusting Jaye P F - - 2003
A deficient L-arginine-nitric oxide system is implicated in cortisol-induced hypertension. We investigate whether abnormalities in L-arginine uptake contribute to this deficiency. Eight healthy men were recruited. Hydrocortisone acetate (50 mg) was given orally every 6 hours for 24 hours after a 5-day fixed-salt diet (150 mmol/d). Crossover studies were performed ...
Yamaguchi Ken'ichi - - 2003
We reported previously that sodium nitroprusside (SNP) applied to the anteroventral third ventricular region (AV3V), a pivotal area for autonomic functions, facilitates vasopressin (AVP) secretion in conscious rats. The aim of this study was to pursue the problems of whether nitric oxide (NO) generated from the agent may be responsible ...
Vonbank K - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension is a frequent complication of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and a major cause of morbidity and mortality in this condition. Based on the improved survival of these patients due to long term oxygen therapy and the potent and selective pulmonary vasodilation by inhaled nitric oxide, ...
Bautista L E - - 2003
In spite of its high impact on cardiovascular and renal disease, knowledge on risk factors for the development of high blood pressure (HBP) is limited. Mild chronic inflammation may play a significant role in the incidence of HBP. A persistent low-grade inflammation state could be associated with high but within ...
Brawley Lee - - 2003
It is established that dietary protein restriction of pregnant rats results in their offspring developing hypertension. However, to date no studies have investigated peripheral vascular function of offspring using the low protein model. Therefore, the aim of the study was to assess isolated resistance artery function from adult male offspring ...
Shimoda Katsumi - - 2003
We investigated the role of the nuclear enzyme poly (ADP ribose) synthetase (PARS) in the pathogenesis of combined burn and smoke inhalation (burn/smoke) injury in an ovine model. Eighteen sheep were operatively prepared for chronic study. PARS inhibition was achieved by treatment with a novel and selective PARS inhibitor INO-1001. ...
Fennessy F - - 2003
BACKGROUND: smoking, result in endothelial dysfunction and this affects systemic and local haemodynamics. The aim was to assess interactions of the left ventricle and arterial system of smokers at baseline and after a physiological stimulus--the cold pressor test (CPT) which causes a sympathetically driven vasoconstriction that counteracts the normal endothelial ...
Manhem Karin - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: The acute effects of estrogen on hemodynamic responses were studied with emphasis on the sympathoadrenal system and peripheral circulation. DESIGN: Eleven healthy postmenopausal women recruited from the population-based study BEDA were included in this randomized, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled hypothesis-generating pilot study, where the effect of transdermal estrogen (17 beta-estradiol, ...
Tsukahara Hirokazu - - 2003
T.P. Melia's chemical kinetics study of the disproportionation of nitric oxide (NO), 3NO --> NO2 + N2O, (Melia, T.P. (1965) J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem., 27, 95-98), which is the most quoted quantitative investigation presently available, revealed a rather strong dependence of the effective rate constant, Kk' of Melia's third-order rate ...
Tsuchida Eishun - - 2003
The administration of extracellular, hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers often elicits an acute increase in blood pressure by vasoconstriction. This side effect is now recognized to be due to the depletion of nitric oxide (endothelial-derived relaxing factor) by the extravasuated hemoglobins. We have recently found that the administration of a recombinant human ...
Klingbeil Arnfried U - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Angiotensin II adversely affects endothelial function and NO availability. We analyzed the effect of AT(1) receptor blockade on endothelium-dependent vasodilation and basal nitric oxide (NO) production and release in hypertensive patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixty patients (53 +/- 10 years) with essential hypertension were randomized to 6 weeks of ...
Kelm Malte - - 2003
Nitric oxide is involved in the regulation of resting vascular tone, adaptation of blood flow to metabolic demand of tissue, and adaptation of vessel diameter to volume of inflow, ie, flow-mediated dilation. Arterial hypertension is associated with an increased vascular tone of resistance vessels, a reduced compliance of conduit arteries, ...
Kishi Takuya - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have suggested that statins decrease blood pressure in hypertensive animals and upregulate endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression. However, the effects of statins on the expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the brain and the sympathetic nervous system remain to be elucidated. The aim of this ...
Pellegrino D - - 2003
The involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in the branchial circulation and cardiac performance of the Antarctic hemoglobinless icefish Chionodraco hamatus was investigated using isolated and perfused head and working heart preparations. In the branchial vasculature under basal (i.e. unstimulated conditions), the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-NIO (L-N(5)-(1-iminoethyl) ornithine, 10(-5) ...
Molnar Judit - - 2003
We investigated long-term cardiovascular effects in the offspring of sheep exposed to prenatal dexamethasone (DM). We assessed in vitro vascular responsiveness and evaluated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) message and protein levels in femoral muscle removed from 5-month-old sheep. Dexamethasone was administered i.m. to pregnant ewes as 3 weekly courses ...
Bragulat E - - 2003
Endothelial dysfunction plays a pivotal role in the development of essential hypertension and its complications. The purpose of this study is to assess the effect of antihypertensive treatment with the angiotensin receptor blocker irbesartan on endothelial function in a group of essential hypertensive patients. Thirty-two untreated hypertensives are examined at ...
Pinelli Arnaldo - - 2003
Various experiments have shown that decreased nitric oxide values alter plasma lipid levels or coagulation parameters or blood pressure values or cause myocardial necrosis phenomena, but it is not clear whether these alterations are reciprocally connected, or whether nitric oxide changes are involved in the appearance of some coronary disease ...
Shimizu Tomoharu - - 2003
BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study evaluated the mechanism of hemodynamic improvement in polymyxin B-immobilized fiber (PMX) treatment. METHODS: Fifteen septic patients with endotoxemia and/or gram negative infection were treated with PMX. Plasma concentrations of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and nitric oxide metabolites were measured. RESULTS: CGRP and nitric oxide metabolites before treatment ...
Túri Sàndor - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Oxidative stress, an antioxidant/pro-oxidant imbalance, in patients with juvenile essential hypertension was measured via several biochemical parameters. As the blood pressure is associated with the body mass index (BMI), results were compared with those on BMI-matched controls. DESIGN AND SETTING: A prospective observational study at a university teaching hospital. ...
Brockes C - - 2003
Oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) increases atherogenic potential to induce the accumulation of lipids and cells in the vascular wall. Previous studies reveal that hypertensive patients have a higher susceptibility to LDL oxidation. As animal models indicate that vitamin E protects LDL from oxidation, here we study the influence ...
Sandfeldt Lars - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To study the possible role of two vasoactive mediators, nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin, in the hemodynamic alterations following absorption of irrigating fluid. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twelve male volunteers received an intravenous administration of 1.5% glycine, given at a rate of 0.5 ml/kg/min for 30 min. Infusions of 3% ...
Vassalle C - - 2003
In the present study we assessed the effect of physical training on Laser Doppler skin flux (LDF) and nitric oxide (NO) release, before and after 3 min of brachial artery occlusion. To this end we performed laser Doppler measurements and the venous plasma assay of nitrite/nitrate (NOx) on 10 sedentary ...
Hubloue I - - 2003
The effects of endothelin receptor blockade on the pulmonary circulation have been reported variably, possibly in relation to a more or less important associated release of endogenous nitric oxide (NO). The aim of this study was to test whether endothelin antagonism would inhibit hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, and if it would ...
Ross Aron D - - 2002
Superoxide plays a role in blood pressure regulation in certain vascular diseases, however, its involvement in regulating basal blood pressure is uncertain. Vascular superoxide concentrations are limited by extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD), which is highly expressed in the vasculature of most animal species. Metalloporphyrins are low molecular weight, synthetic, redox-active, ...
Geary Greg G - - 2003
In light of previous observations that the range of arterial pressures over which cerebral blood flow is autoregulated differs dramatically in neonates and adults, the present experiments explored the hypothesis that pressure-induced intrinsic arterial tone is regulated differently in neonatal and adult cerebral arteries. In cannulated and pressurized endothelium-intact mouse ...
Ujiie Hiroshi - - 2002
The role of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) synthesis was investigated in the regulation of the internal (ICA) and external carotid artery (ECA) beds of ventilated, anesthetized rats in a model in which the left common carotid artery was perfused from the aorta via an extracorporeal circuit under conditions of non-pulsatile ...
Kirov Mikhail Y - - 2002
Pulmonary hypertension and edema are mainstays of acute lung injury (ALI). We synthesized linear polyethylenimine-nitric oxide/nucleophile adduct (DS-1), a water-soluble nitric oxide donor, and demonstrated that it is a potent relaxant of precontracted rat aortic rings without inducing desensitization. Moreover, DS-1 does not suppress the viability of human pulmonary epithelial ...
Koller Akos - - 2002
We hypothesized that changes in hemodynamic forces such as pressure (P) and flow (F) contribute importantly to the development of reactive hyperemia. To exclude the effects of vivo factors, isolated rat skeletal muscle arterioles ( approximately 130 microm) were utilized. We found that changes in P or P + F ...
Svedas Eimantas - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a 3-hour incubation with 17beta-estradiol will enhance blood flow- and bradykinin-mediated dilatation and alter pressure-induced basal tone in myometrial resistance arteries from women with preeclampsia and to evaluate the role of nitric oxide in the responses that were observed. STUDY ...
Lekakis John P - - 2002
BACKGROUND: L-Arginine is a nitric oxide precursor, which augments endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in hypercholesterolemic humans and animals. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation is attenuated in patients with hypertension; however the effects of oral L-arginine on endothelial function of the conduit arteries in patients with essential hypertension have not previously been investigated. METHODS: In a ...
Sticher Jochen - - 2002
Inhaled nitric oxide (NO) at 20 or 40 ppm does not improve arterial oxygenation during one-lung ventilation (OLV). The authors hypothesized that NO at smaller concentrations might improve oxygenation. Twelve piglets weighing 26 to 32 kg were studied. When PaO(2) had reached a plateau during OLV, NO at doses of ...
Ganafa Agaba A - - 2002
The cardiovascular and biochemical responses during acute oxidative stress induced by D,L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO) were investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats. Mean arterial pressure, heart rate and vascular reactivity were measured after subcutaneous injection of BSO (4 mmol/kg). Control rats received saline. Levels of GSH and GSSG in blood and tissues as well ...
Schreiber Michael D - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that nebulized nitroprusside and inhaled nitric oxide would not differ in producing selective pulmonary vasodilation during hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in piglets. SETTING: University laboratory. SUBJECTS: Five piglets. INTERVENTIONS: Piglets (n = 5) were anesthetized and instrumented to monitor systemic arterial pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, and ...
Ashley Z - - 2002
Inhalation of nitric oxide (NO) results in selective pulmonary vasodilation, which may be beneficial in the treatment of acute lung injury. However, NO has toxic effects, and it is important to monitor the effects and fate of inhaled NO. Under intravenous general anesthesia, large white female pigs were instrumented, ventilated ...
Weiss Harvey R - - 2002
1. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the negative myocardial metabolic effects of nitric oxide (NO) were reduced in old hearts. 2. Studies were conducted in 17 young (approximately 6 months) and 18 old (> 36 months) New Zealand anaesthetized open-chest rabbits. Either vehicle or s-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP; ...
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