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Oishi Peter E - - 2008
Cardiac defects associated with increased pulmonary blood flow result in pulmonary vascular dysfunction that may relate to a decrease in bioavailable nitric oxide (NO). An 8-mm graft (shunt) was placed between the aorta and pulmonary artery in 30 late gestation fetal lambs; 27 fetal lambs underwent a sham procedure. Hemodynamic ...
Ji Kaiqiang - - 2008
PURPOSE: This study was designed to evaluate the relationship among free radicals and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) during the progression of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in pressure-overload rat heart. METHODS: Hypertrophied rat heart created by abdominal aortic banding at the age of 4 ...
Petropoulos Ioannis K - - 2009
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of systemic nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition on optic disc oxygen partial pressure (PO(2)) in normoxia and hypercapnia. METHODS: Intervascular optic disc PO(2) was measured in 12 anesthetized minipigs by using oxygen-sensitive microelectrodes placed <50 microm from the optic disc. PO(2) was measured continuously during ...
Sedeek Mona - - 2008
Although recent studies indicate preeclampsia (PE) is associated with increased oxidative stress, the role of reactive oxygen species in the hypertension associated with PE remains unclear. We sought to test the hypothesis that placental ischemia increases oxidative stress which in turn, contributes to hypertension. Reduction in uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) ...
Janssen Pieter - - 2009
A novel method has been developed for simultaneous study of gastric emptying, antral motility, and gastric muscle tone in conscious mice. Intragastric pressure was measured during infusion of an X-ray-opaque, viscous meal through a chronically implanted gastric fistula (0.25 ml/min). Compared with vehicle treatment, molsidomine (nitric oxide donor) and atropine ...
Tirapelli Carlos R - - 2008
Phylloquinone (vitamin K(1), VK(1)) is widely used therapeutically and intravenous administration of this quinone can induce hypotension. We aimed to investigate the mechanisms underlying the effects induced by VK(1) on arterial blood pressure. With this purpose a catheter was inserted into the abdominal aorta of male Wistar rats for blood ...
Luksha Leanid - - 2009
The endothelium maintains vascular homeostasis through the release of active vasodilators. Although nitric oxide (NO) is recognized as the primary factor at level of conduit arteries, increased evidence for the role of another endothelium-derived vasodilator known as endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) has accumulated in the last years. Despite the ongoing ...
Gray Charnelda L - - 2008
PURPOSE: The pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, adverse effects, safety, economic issues, dosage, and place in therapy of nebivolol are reviewed. SUMMARY: Nebivolol is a novel, highly selective beta(1)-receptor blocker that causes peripheral vasodilation by increasing the production and release of nitric oxide and decreasing nitric oxide degradation. The nitric oxide-mediated ...
Minneci Peter C - - 2008
Hemoglobin (Hb) potently inactivates the nitric oxide (NO) radical via a dioxygenation reaction forming nitrate (NO(3)(-)). This inactivation produces endothelial dysfunction during hemolytic conditions and may contribute to the vascular complications of Hb-based blood substitutes. Hb also functions as a nitrite (NO(2)(-)) reductase, converting nitrite into NO as it deoxygenates. ...
Angelone Tommaso - - 2008
Circulating levels of catestatin (Cts; human chromogranin A352-372) decrease in the plasma of patients with essential hypertension. Genetic ablation of the chromogranin A (Chga) gene in mice increases blood pressure and pretreatment of Chga-null mice with Cts prevents blood pressure elevation, indicating a direct role of Cts in preventing hypertension. ...
Delles Christian - - 2008
Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of hypertension. A number of sources of reactive oxygen species have been identified including NADPH oxidase, endothelial NO synthase, and xanthine oxidase. Inhibitors of these systems reduce blood pressure in experimental models. Targeted overexpression of antioxidant systems and interference with expression ...
Bagnost Teddy - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: High vascular arginase activity and subsequent reduction in vascular nitric oxide production were recently reported in animal models of hypertension. The present study investigated the effects of in-vivo arginase inhibition on blood pressure and vascular function in adult spontaneously hypertensive rats. METHODS: Ten-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats and normotensive age-matched ...
Moens An L AL Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Division of Cardiology, Baltimore, MD 21205, - - 2008
Sustained pressure overload induces pathological cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction. Oxidative stress linked to nitric oxide synthase (NOS) uncoupling may play an important role. We tested whether tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) can recouple NOS and reverse preestablished advanced hypertrophy, fibrosis, and dysfunction. C57/Bl6 mice underwent transverse aortic constriction for 4 weeks, increasing cardiac ...
Bryan Nathan S - - 2008
Endothelial production of nitric oxide (NO) is critical for vascular homeostasis. Nitrite and nitrate are formed endogenously by the stepwise oxidation of NO and have, for years, been regarded as inactive degradation products. As a result, both anions are routinely used as surrogate markers of NO production, with nitrite as ...
Ghasemi Asghar - - 2008
To investigate the effect of cool dialysis on hemodynamic parameters and serum nitric oxide levels in diabetic patients, we studied 20 old (mean age 63.3 +/- 7.5) chronic hemodialysis diabetics who were dialyzed twice, once using cool and once using standard (37 degrees C) temperature dialysate solution. During the study, ...
Michael Simon K - - 2008
Hypertension, a major cardiovascular risk factor and cause of mortality worldwide, is thought to arise from primary renal abnormalities. However, the etiology of most cases of hypertension remains unexplained. Vascular tone, an important determinant of blood pressure, is regulated by nitric oxide, which causes vascular relaxation by increasing intracellular cGMP ...
Aslan Mutay - - 2008
Glaucoma is a progressive optic neuropathy and is the leading cause of blindness in the United States and other industrialized countries. Elevated pressure in the eye is a risk factor for glaucoma and indeed experimental studies of induced pressure elevation in nonhuman primate's results in typical glaucomatous optic nerve damage. ...
Paulis Ludovit - - 2008
N(G)-Nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced hypertension is a well established model of experimental hypertension. Although regression experiments are effective at approximating a clinical setting the reversal of already established L-NAME hypertension has not been intensively researched. We investigated whether spontaneous regression of L-NAME hypertension after discontinuing the drug administration was associated with ...
Hirooka Yoshitaka - - 2008
Endothelial function is impaired in hypertensive patients. Decreased nitric oxide production and increased oxidative stress are involved in this abnormality. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether endothelial function and oxidative stress differ following long-term antihypertensive treatment with an angiotensin type 1 receptor blocker, valsartan, or a ...
Martin Catherine - - 2008
1. This review examines the current evidence for altered mechanical and circulating biomarkers in isolated clinic hypertension and their potential significance. 2. Arterial stiffness, as assessed by central pulse wave velocity, is influenced by multiple cardiovascular risk factors; however, an independent association with isolated clinic hypertension (ICHT) has not been ...
Westphal Martin M Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, University of Muenster, Muenster, Germany. - - 2008
We hypothesized that nitric oxide derived from the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is responsible for much of the injury resulting from skin burn and smoke inhalation. Therefore, we aimed to examine the effects of selective neuronal NOS inhibition on cardiopulmonary functions and cellular injury in sheep with acute respiratory ...
Desjardins Fanny - - 2008
AIMS: In endothelial cells, caveolin-1 (cav-1) is known to negatively modulate the activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, a key regulator of blood pressure (BP). However, the impact of genetic alteration of cav-1 on vascular nitric oxide (NO) production and BP homeostasis in vivo is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We ...
Buys Emmanuel S - - 2008
AIM: The effects of nitric oxide (NO) in the cardiovascular system are attributed in part to cGMP synthesis by the alpha1beta1 isoform of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC). Because available sGC inhibitors are neither enzyme- nor isoform-specific, we generated knockout mice for the alpha1 subunit (sGCalpha1(-/-) mice) in order to investigate ...
Peyton Philip J - - 2008
BACKGROUND: A number of studies have demonstrated a faster rate of increase in end-expired partial pressure as a fraction of inspired (Pa/Pi) for volatile agents in the presence of high concentrations of nitrous oxide, consistent with the second gas effect. However, no study has demonstrated a similar effect on arterial ...
Ott Christian - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Hypercholesterolemia is an important risk factor for atherosclerotic vascular disease including stroke. Low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol may induce upregulation of angiotensin II type 1 (AT1)-receptors and their activation plays a pathogenetic role in atherosclerosis, possibly via enhanced breakdown of nitric oxide. We tested whether AT1-receptor blockade improved endothelial function of the ...
Gündüz Filiz - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Alterations in intravascular pressure can affect vascular function and the morphological properties of arteries. Although it has been shown that a transient elevation of blood pressure impairs endothelium-dependent dilation in small arteries, the vascular dilation responses during high intravascular pressure have not yet been investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using ...
Morton Jonathan - - 2008
Whether leukocytes exert an influence on vascular function in vivo is not known. Here, genetic and pharmacologic approaches show that the absence of neutrophils leads to acute blood pressure dysregulation. Following neutrophil depletion, systolic blood pressure falls significantly over 3 days (88.0 +/- 3.5 vs 104.0 +/- 2.8 mm Hg, ...
Mingorance Carmen - - 2008
Cedrelopsis grevei Baill. (Ptaeroxylaceae) trunk bark extract is empirically used in Madagascar against several pathologies, from persistent catarrh to hypertension. The effect C. grevei extract on age-related changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and endothelial function was investigated. Rats (90-100 week-old) received treatment either with C. grevei extract (80 mg ...
Beyer J - - 2008
Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (iPAH) is a rare disease of unknown aetiology characterized by a poor prognosis. Impairment of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis or NO-induced vasorelaxation has been suspected to play a role in the development of iPAH. This study was performed to investigate possible correlations between the plasma levels ...
Ceriello Antonio - - 2008
Recently oxidative stress has been proposed as the cause of hypertension. An imbalance in superoxide and nitric oxide production may account for reduced vasodilation, which in turn can favor the development of hypertension. In vitro and in human studies support this hypothesis. The supplementation of antioxidants, particularly in the form ...
Ono Hiroyoshi - - 2008
Candesartan has been reported to produce nitric oxide (NO) and to decrease oxidative stress in animal studies. We investigated candesartan's effect on the production of NO and oxidative stress as well as on carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in hypertensive patients. One-hundred age-matched hypertensive patients were enrolled into an angiotensin II ...
Carnicer Ricardo - - 2008
Double heterozygous mice lacking Apoa1 and Cbs genes show mild hyperhomocysteinemia in combination with hypoalphalipoproteinemia. This situation leads to a moderate hypertension associated with a dysregulation in nitric oxide metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential beneficial effects of statin treatment in these mice. After 4 ...
Kunieda Takeshige - - 2008
Impairment of circadian rhythmicity in the elderly has been suggested to cause age-associated diseases such as atherosclerosis and hypertension. Endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) is a critical regulator of cardiovascular homeostasis, but its production declines with aging, thereby inducing vascular dysfunction. We show here that impaired circadian rhythmicity is related to ...
Török J - - 2008
This review concerns the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the pathogenesis of different models of experimental hypertension (NO-deficient, genetic, salt-dependent), which are characterized by a wide range of etiology. Although the contribution of NO may vary between different models of hypertension, a unifying characteristic of these models is the ...
Sasson Lior - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: Hypotension is common immediately following cardiopulmonary bypass. Experimentally, MTR-105 (S-ethylisothiuronium diethylphosphate), a fast-acting synthetic nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, rapidly increases blood pressure. The purpose of the current study was to assess the influence of MTR-105 on hemodynamics early after cardiopulmonary bypass in patients undergoing open-heart surgery. METHODS:Thirty-six patients with ...
Puddu Paolo - - 2008
In both animal models and humans, increased blood pressure has been associated with oxidative stress in the vasculature, i.e. an excessive endothelial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may be both a cause and an effect of hypertension. In addition to NADPH oxidase, the best characterized source of ROS, ...
Carnicer Ricardo - - 2008
Double heterozygous mice lacking one allele of Cbs and Apoa1 develop hyperhomocysteinemia and hypoalphalipoproteinemia together with moderate hypertension. To study the influence of the genetic background into this specific phenotype, four groups of male mice were established: control and double heterozygous groups in C57BL/6J and in C57BL/6J x 129 backgrounds, ...
Wunderlich Carsten - - 2008
Recently generated caveolin-1 deficient mice (cav-1 ko) suffer from severe lung fibrosis with marked pulmonary hypertension and arterial hypoxemia and may therefore serve as an useful animal model of this devastating human disorder. Accumulating evidence strongly supports the negative regulatory influence of caveolin-1 on endothelial nitric oxide synthase resulting in ...
Broderick Kate E - - 2007
A limited number of nitric oxide (NO)-generating drugs are available for clinical use for acute and chronic conditions. Most of these agents are organic nitrates, which do not directly release NO; tolerance to the drugs develops, in part, as a consequence of their conversion to NO. We synthesized nitrosyl-cobinamide (NO-Cbi) ...
Kelly J J - - 2007
1. Decreased nitric oxide (NO) availability is thought to be a feature of cortisol-induced hypertension in humans. 2. We hypothesized that, accordingly, the threshold for a depressor response to NO should be decreased by cortisol treatment. 3. We re-analysed data from a study of baroreflex function in normal men treated ...
Carlström Mattias - - 2008
Hydronephrotic animals develop renal injury and hypertension, which is associated with an abnormal tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF). The TGF sensitivity is coupled to nitric oxide (NO) in the macula densa. The involvement of reduced NO availability in the development of hypertension in hydronephrosis was investigated. Hydronephrosis was induced by ureteral obstruction ...
Dabisch Paul A - - 2008
The mechanism by which acetylcholine (ACh) decreases systemic arterial pressure and hindlimb vascular resistance was investigated in the anesthetized rat. ACh injections caused dose-dependent decreases in systemic arterial pressure and hindlimb vascular resistance. N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) had little effect on the magnitude of depressor and vasodilator responses but decreased ...
Hewitson C L - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: To assess the acute effects of haemodialysis (HD) on biochemical factors modulating endothelial function. SETTING: Academic medical centre. SUBJECTS: Forty patients (age 63.5 +/- 2.2 years, mean +/- SEM) undergoing HD. INTERVENTIONS: Folic acid (F), homocysteine (tHcy), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured ...
Wecht Jill M - - 2008
Direct effects of vasoactive substances on blood pressure can be examined in individuals with tetraplegia due to disruption of descending spinal pathways to sympathetic preganglionic neurons, as cervical lesions interfere with baroreceptor reflex buffering of sympathetic outflow. In this study, we assessed effects of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor nitro-L-arginine ...
Broadbelt Nalini V - - 2007
Pressure is an important physiological regulator, but under abnormal conditions it may be a critical factor in the onset and progression of disease in many organs. In vivo, proximal tubular epithelial cells are subjected to pressure as a result of ureteral obstruction, which may influence the production of nitric oxide ...
Vaziri N D - - 2007
1. Lead is a common environmental and industrial toxin that can cause a variety of acute and chronic illnesses. For example, chronic exposure to low levels of lead has been shown to raise arterial pressure and promote renal and cardiovascular complications. 2. Several mechanisms have been identified by which chronic ...
Javeshghani Danesh - - 2007
The relationship between testosterone, vascular function, and blood pressure remains unclear. Here we utilized a mouse model of andropause, follitropin receptor knockout (FORKO) male mice, which are testosterone-deficient, to investigate whether vascular function and structure are altered and whether this is associated with elevated blood pressure. Blood pressure was measured ...
Cruz Cristino - - 2007
Progressive renal damage and hypertension are associated with oxidative and nitrosative stress. On the other hand, S-allylcysteine (SAC), the most abundant organosulfur compound in aged garlic extract (AG), has antioxidant properties. The effects of SAC and AG on blood pressure, renal damage, and oxidative and nitrosative stress were studied in ...
Jaros Filip - - 2007
Several non-aromatic substituted oxime derivatives (formamidoxime, acetaldoxime, acetone oxime, acetohydroxamic acid, formaldoxime) function as vasorelaxant NO donors when added to precontracted aortic rings in vitro. This study was aimed to evaluate whether these substances posses vasodilator properties under in vivo conditions. We studied blood pressure changes elicited by administration of ...
Hristovska Ana-Marija - - 2007
The present experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that prostaglandin (PG) E(2) causes vasodilatation through activation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). Aortic rings from mice with targeted deletion of eNOS and E-prostanoid (EP) receptors were used for contraction studies. Blood pressure changes in response to PGE(2) were measured in ...
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