Search Results
Results 51 - 100 of 1219
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Baumgart Katja - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis whether inhaled hydrogen sulfide amplifies the effects of deliberate hypothermia during anesthesia and mechanical ventilation as hypothermia is used to provide organ protection after brain trauma or circulatory arrest. Awake mice inhaling hydrogen sulfide exhibit reduced energy expenditure, hypothermia, and bradycardia despite unchanged systolic heart ...
Silberman Gad A - - 2010
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction is 1 consequence of hypertension and is caused by impaired cardiac diastolic relaxation. Nitric oxide (NO) is a known modulator of cardiac relaxation. Hypertension can lead to a reduction in vascular NO, in part because NO synthase (NOS) becomes uncoupled when oxidative depletion of ...
Viaro Fernanda - - 2010
The effect of short duration and different degrees of distension pressures was investigated by means of immunohistochemistry of the three nitric oxide synthase isoforms in the human saphenous vein conventionally harvested from 20 patients submitted to coronary artery bypass graft. The human saphenous vein distal portion was divided into four ...
Hidaka Takayuki - - 2010
The aim of this study was to determine pioglitazone treatment restores endothelial function in hypertensive patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). We evaluated the effects of pioglitazone treatment for 12 weeks on forearm blood flow (FBF) responses to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside in 34 hypertensive patients with IGT who were ...
Barron Carolyn - - 2010
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of hypertension and nitric oxide (NO) inhibition on myogenic tone in uterine arteries during pregnancy. Premyometrial radial uterine arteries from nonpregnant and late pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were evaluated for myogenic reactivity from the following groups: control, hypertensive/NO-inhibited (L-NAME treatment) and ...
Yousif Mariam H M - - 2010
The objective of this study was to determine if acute inhibition of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) synthesis or reduced inactivation of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) can correct L-N(G)-nitro-arginine-methyl-ester (L-NAME)-induced abnormal vascular reactivity in the perfused mesenteric bed and the carotid artery of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Administration of L-NAME in drinking water ...
Korish Aida A - - 2010
The kidney is an important source of L-arginine, the endogenous precursor of nitric oxide (NO). Surgical problems requiring extensive renal mass reduction (RMR) decrease renal NO production, leading to multiple hemodynamic and homeostatic disorders manifested by hypertension, oxidative stress, and increased inflammatory cytokines. Using the RMR model of chronic renal ...
Egemnazarov Bakytbek - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Generalized hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) occurring during exposure to hypoxia is a detrimental process resulting in an increase in lung vascular resistance. Nebulization of sodium nitrite has been shown to inhibit HPV. The aim of this project was to investigate and compare the effects of nebulization of nitrite and ...
Doenst Torsten - - 2010
AIMS: Left ventricular hypertrophy is a risk factor for heart failure. However, it also is a compensatory response to pressure overload, accommodating for increased workload. We tested whether the changes in energy substrate metabolism may be predictive for the development of contractile dysfunction. METHODS AND RESULTS: Chronic pressure overload was ...
Paulis Ludovit - - 2010
The mechanisms responsible for the antihypertensive effect of melatonin are not completely understood. To elucidate the possible role of the nitric oxide (NO) pathway in the hemodynamic actions of melatonin, the effects of this indolamine on vascular function during hypertension induced by the NO-synthase (NOS) inhibitor, N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME) were ...
Sauzeau Vincent - - 2010
The regulation of arterial contractility is essential for blood pressure control. The GTPase RhoA promotes vasoconstriction by modulating the cytoskeleton of vascular smooth muscle cells. Whether other Rho/Rac pathways contribute to blood pressure regulation remains unknown. By studying a hypertensive knockout mouse lacking the Rho/Rac activator Vav2, we have discovered ...
Khan Tanveer A - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Inhaled nitric oxide has been shown to reduce pulmonary vascular resistance in patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgery, but it is limited by toxicity, the need for special monitoring, and cost. Inhaled prostacyclin also decreases pulmonary artery pressure, is relatively free of toxicity, requires no specific monitoring, and is less expensive. ...
Ritt Martin - - 2009
We hypothesized that wall-to-lumen ratio (WLR) of retinal arterioles might serve as an in-vivo parameter of vascular damage. To test this hypothesis we examined whether WLR of retinal arterioles is related with increased urinary albumin excretion and altered vascular reactivity to infusion of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA). ...
De Cruz Sharon J - - 2009
Sepsis is a state of systemic inflammation directed at microbes or their toxins in blood or tissues. Nitric oxide (NO) is one of many vasoactive molecules released from a variety of cell types during sepsis. Almost two decades ago, NO emerged as a potential therapeutic target in sepsis. NO produced ...
Toda Noboru - - 2009
Nitric oxide formed by neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the brain, autonomic inhibitory (nitrergic) nerves, and heart plays important roles in the control of blood pressure. Activation of nitrergic nerves innervating the systemic vasculature elicits vasodilatation, decreases peripheral resistance, and lowers blood pressure. Impairment of nitrergic nerve function, as ...
Unger Banappa S - - 2009
Exaggerated production of superoxide and inactivation of nitric oxide have been implicated in pathogenesis of hypertension. NAD(P)H oxidase is one of the major source of reactive oxygen species in vasculature. In the present study, we aimed to determine the effect of chronic administration of Apocynin an NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor on ...
Opländer Christian - - 2009
RATIONALE: Human skin contains photolabile nitric oxide derivates like nitrite and S-nitroso thiols, which after UVA irradiation, decompose and lead to the formation of vasoactive NO. OBJECTIVE: Here, we investigated whether whole body UVA irradiation influences the blood pressure of healthy volunteers because of cutaneous nonenzymatic NO formation. METHODS AND ...
Wakisaka Yoshinobu - - 2010
Oxidative stress and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) contribute to hemorrhagic transformation after ischemic stroke and brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The goal of this study was to develop a new model of spontaneous ICH, based on the hypothesis that acute, superimposed on chronic, hypertension produces ICH. We hypothesized that increases ...
Leong Xin-Fang - - 2009
Oxidization of dietary cooking oil increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension by increasing the formation oxidative oxygen radicals. The aim of study was to investigate the effects of repeatedly heated palm oil on blood pressure, plasma nitrites, and vascular reactivity. Nitrites were measured, as an indirect marker ...
Young Colin N - - 2009
Animal studies have indicated that nitric oxide is a key signalling molecule involved in the tonic restraint of central sympathetic outflow from the brainstem. Extension of these findings to humans has been difficult because systemic infusion of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors increases blood pressure due to inhibition of endothelial ...
Roberts Tim J M - - 2009
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) agonists have been shown to protect the cerebral vasculature, including the blood-brain barrier. In the present study, we investigated the effect of the PPAR-gamma agonist rosiglitazone on changes in venous permeability during chronic hypertension induced by nitric oxide synthase inhibition. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were either treated ...
Brunetti-Pierri Nicola - - 2009
Argininosuccinic aciduria (ASA) is an inborn error of ureagenesis which if untreated leads to hyperammonemia, accumulation of argininosuccinic acid and arginine depletion. The presence of high blood pressure in patients with ASA has been reported so far as transient in one newborn. We describe the first two patients, one child ...
Dyer J L - - 2009
The fetus makes a number of physiological adaptations to a restriction of placental substrate supply, including a decrease in body growth and an increase in peripheral vasoconstriction which maintains mean arterial pressure (MAP) and supports a redistribution of cardiac output to key fetal organs. It is not known, however, whether ...
Banday Anees Ahmad - - 2009
Renal dopamine and nitric oxide contribute to natriuresis during high-salt intake which maintains sodium and blood pressure homeostasis. We wanted to determine whether concurrent inhibition of these natriuretic factors increases blood pressure during high-sodium intake. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following groups: 1) vehicle (V)-tap water, 2) NaCl-1% ...
Grotto Denise - - 2009
Increased risk of hypertension after methylmercury (MeHg) exposure has been suggested. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well explored. In this paper, we have analyzed whether sub-chronic exposure to MeHg increases systolic blood pressure even at very low levels. In addition, we analyzed if the methylmercury-induced hypertension is associated with ...
Abdoon Nuzha A - - 2009
Activation of the inflammatory response with the release and activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines is among the factors thought to be important in the pathogenesis of many deleterious inflammatory effects seen in case of scorpion envenomation. The released inflammatory mediators interact in the body with a large number of proteins and ...
Broadbelt Nalini V - - 2009
Ureteral obstruction leads to increased pressure and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. This study examined the involvement of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR), nuclear factor-kappaB (NFkappaB), and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) in iNOS induction in human proximal tubule (HKC-8) cells in response to pressure ...
Brähler Sebastian - - 2009
BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that activation of endothelial SK3 (K(Ca)2.3) and IK1 (K(Ca)3.1) K+ channels plays a role in the arteriolar dilation attributed to an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). However, our understanding of the precise function of SK3 and IK1 in the EDHF dilator response and in blood pressure ...
Xiao Daliao - - 2009
Epidemiological studies have shown a clear association of adverse intrauterine environment and an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and hypertension in adult life. The present study tested the hypothesis that prenatal cocaine exposure causes reprogramming of vascular reactivity, leading to an increased risk of hypertension in adult offspring. Pregnant rats ...
Karlsson Lars L - - 2009
The decompression experienced due to the change in pressure from a space vehicle (1013hPa) to that in a suit for extravehicular activity (EVA) (386hPa) was simulated using a hypobaric chamber. Previous ground-based research has indicated around a 50% occurrence of both venous gas emboli (VGE) and symptoms of decompression illness ...
Brillante D G - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The haemodynamic effects of intravenous infusion of the non-selective nitric oxide synthase (NOS) L-omega monomethyl arginine (L-NMMA) have previously been characterized in humans. Its effect of reducing cardiac index (CI) is an important reason for the increase in mortality in patients with septic shock receiving L-NMMA in a pivotal ...
Uryash Arkady - - 2009
Low-amplitude pulses to the vasculature increase pulsatile shear stress to the endothelium. This activates endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) to promote NO release and endothelial-dependent vasodilatation. Descent of the dicrotic notch on the arterial pulse waveform and a-to-b ratio (a/b; where a is the height of the pulse amplitude ...
Simonsen Ulf - - 2009
High blood pressure is associated with increased oxidative stress and increased amounts of reactive oxygen species in the vascular wall which results in impairment of endothelial function and a proinflammatory state (with accelerated development of atherosclerosis). One consequence of this is a reduced nitric oxide (NO)-mediated vasodilatation which is also ...
Knight W David - - 2009
We examined the possibility that chronic, low-dose peripheral leptin infusion would inhibit food intake but not increase blood pressure. Male Fisher Brown Norway (FBNF1) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were instrumented for cardiovascular telemetry, housed in metabolic chambers, and given leptin (LEP: 600 microg/kg/day) or vehicle (SAL: 10 microl/h) via a ...
Balaratnasingam Chandrakumar - - 2009
Although intracranial pressure (ICP) elevation can induce significant structural and functional changes within the central nervous system (CNS), almost complete neuronal recovery is possible if ICP and associated pathogenic factors are restored in the acute phase of the disease process. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms have been implicated in the ...
Sabrane Karim - - 2009
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), via its guanylyl cyclase (GC)-A receptor, plays a key role in the regulation of arterial blood pressure (ABP) and volume. Endothelial-restricted deletion of GC-A in mice [endothelial cell (EC) GC-A knockout (KO)] resulted in hypervolemic hypertension, demonstrating that the endothelium participates in the hypotensive and hypovolemic ...
Paisley Angela N - - 2009
CONTEXT: Patients with acromegaly have increased morbidity and mortality, predominantly from cardiovascular disease. Hypertension and diabetes are more prevalent, and both cause small vessel remodeling and endothelial dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: To understand the structure and function of small arteries in acromegaly, sc blood vessels from gluteal fat biopsies were harvested from ...
Petersson Joel - - 2009
Recently, it has been suggested that the supposedly inert nitrite anion is reduced in vivo to form bioactive nitric oxide with physiological and therapeutic implications in the gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems. Intake of nitrate-rich food such as vegetables results in increased levels of circulating nitrite in a process suggested to ...
Roghair Robert D - - 2009
Intrauterine environmental pertubations have been linked to the development of adult hypertension. We sought to evaluate the interrelated roles of sex, nitric oxide, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in programmed cardiovascular disease. Programming was induced in mice by maternal dietary intervention (DI; partial substitution of protein with carbohydrates and fat) ...
Lee Ching-Yin - - 2009
Blood pressure is one of the vital parameters of the body that is normally maintained in homeostasis by a complex multifactorial mechanism mediating constriction or dilation of vessels. Hypertension ensues when the responses to vasorelaxant signals become inefficient or vascular tissues are injured by inflammatory insults, leading to a decrease ...
La Fountaine Michael F - - 2009
To improve our understanding of the lower-leg vascular responses of nitric oxide synthase inhibition in persons with tetraplegia. Participants: Six people with chronic tetraplegia and 6 age-matched controls. Lower-leg relative vascular resistance and venous volume variation were obtained by venous occlusion plethysmography and blood pressure by auscultation at baseline. Postintravenous ...
Tzemos Nikolaos - - 2009
Endothelial dysfunction can predict cardiac outcomes in hypertension and reversing this abnormality has become an attractive therapeutic objective. We tested the hypothesis that blocking the angiotensin type 1 (AT(1)) receptor with valsartan in comparison with amlodipine would lead to an improvement in forearm resistance artery endothelial dysfunction. In total, 25 ...
Brillante Divina Gracilla DG Department of Medicine, St. George Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Level 2 WR Pitney Building, Chapel Street, Kogarah, NSW, - - 2009
There is evidence that in the early stages of type II diabetes, the cardiovascular system compensates by increasing endothelial nitric oxide synthase (e-NOS) expression. In the advanced stages of disease, e-NOS is diminished, and is associated with endothelial dysfunction. Angiotensin II, acting via the angiotensin II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor, ...
Guan Hongjing - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Prospective studies have shown that C-reactive protein (CRP) is a predictor of hypertension. Because of confounding variables, a causal linkage between CRP and hypertension has not been clearly shown. We investigated whether high circulating concentrations of human CRP can induce hypertension in rats. METHODS: We administered a single intravenous ...
Wilcox Christopher S CS Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Kidney and Vascular Disorder Center, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20007, USA. - - 2008
Nitroxides can undergo one- or two-electron reduction reactions to hydroxylamines or oxammonium cations, respectively, which themselves are interconvertible, thereby providing redox metabolic actions. 4-Hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (tempol) is the most extensively studied nitroxide. It is a cell membrane-permeable amphilite that dismutates superoxide catalytically, facilitates hydrogen peroxide metabolism by catalase-like actions, and limits ...
Olatunji L A - - 2008
The use of estrogen-progestogen oral contraceptive (OC) is associated with high blood pressure, although mechanisms responsible are still unclear. This study sought to investigate the effects of administration of OC on high blood pressure resulting from nitric oxide (NO) synthesis inhibition in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were given ethinyl estradiol ...
Sathishkumar Kunju - - 2009
Intrauterine undernutrition plays a role in the development of adult hypertension. Most studies are done in male offspring to delineate the mechanisms whereby blood pressure may be raised; however, the vascular mechanisms involved in female offspring are unclear. Female offspring of pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats fed either a control (C; 18%) ...
Hercule Hantz C - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) serve as endothelial-derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHF), but may also affect vascular function by other mechanisms. We identified a novel interaction between EETs and endothelial NO release using soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) -/- and +/+ mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: EDHF responses to acetylcholine in pressurized isolated mesenteric ...
Chirinos Julio A - - 2008
Endogenous NO synthase inhibitors (end-NOSIs) have been associated with cardiovascular risk factors and atherosclerosis. In addition, end-NOSIs may directly cause hypertension through hemodynamic effects. We aimed to examine the association between end-NOSI asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA) and N-guanidino-monomethyl-arginine (NMMA), subclinical atherosclerosis, and arterial hemodynamics. We studied 922 adults participating in a ...
Wang Zuoguang - - 2008
A pilot study was conducted to investigate blood pressure level and vasoactive factors (VFs) among age- and sex-matched normotensive (NT), prehypertensive (PH), and hypertensive (EH) subjects. The results showed that angiotensin, arginine vasopressin, and endothelin were significantly higher, while adrenomedullin and calcitonin gene-related peptide were lower in the EH group ...
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >