Search Results
Results 801 - 850 of 1229
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Sorrentino R - - 1997
Nitric oxide produced by endothelial cells is a mediator involved in the regulation of vascular tone. Indeed, in vitro inhibition of basal nitric oxide release increase responses to vasoconstrictor agents, and in vivo, the parenteral or dietary administration of nitric oxide inhibitors produces an increase in blood pressure. However, the ...
Vaupel D B - - 1997
The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-nitric oxide (NO) pathway has been linked to opiate withdrawal. Pretreatments with four inhibitors of NO synthase, 7-nitro indazole, 3-bromo-7-nitro indazole, S-methyl-L-thiocitrulline and aminoguanidine, which exhibit different isoform selectivity in vitro, were evaluated for their ability to attenuate signs of naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal. In separate experiments, effects ...
Vogl H W - - 1997
The involvement to nitric oxide (NO) in cardiovascular and renal function was evaluated in 12 anesthetized Yucatan miniature swine. The effect of NO blockade on blood pressure was measured in six additional conscious swine. In the anesthetized swine, mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and urinary ...
Mankad P - - 1997
Nitric oxide is continuously released by coronary artery endothelium under basal conditions; it maintains vascular tone and regulates coronary blood flow. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of this basal release of nitric oxide on right and left ventricular systolic and diastolic function. Isolated pig hearts ...
Smulders R A - - 1997
1. Pharmacological stimulation of the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) may be important in the prevention or treatment of cardiovascular diseases. 2. There is much discussion as to whether the precursor of NO, L-arginine, is able to stimulate basal endothelial NO production. L-Arginine is known to have vasodilating effects. However, ...
Gamillscheg A - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of inhaled nitric oxide in patients with critical pulmonary perfusion after Fontan-type procedures and bidirectional Glenn anastomosis. METHODS: Inhaled nitric oxide (mean 4.1 +/- 0.7 ppm, 1.5 to 10 ppm) was administered in 13 patients (mean age 5.6 +/- ...
Moreau P - - 1997
Because nitric oxide inhibits the synthesis and vasoconstrictor effect of endothelin-1, the effect of endothelin-1 may be enhanced under conditions of chronic inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis. We studied the effect of chronic therapy with bosentan, a combined endothelin-A/endothelin-B receptor antagonist, on blood pressure and vascular function and structure of ...
Bender K A - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Cardiopulmonary bypass can increase pulmonary vascular tone and decrease ventilation-perfusion matching by impairing the pulmonary endothelial production of nitric oxide. OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that inhalation of exogenous nitric oxide decreases the ratio of mean pulmonary arterial pressure to mean system arterial pressure and the intrapulmonary shunt fraction ...
Charpie J R - - 1997
Long-term inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) by substituted arginine analogues has previously been shown to induce systemic hypertension in several animal species; however, the precise mechanisms for the elevated blood pressure remain unclear. We hypothesized that a portion of the hypertensive response to arginine analogues was due to direct ...
Kublickiene K R - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to compare myometrial and omental resistance arteries from term pregnant women with respect to myogenic behavior in the presence or absence of a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor and to compare distensibility and acetylcholine-mediated dilatation in these vessels. STUDY DESIGN: Intramyometrial (n = 17) and omental (n ...
Buccellati C - - 1997
1. We have studied the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the regulation of the transcellular biosynthesis of sulphidopeptide leukotrienes (cys-LT) generated upon neutrophil-vascular wall interactions and their functional consequences, in the spontaneously beating, cell-perfused, heart of the rabbit. 2. Hearts were perfused under recirculating conditions (50 ml) with 5 ...
Provost P - - 1997
Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in the maintenance of a constant vasodilator tone in the vasculature and confers anti-adhesive properties to the normal functioning endothelium. Whether endogenous NO release influences platelet thrombus formation and neutrophil-endothelium interactions under arterial blood flow conditions was investigated in ex vivo bioassay experiments ...
James M A - - 1997
1. Previous studies have indicated that younger hypertensive subjects may have abnormal endothelium-dependent relaxation, which could contribute to the elevated peripheral resistance seen in established hypertension. This study was designed to examine the functional behaviour of the endothelium of small arteries from elderly hypertensive and normotensive subjects. 2. Resistance arteries ...
Fullerton D A - - 1997
OBJECTIVES: Inhaled nitric oxide is a promising therapy to control pulmonary hypertension. However, pulmonary hypertension caused by valvular heart disease is often refractory to inhaled nitric oxide. The objective of this study was to determine whether the combination of inhaled nitric oxide plus dipyridamole will cause a response in patients ...
Dézsi L - - 1997
Direct vascular effects of somatostatin (ST) were investigated in cat superior mesenteric artery (SMA) segments in vitro. Changes of outer diameter were measured at constant axial length and perfusion pressure. SMA segments in the resting state were not affected by ST, regardless of endothelial integrity. Noradrenaline-preconstricted SMA segments were dilated ...
Dahm P - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To study and compare the effects of inhibiting endothelial nitric oxide synthase on systemic and pulmonary circulation in an in vivo model. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, controlled study. SETTING: Laboratory for experimental surgery at a university medical center. SUBJECTS: Seventeen anesthetized, mechanically ventilated pigs. INTERVENTIONS: To produce a stable and ...
Bhabra M S - - 1997
BACKGROUND: In ischemia-reperfusion injury, the production of nitric oxide by dysfunctional endothelium falls rapidly within minutes of the onset of reperfusion. Replenishment during this critical early period using inhaled nitric oxide may benefit lung grafts through modulation of vascular tone, endothelial permeability, neutrophil and platelet function, and availability of reactive ...
Haugen G - - 1997
In most preparations of human cord arteries perfused in vitro, infusion of 10(-7) M of serotonin leads to a biphasic pressure response starting with a transient minor vasodilatation followed by a dominant vasoconstriction. In some preparations, however, the vasoconstrictive part of the response with this dose of serotonin is less ...
Cárnio E C - - 1997
Several mechanisms are known to participate in cold-induced hypertension, but no information exist on the role of the nitric oxide (NO). In the present study, we assessed the participation of nitric oxide in cold-induced hypertension by means of inhibition of NO synthase. Experiments were performed in rats treated with N ...
Prostran M S - - 1997
1. A slow intravenous infusion of L-arginine (3 mg kg-1) lasting one hr produced significant hypotension in urethane-anaesthetized spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). 2. A slow intravenous infusion of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (3 mg kg-1 h-1) did not produce any significant change in the mean arterial pressure during infusion. After ...
Bauer J A - - 1997
Because nitroglycerin (NTG, an organic nitrate) and isoamyl nitrite have similar chemical structures and a common mechanism of vascular relaxation (i.e., conversion to nitric oxide in vascular tissues and activation of guanylyl cyclase), it has often been assumed that organic nitrates and nitrites have identical pharmacologic actions. Because recent studies ...
Head C A - - 1997
This brief discussion focuses on the effects of nitric oxide (NO) in the lung. A short introduction of some of the physical characteristics of the NO gas molecule and the endogenous production of NO by the vascular endothelium is addressed first. This is followed by a review of inhaled NO ...
Carvalho M H - - 1997
To investigate the nature of the arachidonic acid metabolite involved in the altered reactivity of microvessels of two-kidney, one-clip hypertensive rats and the possible contribution of this product to the elevated blood pressure levels found in two-kidney, one-clip hypertension, mesenteric arterioles either perfused in vitro or studied in vivo were ...
Figueiredo LF - - 1997
BACKGROUND: In order to test the hypothesis that inhaled nitric oxide (NO) reverses the pulmonary hypertension induced by alphaalpha-diaspirin crosslinked hemoglobin (alphaalphaHb), were studied anesthetized pigs that were administered with a total dose of 200 mg/kg of 10% alphaalphaHb. Inhaled NO (5 ppm) was administered for 10 min, and then ...
Sadao K - - 1997
We evaluated the effect of nitric oxide (NO) on infants after congenital cardiac surgery. Inhaled NO was administered to 7 infants after congenital cardiac surgery. Inhaled NO concentration ranged from 2.5 to 10 parts per million (ppm). The respiratory index (RI = A-aDO2/PaO2) decreased from 7.4 +/- 2.5 to 4.7 ...
Albertini M - - 1997
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of nitric oxide (NO) on diaphragmatic fatigue in fifteen anaesthetized, mechanically ventilated pigs, divided into three groups. The animals were pre-treated with indomethacin (3 mg kg-1, i.v.) to block the cyclo-oxygenase pathway. To group 1 pigs (n = 6) NG-nitro-L-arginine ...
de Beaufort A J - - 1997
Inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production may reduce post-hypoxic-ischemic (HI) neonatal brain damage, but may also induce pulmonary hypertension by inhibiting endogenous NO production in the pulmonary vascular bed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of nitric oxide inhibition on pulmonary artery pressure and oxygen need ...
Nurminen M L - - 1996
1. The effects of nitric oxide (NO) releasing substances, sodium nitroprusside, 3-morpholino sydnonimine (SIN-1) and a novel oxatriazole derivative, GEA 3162, on blood pressure and heart rate were studied after peripheral or central administration in anaesthetized normotensive Wistar rats. 2. Given as cumulative intravenous injections, both nitroprusside and GEA 3162 ...
Fox J J - - 1996
Although endogenous nitric oxide (NO) modulates basal tone in the fetal pulmonary and systemic circulations, little is known about its role in regulating ductus arteriosus (DA) tone. Immunostaining of DA tissue from late-gestation fetal lambs demonstrated strong staining for endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) in DA endothelium. To study the physiological ...
Loke K E - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of ischaemia on vascular responses to endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilators and on vasoconstrictor responses. Furthermore, the ability of preconditioning to prevent ischaemia-induced changes in vascular reactivity was examined in the rat hindquarters. METHODS: The abdominal aortae of anaesthetized rats ...
Driscoll W - - 1996
Excess nitric oxide is a mediator of the hypotension in septic shock. Nitric oxide dilates vascular smooth muscle through activation of soluble guanylate cyclase. We report the increase in blood pressure caused by methylene blue (MB), a soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor, in five neonates with presumed septic shock unresponsive to ...
Sprague R S - - 1996
Recently, we reported that rabbit red blood cells (RBCs) were required for the expression of nitric oxide (NO) activity on pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) in rabbit lungs. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that RBCs participate in the regulation of PVR via release of ATP in response to mechanical deformation that, ...
Erlich Y - - 1996
We examined accumulating evidence of the positive contribution of nitric oxide to the pharmacological effects of converting enzyme inhibitors in 36 rats rendered hypertensive, hyperinsulinemic, and hypertriglyceridemic by a fructose-enriched diet. We studied the response of blood pressure, insulin, and triglyceride levels to inhibition of either converting enzyme-kininase II, nitric ...
Sustronck B - - 1996
In healthy anaesthetized Friesian-Holstein calves, pulmonary hypertension was induced by means of a continuous intravenous administration of serotonin (0.025 mg/kg body/weight/min). Afterwards, the anaesthetized calves inhaled 40 and 80 ppm of nitric oxide using an open system. The influences of the administration of serotonin and the inhalation of nitric oxide ...
Kato T - - 1996
The effect of human adrenomedullin was investigated using an ex vivo perfused canine tibial model in the absence of vascular endothelium. Adrenomedullin is a novel peptide with known vasodilator properties. In this model, a 0.1 ml bolus injection of 10(-5) M of either acetylcholine or adrenomedullin decreased vascular resistance in ...
Saavedra J E - - 1996
Reaction of nitric oxide (NO) with L-proline in methanolic sodium methoxide yields a diazeniumdiolate product, C5H7N3O4Na2.CH3OH (PROLI/NO), that can be stabilized in basic solution but that dissociates to proline (1 mol) and NO (2 mol) with a half-life of only 1.8 s at pH 7.4 and 37 degrees C. This ...
Day R W - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: Systemic oxygenation is improved by inhaled nitric oxide therapy in some newborns with respiratory failure and pulmonary hypertension. Our results with inhaled nitric oxide were reviewed to determine factors associated with an acute improvement in systemic oxygenation. METHODS: Newborns with oxygenation indices of 25 to 40 were prospectively randomized ...
Saetre T - - 1996
Mechanisms of circulatory effects induced by nitric oxide synthase inhibition in endotoxemia were investigated in 36 pigs randomized to 1) endotoxin infusion (1.7 micrograms.kg-1.h-1 iv) for 7 h and bolus NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 25 mg/kg iv) after 3 h; 2) endotoxin infusion for 7 h; 3) saline infusion for ...
Stranák Z - - 1996
We evaluated changes in alveolar-arterial oxygen differences (AaDO2) and oxygenation index (OI) during inhalation of low-dose nitric oxide (INO) in 15 newborns with severe respiratory insufficiency: congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) -6, asphyxial lung disease -4, meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) -2, respiratory distress syndrome -2, persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn -1. ...
Offner P J - - 1996
BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition has been shown to potentiate lipopolysaccharide (LPS) associated pulmonary hypertension, which may worsen right ventricular (RV) dysfunction and decrease cardiac output during sepsis. This study evaluates whether inhaled nitric oxide can ameliorate the adverse cardiopulmonary effects of NOS inhibition during endotoxemia. METHODS: After an ...
Taddei S - - 1996
BACKGROUND: Essential hypertension is characterized by impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation. The present study was designed to investigate whether this abnormality is a primary defect or a consequence of blood pressure increases. METHODS AND RESULTS: In offspring of essential hypertensive patients (n = 34) and normotensive subjects (n = 30), we evaluated ...
Squadrito F - - 1996
1. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of an intravenous infusion of a potent and non selective nitric oxide synthase inhibitor S-ethylisothiourea (Ethyl-TU) with that of a nitric oxide (NO) donor on the pathological sequelae associated with splanchnic artery occlusion (SAO) shock. In addition the effects ...
Jin J S - - 1996
We tested the hypothesis that the endogenous nitric oxide synthetase (NOS) inhibitor, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), regulates cardiovascular function by central mechanisms. In in vivo studies, rats received intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of isotonic saline, ADMA (1 mg), l-arginine (3 mg), and N omega-nitro-l-arginine methylester (l-NAME, 1 mg). Baroreflex function was then ...
Macedo M P - - 1996
The hypothesis that nitric oxide antagonizes pressure-flow autoregulation in the superior mesenteric artery was tested with the use of a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), and L-arginine. Autoregulation was assessed with the use of two indexes: 1) the autoregulatory index (ARI), expressed as the ratio of change ...
Okamura T - - 1996
Intravenous injection of NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NA), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, elevated mean blood pressure by 29.0 +/- 4.9 mm Hg and decreased heart rate by 40.7 +/- 5.6 beats per minute in anesthetized Japanese monkeys (n = 6), whereas NG-nitro-D-arginine was without effect. After pretreatment with pentolinium, the magnitude of ...
Eichelbrönner O - - 1996
To compare the effects of inhaled nitric oxide and aerosolized prostacyclin (PGI2) on hemodynamics and gas exchange as well as on the indocyanine-green plasma disappearance rate and gastric intramucosal pH in patients with septic shock. Prospective, randomized, interventional clinical study. Intensive care unit in a university hospital. Sixteen patients with ...
Lin H - - 1996
It is known that endothelin-1 stimulates the release of nitric oxide and prostaglandins in various vascular beds. We designed the present study to analyze the roles of prostaglandins and nitric oxide in the effect of endothelin-1 on the regulation of renal hemodynamics and renin release. We used N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ...
Blitzer M L - - 1996
OBJECTIVES: This investigation sought to determine whether endothelium-derived nitric oxide contributes to hypoxia-induced systemic vasodilation and pulmonary vasoconstriction in humans. BACKGROUND: Endothelium-derived nitric oxide contributes to basal systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance. During hypoxia, systemic vasodilation and pulmonary vasoconstriction occur. There are some data indicating that endothelium-derived nitric oxide mediates ...
Sudhir K - - 1996
The mechanisms of estrogen-induced cardiovascular protection are incompletely understood. Acute estrogen administration enhances acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation, suggesting that endothelium-dependent factors may be important. The effect of long-term estrogen supplementation on endothelial function has not been well defined. In this double-blind, randomized study, we examined endothelial function in forearm resistance arteries in ...
Urabe K - - 1996
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether endogenous angiotensin II has a functional role in renal hemodynamic and excretory changes induced by L-arginine, a substrate for nitric oxide (NO), in anesthetized rats. During the intravenous infusion of L-arginine (50, 100, 200 mumol/kg.min), there was no significant change in ...
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