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Results 651 - 700 of 1226
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Champion H C - - 1999
Endomorphin 1 and 2 are newly discovered endogenous ligands for the mu-opioid receptor. We recently showed that endomorphin 1 and 2 have vasodepressor activity, and in this study, responses to a novel endomorphin analog [D-Ala2]-endomorphin 2 (TAPP) were investigated in the systemic vascular bed of the rat. Intravenous injections of ...
Sütsch G - - 1999
Congestive heart failure is a complex disease that results from pumping failure of the cardiac muscle and adaptational processes of the cardiovascular system to correct for the reduced blood supply to the organism. It is associated with increased vasoconstriction and impaired vasodilation in response to physical activity. The elevated vasoconstrictor ...
Fortepiani L A - - 1999
Chronic inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis has been shown to cause arterial hypertension and an important blunting of the pressure diuresis and natriuresis response. The mechanisms mediating these abnormalities are not completely established. We therefore studied the effects of endothelin on these alterations. Pressure diuretic and natriuretic relationships were evaluated ...
Doyle M P - - 1999
Many cell-free hemoglobin solutions designed as oxygen-carrying therapeutics produce a hypertensive effect in animals. The response is likely due to oxidation of nitric oxide by hemoglobin. Since the site of oxidation may lie outside the vascular compartment, we tested the hypothesis that polymerization of hemoglobin, rHb1.1, by glutaraldehyde would attenuate ...
Matsumoto A - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Conventional vasodilators increase ventilation-perfusion mismatch and do not improve gas exchange even though they reduce pulmonary hypertension. However, the effects of nitric oxide inhalation on ventilatory and gas exchange values in patients with congestive heart failure are not known. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of nitric oxide inhalation on ...
Genesca J - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: Nitric oxide has been proposed as a mediator of hyperdynamic circulation in cirrhosis. Endotoxin and cytokines induce the synthesis of nitric oxide. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between endotoxemia, cytokines, and nitric oxide in patients with cirrhosis, and to correlate these findings with clinical, ...
Bazzani C - - 1999
Anaesthetized rats, endotracheally intubated and mechanically ventilated with room air, were subjected to a 5-min period of asphyxia by turning off the ventilator. The ventilator was then turned back on and, simultaneously, the animals were treated with either the adrenocorticotropin fragment 1-24 [ACTH-(1-24), 160 microg/kg in a volume of 1 ...
D'Amours M - - 1999
Endothelin 1 (ET-1) is a potent vasoconstrictor implicated in the control of blood pressure and renal function. Its effects can be modulated by nitric oxide (NO), which inhibits ET-1 production and action. Recently, we reported that ET-1 production can also be modulated by angiotensin II (AngII) in vivo. To investigate ...
Suzuki H - - 1999
The mechanisms that lead to organ injury in hypertension are incompletely understood. In particular, there is a lack of evidence that serves to link the elevation of arterial blood pressure with end organ damage. Experimental models of hypertension have a range of microvascular abnormalities in addition to a shift in ...
Schulze-Neick I - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To assess the interaction between pulmonary hemodynamics and respiratory mechanics during acute pulmonary hypertension. PATIENTS: Ventilated and paralysed children treated with inhaled nitric oxide because of post-operative pulmonary hypertension. INTERVENTIONS: Weaning of inhaled nitric oxide. MEASUREMENTS: Air flow and airway pressure, calculation of dynamic respiratory system compliance and respiratory ...
Haulic─â I - - 1999
The comparative study of the vascular effects of agmatine and L-arginine as physiological precursors of NO indicated the following: When administered intravenously, both vasoactive substances produced a decrease of the systemic blood pressure in rats and rabbits, diminished in the case of agmatine and suppressed in that of arginine by ...
Alzeer A H - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether nitric oxide (NO) production is increased in heat stroke (HS) patients. DESIGN: A prospective analysis of nitrite and nitrate (NO2*/NO3) levels in ten HS patients was performed at the HS center in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: Plasma (NO2*/NO3) levels were determined spectrophotometrically before cooling (0 time), ...
Okubo T - - 1999
The purpose of the present study was to clarify how endogenous nitric oxide (NO) affects cardiac contractility and myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) in vivo. alpha-Chloralose-anesthetized dogs (n = 18) were instrumented to perform continuous and simultaneous measurements of coronary blood flow (CBF), anterior interventricular vein oxygen saturation (with the use ...
Gao Y - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Respiratory or renal failure is associated with changes in blood pH. Changes in pH may have profound effects on vascular tone and reactivity. Site of action of acidosis in the pulmonary vasculature and the role of nitric oxide production remain unclear. METHODS: We utilized isolated rat lung preparation perfused ...
Ohashi Y - - 1998
Nitric oxide (NO), constitutively produced by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), plays a major role in the regulation of blood pressure and vascular tone. We generated transgenic mice overexpressing bovine eNOS in the vascular wall using murine preproendothelin-1 promoter. In transgenic lineages with three to eight transgene copies, bovine eNOS-specific ...
Azadzoi K M - - 1998
PURPOSE: To determine the effects of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis-induced chronic cavernosal arterial insufficiency on cavernosal smooth muscle tone, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and cavernosal tissue synthesis of constrictor eicosanoids. To study whether inhibition of the cyclooxygenase pathway by indomethacin and tissue treatment with nitric oxide (NO) precursor L-arginine improve ...
Harding S E - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: Nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated in the depression of cardiac function in human heart failure. Some reports have identified iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) within the myocyte component of the failing human heart, and NO is known to decrease the contraction amplitude of isolated ventricular myocytes. We have ...
Horikawa N - - 1998
The effects of helodermin, a basic 35-amino acid peptide isolated from the venom of a lizard salivary gland, on arterial blood pressure and heart rate were examined in the rat, focusing on the possibility that activation of ATP sensitive K+ (K(ATP)) channels is involved in the responses. The results were ...
McCarty M F - - 1998
Estrogen deficiency, hyperinsulinemia, type II diabetes, atherosclerosis, and a past history of elevated blood pressure may be associated with increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Common to all of these risk factors is a diminished capacity of vascular endothelium to generate nitric oxide (NO). Vascular NO has the potential to ...
Iwai T - - 1998
The effects of [Leu13]motilin were examined in vivo after its intravenous administration into anesthetized dogs and in vitro with isolated preparations of canine mesenteric artery. [Leu13]Motilin (0.1-10 nmol x kg(-1), i.v.) induced both strong and clustered phasic contractions in the gastric antrum and duodenum. At doses of over 1 nmol ...
Germann P - - 1998
BACKGROUND: The response to inhaled nitric oxide and prone positioning was investigated in 47 patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome to test the hypothesis that inhalation of nitric oxide when in the prone position would result in additive improvement in oxygenation. METHODS: The authors prospectively studied patients of both genders ...
Heller A - - 1998
The underlying mechanisms of hemoglobin (Hb)-induced vasoconstriction are not yet well understood. The aim of this study was to elucidate the influence of nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin (ET) on Hb-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction. Therefore, an autologous Hb preparation was administered into isolated rabbit lungs, in which pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) ...
Tabrizchi R - - 1998
Hypovolemia has been associated with the induction of nitric oxide synthase which is believed to result in an over-production of nitric oxide. In the present study, we have examined the effects of noradrenaline following haemorrhage on cardiac output, blood pressure, mean circulatory filling pressure and vascular resistance in anaesthetized rats ...
Huang A - - 1998
It is thought that elevated levels of reactive oxygen metabolites contribute to the dysfunction of vascular endothelium in hypertension. We hypothesized that high intravascular pressure itself elicits production of superoxide, which then interferes with nitric oxide (NO)-mediated responses of arterioles. Thus, isolated arterioles (approximately 80 microm in diameter) from gracilis ...
Du Z Y - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Ischemia/reperfusion injury to transplanted organs may be associated with loss of endothelial release of nitric oxide. The aim of this study was to determine whether supplementation of an extracellular-based cardioplegic solution in routine clinical use at our institution with nitric oxide (as diethylamine NONOate) enhanced poststorage functionality of an ...
Dijkhorst-Oei L T - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: Nitric oxide is a vasodilating and blood pressure lowering substance. To investigate whether calcium antagonists or angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors increase vascular nitric oxide activity, we assessed systemic and renal vascular sensitivity to nitric oxide synthase inhibition in hypertensives on and off medication. METHODS: Ten essential hypertensive patients, aged ...
Geary G G - - 1998
Adaptation of the cerebral circulation to microgravity was investigated in rat middle cerebral arteries after 20 days of hindlimb unweighting (HU). Myogenic responses were measured in isolated, pressurized arteries from HU and control animals. Maximal passive lumen diameters, obtained in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ plus EDTA, were not significantly ...
Hably C - - 1998
The aim of this study was to investigate whether nitric oxide might be involved in the adaptation of the cardiovascular system in sodium and water loaded organisms. The effects of a semi-chronic (4 day) inhibition of nitric oxide production were studied in normovolemic and per os sodium and water loaded ...
Goonasekera C D - - 1998
Vascular endothelium releases nitric oxide (NO), an important vasodilator that is continuously synthesised by the constitutive enzyme, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS). This maintains a constant vasodilator tone which is diminished in adult hypertension, due to reduced endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation, which is NO dependent. In childhood, however, hypertension is often ...
Hellyer P W - - 1998
The interaction between constitutive nitric oxide and oxygen may depend on the degree of tissue oxygenation and may play a critical role in the pathophysiological response to endotoxaemia. We investigated if hyperoxia (100% O2) attenuated the systemic and pulmonary vasoconstriction and increased biosynthesis of thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and 6-keto-prostaglandin (PG) ...
Gómez F P - - 1998
Patients with clinically stable asthma may show ventilation-perfusion (V'A/Q') mismatch. Nitric oxide (NO), a potent endogenous vasodilator, is increased in exhaled air of asthmatics. Such an increased NO production may be detrimental for optimal V'A/Q' balance owing to the potential inhibition of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. This study was undertaken to ...
Mayhan W G - - 1998
We previously showed [Am. J. Physiol. 272 (Heart Circ. Physiol. 41): H2337-H2342, 1997] that nicotine impairs endothelium-dependent arteriolar dilatation. However, mechanisms that accounted for the effect of nicotine on endothelium-dependent vasodilatation were not examined. Thus the goal of this study was to examine the role of oxygen radicals in nicotine-induced ...
Motterlini R - - 1998
The enzyme heme oxygenase, which exists in inducible (HO-1) and constitutive (HO-2) isoforms, catalyzes the degradation of heme to biliverdin and CO in mammalian tissues. CO has been implicated in the control of vascular tone in a manner similar to that for NO. In the present study, we investigated the ...
Rosenblum W I - - 1998
Evidence from investigations of brain microcirculation (pial arterioles) reveals at least 3 different endothelium (EC) dependent mechanisms for dilation. Only one of the three can be triggered by acetylcholine (ACh) and in this vascular bed it is only this path that is dependent upon endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS) which ...
Kitiyakara C - - 1998
Increasing evidence implicates reactive oxygen species in the pathogenesis of hypertension and its cardiovascular complications. By altering the balance in the endothelium between vasoconstrictors such as thromboxane and isoprostanes and vasodilators such as nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species contribute to endothelium-dependent contractions and increased vascular resistance. Antioxidants can restore endothelial ...
Rise I R - - 1998
OBJECT: The authors tested the hypothesis in a porcine model that inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis during reduced cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) affected the relative cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the cerebrovascular resistance. METHODS: The CPP was reduced by inducing high cerebrospinal fluid pressure and hemorrhagic hypotension. With continuous blood ...
Chole R A - - 1998
In this study, the auditory bulla of the gerbil was pressurized, leading to active modeling of the bone of the bulla wall with a significant increase in osteoclast surface and mineral apposition rate. Systemic infusion of L-N(G)-nitro-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), inhibited this modeling process. ...
Haraldsson A - - 1998
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Elevated pulmonary vascular resistance is a risk factor in heart transplantation and reversibility of high pulmonary vascular resistance is evaluated preoperatively in potential recipients using i.v. vasodilators or inhaled nitric oxide. Prostacyclin is a potent vasodilator, which when inhaled, has selective pulmonary vasodilatory properties. The aim of this ...
Galley H F - - 1998
1. Nitric oxide is a potent vasodilator which plays a major role in the control of blood pressure. The hyperdynamic circulation of cirrhosis has been linked to nitric oxide.2. We measured neutrophil nitric oxide synthase activity in relation to the level of hepatic dysfunction in patients with liver disease of ...
Strand O A - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To test the effect of a continuous infusion of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) on survival rate and hemodynamics in a pig model of endogenous peritoneal live bacterial sepsis. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized trial. SETTING: Laboratory at a university medical center. SUBJECTS: Thirty-five pigs with an average weight ...
Kiely D G - - 1998
The aim of this study was to examine whether nitric oxide (NO) has an important role in maintaining basal vascular tone in normal man by examining the effects of nitric oxide inhibition using N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) on systemic and pulmonary haemodynamics. Ten normal male volunteers 26 +/- 1.6 years were studied ...
Kellogg D L DL - - 1998
Whether nitric oxide (NO) is involved in cutaneous active vasodilation during hyperthermia in humans is unclear. We tested for a role of NO in this process during heat stress (water-perfused suits) in seven healthy subjects. Two forearm sites were instrumented with intradermal microdialysis probes. One site was perfused with the ...
Homer K - - 1998
The pulmonary vasorelaxant properties of two NONOates (diazeniumdiolates) were examined because this novel group of nitric oxide (NO) donors may be useful in pulmonary hypertension. MAHMA NONOate ((Z)-1-¿N-Methyl-N-[6-(N-methylammoniohexyl)amino]¿ diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate) and spermine NONOate ((Z)- 1-¿N-[3-aminopropyl]-N-[4-(3-aminopropylammonio)butyl]-amino¿di azen-1-ium-1,2-diolate) decomposed at different rates (half-lives 1.3 min and 73 min, respectively; 37 degrees C, pH ...
Kervin M W - - 1998
Nitric oxide (NO) is receiving interest because of its use in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Because more studies are being conducted, researchers are discovering a vast array of physiological effects attributable to NO. NO has been implicated as having a role in the endogenous regulation of blood pressure; ...
Benkusky N A - - 1998
Peroxynitrite, formed endogenously by the near diffusion-limited reaction of nitric oxide with superoxide anion, induces vascular relaxation. This effect is subject to rapid tachyphylaxis, suggesting that peroxynitrite may alter subsequent vasorelaxant responses. The present study examined the effects of peroxynitrite on mean arterial pressure and hindquarter, renal, and mesenteric vascular ...
Martínez-Orgado J - - 1998
To analyze newborn cerebrovascular autoregulation, middle cerebral arteries from 3-4-d-old piglets were cannulated, and diameter changes after transmural pressure variation were measured. After an equilibration period at 30 mm Hg, pressure was modified from 10 to 70 mm Hg in 20-mm Hg steps. Segments with endothelium showed vasodilation during pressure ...
Matsumura K - - 1998
We have determined the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) of normotensive Wistar rats. The unilateral microinjection of Nomega-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (10 nmol) to block the synthesis of NO into the NTS significantly decreased the arterial pressure, heart rate (HR) and renal sympathetic ...
Suto N - - 1998
Nitric oxide (NO) affects myocardial contractility and myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) in vitro. In alpha-chloralose-anesthetized dogs instrumented for the measurements of left ventricular (LV) pressure, LV volume using a conductance catheter, coronary blood flow, and coronary venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) using a fiber-optic catheter, LV end-systolic pressure-volume relationships (ESPVR) and ...
Shannon J R - - 1998
Systemic administration of adrenergic agonists and nitric oxide donors is used extensively to determine cardiovascular receptor sensitivity. Conclusions regarding receptor sensitivity in the presence of the baroreflex may be misleading. In 8 normal volunteers, we determined the heart rate and blood pressure changes after incremental bolus doses of isoproterenol, phenylephrine, ...
Carter A J - - 1998
PURPOSE: The effects of sildenafil, a highly selective inhibitor of cyclic guanosine monophosphate-specific phosphodiesterase type 5, on erectile function in the anesthetized dog were evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs, increases in intracavernosal pressure in the corpus cavernosum and penile blood flow were induced by pelvic nerve stimulation over ...
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