Search Results
Results 601 - 650 of 1229
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Max M - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of different concentrations of inhaled nitric oxide and doses of nebulized prostacyclin on hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in pigs. DESIGN: Prospective, controlled animal study. SETTING: Animal research facilities of an university hospital. INTERVENTIONS: After reducing the fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO(2)) from 1.0 to 0.1, two ...
McMillon R K - - 1999
We hypothesized that pacing-induced congestive heart failure alters alpha-adrenergic constriction in intrapulmonary bronchial arteries. Cumulative dose responses to norepinephrine (NE), phenylephrine (PE), acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were determined in pressurized vessel segments. ED(50) values for NE and PE were higher for control (-5.34 +/- 0.09 and -4.27 +/- ...
Kiel J W - - 1999
Previous studies show that the choroid can maintain its blood flow despite changes in perfusion pressure, behaviour possibly mediated by an autoregulatory mechanism. However, the choroid's rich autonomic innervation suggests possible neural involvement in the response. To evaluate the potential neural contribution, choroidal blood flow was measured by laser Doppler ...
Lester G D - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) in anesthetized healthy newborn foals with experimentally induced pulmonary hypertension. ANIMALS: Five 1- to 3-day-old foals. PROCEDURE: Anesthesia was induced and maintained with propofol, and foals were intubated and mechanically ventilated. Systemic pressure and pulmonary arterial pressure (P(PA)) were recorded ...
Carr J A - - 1999
The heparin-protamine interaction is a topic of intense scrutiny due to its mandatory use during cardiopulmonary bypass. It can be estimated that over 2,000,000 patients are exposed to the heparin-protamine interaction each year. From clinical and experimental observation it is known that protamine neutralization of heparin causes increased pulmonary artery ...
Wallis R M - - 1999
Sildenafil (1-[4-ethoxy-3-(6,7-dihydro-1-methyl-7-oxo-3-propyl-1H-pyrazolo [4,3-d]pyrimidin-5-yl) phenylsulphonyl]-4-methylpiperazine) has been shown to be an effective oral treatment for male erectile dysfunction. Sildenafil is a potent competitive inhibitor of PDE5 (IC50 3.5 nM) and is selective over PDE1 to 4 (80 to 19,000-fold) and retinal PDE6 (10-fold). Sildenafil enhanced cGMP accumulation driven with sodium nitroprusside ...
Faro R - - 1999
1. The role of the heart rate modulating the decrease in cardiac output induced by the nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) was investigated in anaesthetized dogs. This was achieved in dogs in which a positive pacemaker (PM) cable was located at the right ventricle. 2. The haemodynamic ...
Wang X - - 1999
Inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthase by N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) increases arterial pressure (PA) and profoundly reduces renal blood flow (RBF). Here we report that L-NAME causes changes in the PA-RBF transfer function which suggest augmentation of the approximately 0.2 Hz autoregulatory mechanism. Attenuation of PA fluctuations from 0.06 ...
Taddei S - - 1999
BACKGROUND: In essential hypertension, endothelium-dependent vasodilation is impaired because of reduced nitric oxide (NO) availability, which is mainly caused by oxidative stress. The present study was designed to identify the mechanism(s) responsible for NO-independent vasodilation to bradykinin in patients with essential hypertension. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 16 healthy subjects (49.5+/-5.8 ...
Ishibe Y - - 1999
We have tested if inhaled nitric oxide (NO) is beneficial in ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) lung injury using an isolated perfused rabbit lung model. Ischaemia for 60 min was followed by reperfusion and ventilation with nitric oxide 40 ppm (n = 6) or without nitric oxide ventilation (n = 6) for 60 ...
Rouzade M L - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Dietary nitrates are known to produce nitric oxide in the stomach, which may influence gastric function. AIM: To investigate whether nitrate ingestion modifies gastric sensitivity to distension through a mechanism involving nitric oxide production. METHODS: Nociception, associated with gastric distension ranging from 10 to 40 mmHg, was assessed in ...
De Somer F - - 1999
We have evaluated the effect of nitric oxide (NO) on the pressure drop across a membrane oxygenator in one in vitro model and two in vivo models (using four dogs and five pigs). In all the experiments sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was used as a NO source, whereas gaseous NO was ...
Tanus-Santos J E - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the hemodynamic effects of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) during a venous air infusion (VAI) in dogs. We also addressed the question of whether NO therapy changes thromboxane (Tx) A(2) release and nitrate/nitrite production during a VAI. DESIGN: Prospective trial. SETTING: University laboratory. INTERVENTIONS: Anesthetized mongrel dogs received ...
Berggreen E - - 1999
A study was designed to investigate the effects of close intra-arterial infusion of antagonists to the sensory neuropeptides calcitonin gene-related peptide and substance P, as well as the effect of the nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor L-NAME on pulpal blood flow and interstitial fluid pressure during resting conditions and after electrical ...
Giordano E - - 1999
A number of human diseases are linked to local reduced oxygen availability. Hypoxemia, the condition in which oxygen partial pressure in blood falls below 40 mmHg, generates a distress which leads the cells in the vascular wall to activate a genetic program inducing a homeostatic response. The effectiveness of this ...
Amarnani S - - 1999
The endothelium-dependent vasodilators ACh, histamine, and bradykinin were studied in the isolated, perfused human placental cotyledon. Histamine caused a decrease in perfusion pressure that was attenuated by cimetidine. Bradykinin, at lower concentrations (10(-20) to 10(-14) M), produced a concentration-dependent decrease in perfusion pressure, whereas at higher concentrations it produced an ...
Young L E - - 1999
Inhaled nitric oxide, a selective pulmonary vasodilator, is known to improve arterial oxygenation after cardiopulmonary bypass and during acute respiratory distress syndrome in humans. During general anaesthesia with spontaneous ventilation, healthy adult horses develop large alveolar-arterial oxygen tension differences. In this study, we have determined the effects of inhaled nitric ...
Sumino H - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To examine the influence of systemic nitric oxide (NO) synthesis on blood pressure in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing haemodialysis, since nitric oxides are susceptible to renal excretion or are dialysed, a different indicator that is unaffected by renal function, such as the level of exhaled NO was ...
Liefeldt L - - 1999
Previous studies have characterized the endothelin peptides (ET-1, ET-2, ET-3) as strong vasoconstrictors which are possibly involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Whereas ET-1 and ET-3 have been characterized using a number of approaches, little is known about the function of ET-2. The aim of this study was to ...
Warden D H - - 1999
In the glycerol model of renal injury we describe an acute rise in systemic arterial pressure which is attended by a reduced vasodilatory response to acetylcholine in vivo; vasodilatory responses to verapamil, however, were not impaired. Neither arginine nor sodium nitroprusside diminished this rise in blood pressure; N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester ...
Buhimschi C S - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of chronic nitric oxide synthase inhibition on heart rate and intravascular blood pressure in unrestrained pregnant rats as recorded by radiotelemetry. STUDY DESIGN: Heart rate and systolic and diastolic blood pressures were monitored beginning with day 6 of pregnancy ...
Calvet J H - - 1999
Effects of increased ambient pressure on mucociliary clearance have been poorly investigated. The effects of increasing pressures on ciliary beat frequency (CBF) of guinea-pig tracheal rings were studied in vitro. Increased pressures of 25 and 100 kPa induced a significant and equivalent enhancement of CBF from 30 min after the ...
Sweeney C R - - 1999
The effect of inhaled nitric oxide on pulmonary mechanics was studied in normal standing horses with histamine-induced bronchoconstriction. The respiratory health status of 6 normal horses was established on the basis of history, clinical and bronchoalveolar lavage examination. Intrathoracic pressures were estimated using distal oesophageal pressures. Respiratory gas flows were ...
Tarbell J M - - 1999
Significant changes in transvascular pressure occur in pulmonary hypertension, microgravity, and many other physiological and pathophysiological circumstances. Using bovine aortic endothelial cells grown on porous, rigid supports, we demonstrate that step changes in transmural pressure of 10, 20, and 30 cmH(2)O induce significant elevations in endothelial hydraulic conductivity (L(p)) that ...
Aranda M - - 1999
Both inhaled nitric oxide (NO) and IV vasodilators decrease pulmonary hypertension, but the effects of combination therapy are unknown. We studied the response to inhaled NO (100 ppm) alone, IV vasodilator alone, and combined therapy during acute (U46619-induced) and chronic (monocrotaline-induced) pulmonary hypertension in the pentobarbital-anesthetized rat. Vasodilator doses were ...
Exner D V - - 1999
In vitro studies indicate that nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors alter sinus node automaticity. Moreover, whereas the systemic delivery of N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), a NOS inhibitor, results in sinus bradycardia and arterial hypertension, its intracoronary administration has little effect on sinus heart rate. Therefore whether L-NMMA directly alters sinus node function ...
Vozzo R - - 1999
Animal studies suggest that nitric oxide (NO) may be a physiological regulator of appetite; NO synthase (NOS) inhibition suppresses food intake in rats, mice, and chickens. It is not known whether NO has any effect on appetite in humans. We have used NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) and NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), both ...
Vandivier R W - - 1999
Ibuprofen has been shown in vitro to modulate production of nitric oxide (NO), a mediator of sepsis-induced hypotension. We sought to determine whether ibuprofen alters NO production and, thereby, vascular tone, in normal and endotoxin-challenged volunteers. Techniques for detecting NO were validated in 17 subjects infused with sodium nitroprusside, a ...
Rossoni G - - 1999
The aim of the present work was to assess if the cardioprotective drug defibrotide could counteract the hypercholesterolemia noxious effects on cardiovascular function. Aortas and hearts from normal- or cholesterol-fed rabbits, treated or not with chronic oral defibrotide (100 mg/kg/day) for 45 days, were used in in vitro tests throughout ...
Stauss H M - - 1999
It has been shown previously that endogenous nitric oxide can buffer arterial blood pressure variability in dogs and rats. In these former studies, all isoforms of the nitric oxide synthase were blocked pharmacologically and an increased blood pressure variability was observed. Thus the question as to which isoform of the ...
Champion H C - - 1999
PURPOSE: The effects of novel nitric oxide (NO) donors administered intracavernosally and transurethrally on erectile function in the anesthetized cat were evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In pentobarbital-anesthetized cats, increases in intracavernosal pressure, penile length, and duration of erectile response were determined after intracavernosal and transurethral injections of novel NO donors ...
Cipolla M J - - 1999
The vasoactive effects of propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC) on human arteries, including endothelial and smooth muscle cell influences, were studied. Small (less than 200 microm) subcutaneous fat arteries (n = 19), obtained from human patients undergoing vascular surgery, were dissected and mounted in an arteriograph system that allowed measurement of lumen diameter ...
Ream R S - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To describe the effects of inhaled nitric oxide on oxygenation and ventilation in patients with acute, hypoxic respiratory failure and to characterize those who respond to low doses with a significant improvement in PaO2. DESIGN: Prospective dose response trial of inhaled nitric oxide. Patients who demonstrated a > or ...
Ward M E - - 1999
The in vitro responses to ACh, flow, and hypoxia were studied in arterioles isolated from the diaphragms of rats. The endothelium was removed in some vessels by low-pressure air perfusion. In endothelium-intact arterioles, pressurized to 70 mmHg in the absence of luminal flow, ACh (10(-5) M) elicited dilation (from 103 ...
Kwon Y M - - 1999
1. To elucidate the physiological role of nitric oxide (NO) in regulating vascular tone, the effects of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), an NO synthase inhibitor, on the vasoconstrictor response to noradrenaline (NA) in rat caudal artery was examined. 2. NG-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester significantly potentiated the NA-induced increase in perfusion pressure ...
Miller S L - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: We studied the role of nitric oxide in the maintenance of uterine vascular tone during pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: Late-pregnant ewes were instrumented with ultrasonographic flow probes on the left and right main uterine arteries. A catheter was passed retrogradely into 1 uterine artery from a tributary. In 14 animals ...
Andersson K E - - 1999
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to develop a quantitative, awake animal model to investigate the effect of sildenafil on centrally-evoked erectile activity. METHODS: Intracavernous pressures were recorded in awake, male Sprague Dawley rats after administration of apomorphine (100 or 250 microg./kg. subcutaneously). Sildenafil (100 microg./kg. intravenously) was then ...
Schmidt R J RJ Departments of Medicine, Robert C. Byrd Health Sciences Center, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506, - - 1999
To test the hypothesis that nitric oxide (NO) deficiency occurs in end-stage renal disease (ESRD), NO oxidation products (NO2 + NO3 = NOx) and cGMP were measured in blood, urine, and dialysate effluent of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and compared with blood and urine of healthy subjects. All subjects were ...
Taler S J SJ Division of Hypertension and Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, - - 1999
Blood pressure increases soon after administration of immunosuppressive regimens using cyclosporin. Characteristic vascular changes lead to systemic and renal vasoconstriction. Changes in blood pressure are commonly associated with disturbed circadian regulation and may promote the rapid development of target organ injury, including intracranial haemorrhage, left ventricular hypertrophy and microangiopathic haemolysis. ...
Berkenbosch J W - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To describe the use of inhaled nitric oxide in the management of refractory postoperative chylothorax. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: A pediatric intensive care unit of a tertiary care children's hospital. PATIENT: A neonate with refractory chylothoraces complicated by moderate pulmonary hypertension after a complicated arterial switch operation. INTERVENTIONS: Administration ...
Sander M - - 1999
In experimental animals, systemic administration of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors causes large increases in blood pressure that are in part sympathetically mediated. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which these conclusions can be extrapolated to humans. In healthy normotensive humans, we measured blood pressure ...
Kellogg D L DL - - 1999
Local warming of skin induces vasodilation by unknown mechanisms. To test whether nitric oxide (NO) is involved, we examined effects of NO synthase (NOS) inhibition with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) on vasodilation induced by local warming of skin in six subjects. Two adjacent sites on the forearm were instrumented with ...
Jones S C - - 1999
The maintenance of constant cerebral blood flow (CBF) as arterial blood pressure is reduced, commonly referred to as CBF-pressure autoregulation, is typically characterized by a plateau until the vasodilatory capacity is exhausted at the lower limit, after which flow falls linearly with pressure. We investigated the effect of cortical, as ...
Pollock D M - - 1999
1. Chronic inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) results in a persistent hypertension, while chronic blockade of endothelin ETA receptors has little effect on arterial pressure. These findings indicate that nitric oxide (NO) plays a more significant role than ET-1 in the long-term maintenance of arterial pressure. 2. Although endothelin ...
Milstein J M - - 1999
To determine whether systemic cardiovascular responses to gram-negative endotoxemia are mediated by nitric oxide, we evaluated time-dependent changes in contractility and hemodynamics in a neonatal sheep model subjected to nitric oxide synthesis inhibition with L-Name (Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester). Four groups were studied: control (C), endotoxin (E), endotoxin L-Name where the ...
Tilton R G - - 1999
PURPOSE: To explore the effects of brief intravenous (IV) infusion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on vascular albumin permeability, blood flow, and vascular conductance (blood flow normalized to arterial blood pressure) in ocular tissues and brain and to assess the role of nitric oxide in mediating these changes. METHODS: ...
Powel V - - 1999
Developmental changes in modulation of pulmonary vasomotor tone by endothelium-derived nitric oxide (EDNO) may reflect maturational differences in endothelial synthesis of and/or vascular smooth muscle response to nitric oxide. This study sought to determine whether pulmonary vascular sensitivity and responsiveness to nitric oxide change during newborn development, and whether this ...
Hui C - - 1999
To investigate the relationships between the activity in potential operated Ca2+ channels (POC), blood pressure, and endothelium in hypertension, we tested the contractile responses to a Ca2+ channel agonist Bay K 8644 (BAY K) in aorta from deoxycorticosterone-acetate-saline (DOCA-S) and reduced renal mass-saline (RRM-S) hypertensive rats. The effects of mechanical ...
Ascuitto R J - - 1999
Isolated, paced, isovolumically beating, neonatal pig ( approximately 2 days) hearts were perfused with a crystalloid solution during four periods: (1) baseline, HR 150 bpm; (2) HR-response curves, HR 150-360 bpm; (3) tachycardia, HR 300 bpm; and (4) posttachycardia, HR 150 bpm. Group I was studied with glucose (5. 5 ...
Bracht C - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: The use of cyclosporine A after organ transplantation is associated with a high incidence of hypertension, but the underlying mechanisms for this process are not clear. We investigated the effects of blockade of basal release of endothelial nitric oxide and the effects of endothelium-independent and -dependent vasodilators and vasoconstrictors ...
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