Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 1217
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Kanniess F - - 2001
Inhaled nitric oxide (NO) has been reported to improve oxygenation in patients with COPD if administered in combination with oxygen (O2). Little, however, is known about the variability of these effects and the potential influence of body position. Twenty-six spontaneously breathing patients with moderate to severe COPD inhaled clean air, ...
Nilsson I L - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Endothelial vasodilatory dysfunction occurs in primary hyperparathyroidism. Mechanistically it could be a sign of atherosclerosis, but improvement after parathyroidectomy suggests coupling to hypercalcemia and increased parathyroid hormone levels of patients. METHOD: A total of 12 volunteers underwent forearm venous occlusion plethysmography with systemic (intravenous) and local (brachial artery) infusion ...
Tjen-A-Looi S C - - 2001
A number of studies have demonstrated an important role for nitric oxide (NO) in central and peripheral neural modulation of sympathetic activity. To assess the interaction and integrative effects of NO release and sympathetic reflex actions, we investigated the influence of inhibition of NO on cardiac-cardiovascular reflexes. In anesthetized, sinoaortic-denervated ...
Middelveld R J - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO) is thought to be an important mediator of inflammatory processes during allergic reactions in the respiratory tract. OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of inhalation of NO on the allergen-induced acute airway reactions in the pig. METHODS: Specific pathogen-free pigs were sensitized with ...
Nelin L D - - 2001
Eleven children were studied during L-arginine infusion. Blood pressure decreased, and mean plasma L-arginine and L-citrulline increased compared with baseline levels. The change in blood pressure was inversely related to the change in plasma L-citrulline. These results suggest that L-arginine decreased blood pressure via increased nitric oxide production.
Schiffrin E L - - 2001
The endothelium produces a variety of substances that play important roles in regulation of the circulation and vascular wall homeostasis. The control of blood vessel wall homeostasis is achieved via production of vasorelaxants and vasoconstrictors. Among the vasorelaxants are nitric oxide (NO), prostacyclin, various endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHFs, such as ...
Schuijt M P - - 2001
To evaluate the modulating effects of nitric oxide and prostanoids during angiotensin II-mediated vasoconstriction, male Wistar rats (n=25) were infused with increasing doses of angiotensin II following pretreatment with the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin, the nitric oxide-synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) plus sodium nitroprusside to restore mean arterial blood pressure, ...
Matrougui K - - 2001
The effect of high NaCl diet on resistance arteries is not yet fully documented. In order to assess the effect of NaCl on myogenic tone and flow-induced dilation independent of arterial blood pressure change, we used normotensive rats which did not develop hypertension upon high NaCl intake. Normotensive Wistar Kyoto ...
Malvezzi C K - - 2001
Lead (Pb)-induced hypertension is characterized by an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a decrease in nitric oxide (NO). In the present study we evaluated the effect of L-arginine (NO precursor), dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA, a chelating agent and ROS scavenger), and the association of L-arginine/DMSA on tissue Pb mobilization ...
Gori T - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: We studied the effects of nitroglycerin (GTN) therapy on the response to endothelium-dependent and independent vasoactive agents in the forearm circulation of healthy subjects. BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that therapy with GTN may induce specific changes in endothelial cell function, including increased superoxide anion production and sensitivity to vasoconstrictors. ...
Vincent R - - 2001
Wistar rats were exposed for 4 hours by nose-only inhalation to clean air, resuspended Ottawa ambient particles (EHC-93*, 48 mg/m3), the water-leached particles (EHC-93L, 49 mg/m3), diesel soot (5 mg/m3), or carbon black (5 mg/m3). Continuous data for physiologic endpoints (heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, animal's activity) were captured ...
Hardy P - - 2001
We examined whether nitric oxide (NO) generated from neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) contributes to the reduced ability of the newborn to autoregulate retinal blood flow (RBF) and choroidal blood flow (ChBF) during acute rises in perfusion pressure. In newborn pigs (1-2 days old), RBF (measured by microsphere) is autoregulated over ...
Morita Y - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Bilirubin apparently functions as an antioxidant in vivo by reacting with reactive oxygen species, and, as a result, becomes oxidized. The urinary excretion of oxidative metabolites of bilirubin, biopyrrins, could be a biological marker for in vivo production of reactive oxygen species. The purpose of this study was to ...
Fulep E E - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor regulates rat uterine circulation in pregnant rats. STUDY DESIGN: Intact isolated uterine vascular beds from late pregnant rats were perfused in situ with Krebs buffer that contained dextran, indomethacin, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, and phenylephrine. Endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor-induced ...
Matousek M - - 2001
BACKGROUND: ovulation is associated with degradation of the follicular apex vasodilatation and increased permeability of ovarian vessels. These changes may maintain or increase intrafollicular pressure (IFP) at ovulation to cause rupture of the follicular wall. OBJECTIVE: to investigate the possible regulation of IFP during the ovulatory process. STUDY DESIGN: immature ...
Lepori M - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Cholinergic vasodilation has been thought to play little if any role in the regulation of blood pressure in humans. Autonomic denervation potentiates the vasoconstriction evoked by nitric oxide synthase inhibition in humans, but the mechanism is unclear. We hypothesized that this may be related to loss of neuronal, non-nitric-oxide-dependent ...
Su Y C - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Studies in animals indicate that endogenous nitric oxide (NO) is an important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the gastrointestinal tract and that it modulates food intake. We evaluate the role of NO mechanisms in mediating the effects of small intestinal nutrients on antropyloroduodenal motility and appetite in humans. METHODS: On 2 ...
Vaziri N D - - 2001
Although recombinant erythropoietin has no short-acting pressor effect in vivo, its long-term administration frequently raises arterial pressure in humans and animals, with renal insufficiency. Contrary to the original view, erythropoietin-induced hypertension is not due to amelioration of anemia, because a similar rise in blood pressure occurs, despite persistent anemia, in ...
Dishy V - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Sildenafil, a treatment for erectile dysfunction, is a specific phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE 5) inhibitor that enhances nitric oxide (NO)-mediated vasodilation in the corpus cavernosum by inhibiting cyclic guanosine monophosphate breakdown. Since PDE 5 is widely expressed in the vasculature, we examined the hypothesis that sildenafil could enhance NO-mediated ...
Deng Y - - 2001
During the course of our studies into the control of fluid extravasation from the splenic vasculature, we found that intrasplenic inhibition of NO biosynthesis caused an increase in systemic blood pressure. The present experiments were designed to investigate the mechanisms underlying this novel observation. There was an increase in mean ...
Davis K R - - 2001
Raised homocysteine (hcy) levels are associated with premature coronary artery disease, but the underlying vascular mechanism and the extent to which hcy affects small vessel vasodilator responses (especially non-nitric oxide mediated pathways) are unclear. This double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study in 14 healthy male subjects evaluated the effects of single-dose oral ...
Paolocci N - - 2001
Nitroxyl anion (NO(-)) is the one-electron reduction product of nitric oxide (NO( small middle dot)) and is enzymatically generated by NO synthase in vitro. The physiologic activity and mechanism of action of NO(-) in vivo remains unknown. The NO(-) generator Angeli's salt (AS, Na(2)N(2)O(3)) was administered to conscious chronically instrumented ...
Brunner F - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence suggests a possible role for nitric oxide (NO) in atrial natriuretic peptide-induced blood pressure effects. We tested the hypothesis that C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP)-mediated relaxation of the rat coronary circulation involves NO and activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase. METHODS: Rat hearts (n=6 per group) were perfused in ...
Kaikita K - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Long-term inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is known to induce hypertension and perivascular fibrosis. Recent evidence also suggests that long-term NOS inhibition induces expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in vascular tissues and that PAI-1 may contribute to the development of fibrosis after chemical or ionizing injury. On ...
Taddei S - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: Essential hypertension is associated with impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation caused by oxygen free radical-induced nitric oxide (NO) breakdown. Since calcium antagonists can improve endothelial function in hypertensive patients, we tested whether this beneficial effect could be related to restoration of NO availability by antioxidant activity. METHODS: In 10 healthy subjects ...
Suzuki S - - 2001
BACKGROUND: This study was performed to determine whether a combined therapy of nitric oxide (NO) inhalation and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor is effective in experimental animals with endotoxin-induced refractive hypotension accompanied by pulmonary hypertension. METHODS: Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (1 mg/kg) was administered to 10 newborn piglets to induce endotoxemia. ...
Schneider J C - - 2001
It was hypothesized that hypoxia may inhibit nitric oxide (NO) production by reducing the availability of endothelial NO synthase (NOS III) substrate. To evaluate the effect of L-arginine on the NO release in high altitude, 11 subjects were infused with L-arginine (0.5 g x kg(-1)) during 30 min in normoxia ...
Tzemos N - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial dysfunction may predict future atherosclerosis. Hence, an antihypertensive agent that reverses endothelial dysfunction and lowers blood pressure might improve the prognosis of patients with hypertension. We hypothesized that nebivolol, a vasodilating beta-blocker, could improve endothelial dysfunction. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the effects of nebivolol and ...
Kaufman S - - 2001
1. We studied the effect of adrenomedullin (ADM) on fluid efflux from the splenic vasculature into extravascular spaces. 2. Splenic arterial infusion of ADM (1, 3 and 9 ng min(-1); n = 9, 11 and 10, respectively) caused a dose-dependent increase in intrasplenic fluid efflux (+0.6 +/- 0.3 (saline) vs. ...
Chen L - - 2001
On withdrawal of inhalation of nitric oxide (INO) administered after lung injury, pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and arterial oxygen tension (Pa(O(2))) may deteriorate more than before INO (rebound response). In this study, we investigated the possible roles of endothelin (ET)-1 and nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) activity in the short ...
Bivalacqua T J - - 2001
Controlled release of nitric oxide (NO*) may be useful in the treatment of a variety of vascular disorders. NO* donors of the diazeniumdiolate family with different rates of spontaneous NO* release have been synthesized. In the current study responses to seven diazeniumdiolate NO* donors (DEA/NO*, DETA/NO*, OXI/NO*, PIPERAZI/NO*, PROLI/NO*, SPER/NO*, ...
Pevni D - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to assess the role of the nitric oxide (NO) pathway in protamine-induced cardiotoxicity and to formulate a possible explanation for this adverse effect. METHODS: Isolated rat hearts were perfused by Krebs--Henseleit (KH) solution using a modified Langendorff model. They were randomized into three ...
Crystal G J - - 2001
Despite intensive investigation, the role of nitric oxide (NO) in cholinergic modulation of myocardial contractility remains unresolved. The left anterior descending coronary artery of 34 anesthetized, open-chest dogs was perfused via an extracorporeal circuit. Segmental shortening (SS) was measured with ultrasonic crystals and coronary blood flow (CBF) was measured with ...
Kumagai Y - - 2001
Diesel exhaust particles cause an impairment of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation and are associated with cardiopulmonary-related diseases and mortality, but the mechanistic details are poorly understood. Since we reported previously that phenanthraquinone, an environmental chemical contained in diesel exhaust particles, suppresses neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) activity by shunting electrons away from ...
McMahon C J - - 2001
A 14 month old child presented for investigation of tachypnoea. No parenchymal lung disease was shown on chest x ray. On echocardiography there was normal intracardiac anatomy with significant pulmonary hypertension. At cardiac catheterisation the presence of primary pulmonary hypertension was confirmed, with a partial response to inhaled nitric oxide ...
Nakano T - - 2001
BACKGROUND: The effects of pulsatile flow on endothelium-derived nitric oxide-mediated vasodilation are not fully elucidated in an in vivo model. METHODS: A left ventricular assist device was established in 10 anesthetized dogs with a centrifugal pump and an air-driven pneumatic pump. The systemic circulation was subjected to step changes in ...
Ruschitzka F - - 2001
BACKGROUND: The enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD) prevents inappropriate activation of the nonselective mineralocorticoid receptors by glucocorticoids. Renal activity of 11beta-HSD is decreased in patients with apparent mineralocorticoid excess (SAME), licorice-induced hypertension, and essential hypertension. Although expressed in vascular cells, the role of 11beta-HSD in the regulation of vascular tone remains ...
Tatemoto K - - 2001
Apelin is an endogenous ligand of the human orphan receptor APJ. We detected apelin-like immunoreactivity in the adipocytes, gastric mucosa, and Kupffer cells in the liver. We also detected apelin-like immunoreactivity localized within the endothelia of small arteries in various organs. Further, it was found that mean arterial pressure after ...
Skimming J W - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that nitric oxide inhalation facilitates CO2 elimination by decreasing alveolar deadspace in an ovine model of acute lung injury. DESIGN: Prospective, placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover model. SETTING: University research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Eleven mixed-breed adult sheep. INTERVENTIONS: To induce acute lung injury, hydrochloric acid was instilled into ...
Chan S H - - 2001
We investigated the contribution of neuronal or inducible nitric oxide synthase (nNOS or iNOS) at the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) to central cardiovascular regulation by endogenous nitric oxide (NO), using Sprague-Dawley rats anaesthetized and maintained with propofol. Microinjection bilaterally into the RVLM of a NO trapping agent, carboxy-2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-l-oxy-l-3-oxide (10, 50 ...
Bracht C - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: The dihydropyridine calcium antagonist isradipine has anti-atherosclerotic effects in animals and improves endothelium-mediated nitric oxide (NO)-dependent vasodilation in vitro. As improved endothelial function may be beneficial we investigated its effects in patients with a high likelihood of endothelial dysfunction. DESIGN: Thirty patients (two female, age 55.4 +/- 10.5 years) ...
Orbach P - - 2001
1. Hypoadrenocorticism frequently results in critical hypotension, hypovolaemia, hyponatraemia and hyperkalaemia. Perhaps even more important, hypoadrenocorticoid humans experience decreased vasoconstriction in response to exogenous administration of vasoconstrictors, such as noradrenaline. 2. We studied chronically adrenalectomized adult sheep to test the hypothesis that the reduction in pressor responsiveness is the result ...
Mychaskiw G - - 2001
Sildenafil is a selective phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor used in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. We report the use of sildenafil to blunt the rebound pulmonary hypertension seen following withdrawal of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) and milrinone. The relatively long duration of sildenafil's action on pulmonary artery pressures and lack ...
Sener A - - 2001
Experiments were carried out in conscious chronically instrumented lambs aged 1 (n = 6) and 6 wk (n = 5) to evaluate the arterial baroreflex control of heart rate (HR) during postnatal maturation and to investigate any modulatory role of endogenously produced nitric oxide (NO). Before and after intravenous administration ...
Imbrogno S - - 2001
Nothing is known about the effects of nitric oxide (NO) on cardiac performance in fish. Using an in vitro working heart preparation that generates physiological values of output pressure, cardiac output and ventricular work and power, we assessed the effects of NO on the cardiac performance of the eel Anguilla ...
Hiraga H - - 2001
FK409 decomposes and releases nitric oxide (NO) spontaneously when it is dissolved in phosphate buffer solution at 37 degrees C. With the use of this NO donor, the effect of exogenous NO on cardiac contractility was examined by assessing Emax. alpha-chloralose-anaesthetized dogs were instrumented for measurements of left ventricular (LV) ...
Orem A - - 2001
Endothelium takes part in the regulation of vascular tone through the production of endothelium-derived relaxing factor, nitric oxide (NO), and the contracting factor endothelin-(ET-1). Induction of ET-1 and NO is influenced by many stimuli including hypoxia and shear stress. Some of these stimuli may arise during coronary angiography (CAG). In ...
Andrew P S - - 2001
We hypothesized that nitric oxide (NO) contributes to intrasplenic fluid extravasation by inducing greater relaxation in splenic resistance arteries than veins such that intrasplenic microvascular pressure (P(C)) rises. Fluid efflux was estimated by measuring the difference between splenic blood inflow and outflow. Intrasplenic infusion of the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) ...
Gorenflo M - - 2001
Asymmetrical dimethyl-L-arginine (ADMA) is an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. We hypothesized that plasma levels of ADMA could be increased in patients with congenital heart disease and pulmonary hypertension. Cardiac catheterization was performed in 20 children and young adults with congenital heart disease with a median age of 10 ...
Doursout M F - - 2001
The aim of this study was to elucidate cardiac and regional hemodynamics using a nonspecific inhibitor of the constitutive and inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS), N-methyl-L-arginine (L-NMA), and a specific inhibitor of the inducible NOS, aminoguanidine, in conscious pigs. Animals were divided into two groups. After hemodynamics were stabilized, animals ...
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