Search Results
Results 601 - 650 of 1372
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Hoffman W E - - 1996
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated brain tissue oxygen pressure (PO2), carbon dioxide pressure (PCO2), and pH in a patient during hypothermic circulatory arrest. METHODS: A combined PO2, PCO2, and pH sensor was placed in cortex tissue. Brain temperature was then decreased to 17 degrees C followed by circulatory arrest for 44 ...
Wahr J A - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: The accuracy and precision of the new IRMA (Immediate Response Mobile Analysis System, Diametrics, Inc., St. Paul, MN) handheld blood gas analyzer was compared with that of two benchtop blood gas analyzers. The IRMA consists of a notebook-sized machine and disposable cartridges, each containing a pH, a CO2 and ...
Matta B F - - 1996
We have studied cerebral autoregulation and vasoreactivity to carbon dioxide in 10 patients with the sepsis syndrome receiving intensive therapy. All patients were sedated with infusions of midazolam and fentanyl, and their lungs were ventilated mechanically with oxygen-air to maintain normoxia and normocapnia. Inotropic support and antibiotics were administered as ...
Rishimani A S - - 1996
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (lapchole) is a safe procedure. Most of the complications are operation related. The complications related to increased intraabdominal pressure (IAP) are well recognized, but not emphasized enough. The changes in physiological parameters at different IAPs were studied to evaluate the usefulness of reduced IAP in minimizing these changes. ...
Tobias J D - - 1996
The authors prospectively examined the cardiorespiratory changes seen with general anesthesia using the laryngeal mask with spontaneous ventilation during brief laparoscopic inspection of the peritoneum in children. Anesthesia consisted of halothane in 50% oxygen/air and a caudal epidural block. The patient was allowed to ventilate spontaneously without assistance. Baseline measurements ...
Altarac S - - 1996
In a 71-year-old female marked left-sided ureteral stenosis secondary to retroperitoneal fibrosis was diagnosed. Since conservative therapy with cortisone had failed, laparoscopic ureterolysis was performed. Following tracheal intubation the lungs were ventilated with 40 vol% O2 in air and isoflurane 0.5-2%, using a positive end-expiratory pressure of 6 cm H2O. ...
Rudston-Brown B C - - 1996
PURPOSE: Subcutaneous emphysema following laparoscopy could result in postoperative respiratory acidosis from prolonged CO2 absorption. We studied the magnitude and duration of alterations in PaCO2 coincident with direct CO2 insufflation into the subcutaneous fat of the anterior abdominal wall of 5 anesthetized juvenile pigs. METHODS: First, each pig was insufflated ...
Marcus D R - - 1996
BACKGROUND: We conducted this animal study to investigate the cardiopulmonary effects of carbon dioxide pneumothorax during laparoscopic surgery and determine what intervention, if any, is necessary for this phenomenon. METHODS: A swine animal model was used (n = 8). Animals were anesthetized and underwent peritoneal insufflation with carbon dioxide. A ...
Bures E - - 1996
BACKGROUND: During laparoscopic cholecystectomy the arterial-end-tidal CO2 gradient (Fa-ETCO2) has been variously shown to be unchanged, increased, decreased or even negative. The goal of this study was to evaluate Fa-ETCO2, and to determine the proper contribution of VECO2 and VA in regard to the increase of FETCO2. METHODS: Ventilatory patterns ...
Kerr M E - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To examine the agreement and association of a noninvasive method of measuring CO2 (using end-tidal PCO2) with PaCO2 in mechanically ventilated adults with severe head trauma. DESIGN: A prospective, quasi-experimental, repeated-measures study was used to compare end-tidal PCO2 and PaCO2 at two time points: before and after a standardized ...
Breen P H - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: The pulmonary elimination of the volume of CO2 per breath (VCO2/br, integration of product of airway flow (V) and PCO2 over a single breath) is a sensitive monitor of cardio-pulmonary function and tissue metabolism. Negligible inspired PCO2 results when the capnometry sampling site (SS) is positioned at the entry ...
Thaler W - - 1996
This experimental study compared the effects of laparoscopic (n = 31) and open (n = 32) cholecystectomy on gastric intramucosal pH (pHi). For this purpose, pHi was measured tonometrically before induction of anaesthesia, at 30-min intervals during surgery, and 1, 2 and 4 h after operation in otherwise healthy patients ...
Giebler R M - - 1996
Intraoperative complications and hemodynamic alterations during posterior capnoretroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy in the prone position were investigated in 16 consecutive patients using invasive hemodynamic monitoring. Under general anesthesia with propofol and fentanyl, hemodynamic changes were made before (M1) and during retroperitoneal CO2 insufflation (15 mm Hg) [M2]; 20 mm Hg [M3]. Retroperitoneal ...
Kazama T - - 1996
In pneumoperitoneum, carbon dioxide eliminated in expired gas (carbon dioxide output) contains both metabolic and absorbed carbon dioxide from the peritoneal cavity. When elimination of carbon dioxide is much higher than carbon dioxide output, storage of tissue carbon dioxide and arterial carbon dioxide concentrations change. Finally, the rate of carbon ...
Hernan L J - - 1996
OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that a) perfluorocarbon-associated gas exchange could be accomplished in normal large sheep; b) the determinants of gas exchange would be similar during perfluorocarbon-associated gas exchange and conventional gas ventilation; c)in large animals with lung injury, perfluorocarbon-associated gas exchange could be used to enhance gas exchange without adverse ...
Eckmann D M - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To determine if high-frequency external chest wall vibration added to low flow intratracheal fresh gas insufflation alters the intra-airway CO2 distribution and the resistance to CO2 transport from the lungs. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Experimental laboratory. SUBJECTS: Six adult anesthesized and paralyzed mongrel dogs (mean weight 24.3+/- 4.4 kg). ...
Dolan S - - 1996
OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy of tracheal insufflation delivered by two different catheter designs on CO2 elimination when used in conjunction with high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. DESIGN: A nonrandomized before and after trial. Each animal served as his own control. SUBJECTS: Ten mongrel dogs weighing 20.9 +/- 1.9 kg. Four animals ...
Kiiski R - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of changes in tidal volume (VT) with a constant inspiratory flow and minute ventilation (VE) on gas exchange and oxygen transport in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). DESIGN: A crossover study of three VT in two study groups, using patients as their own controls. SETTING: ...
Nyarwaya J B - - 1996
We have compared cardiorespiratory variables in anaesthetized piglets whose lungs were ventilated with oxygen in nitrous oxide (N2O group) or nitrogen (N group) after right ventricular carbon dioxide boluses (0.5 or 1 ml kg-1; n = 12) or slow graded injections (n = 6). Boluses affected all variables studied significantly ...
Davidson B S - - 1996
BACKGROUND: Alternative methods of exposure are needed for minimally invasive surgery to avoid hypercarbia and acidosis associated with carbon dioxide (CO2) abdominal insufflation. The goals of this study were to determine the pulmonary and hemodynamic effects of both helium (HE) abdominal insufflation and placement of a mechanical abdominal wall-lifting device ...
Rubin S Z - - 1996
Notwithstanding the clinical acceptability of pediatric laparoscopy, the physiological consequences of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) peritoneal insufflation on lung mechanics and gas exchange are not established. This study seeks to establish the affects of increased intraabdominal pressure (P ABD) from CO(2) insufflation on lung mechanics, the compliance of the respiratory system ...
Lands L C - - 1996
The noninvasive measurement of cardiac output (Q) by the Indirect Fick CO2-rebreathing technique requires mixed venous P CO2 (P CO2) to be determined by the rebreathing maneuver, and Pa CO2 to be estimated from end-tidal P CO2 (PET CO2). Previous work has suggested that although P CO2 can be determined, ...
Mäkinen M T - - 1996
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of pneumoperitoneum on dynamic compliance during laparoscopic cholecystectomy with continuous spirometry. DESIGN: Prospective, open clinical study with the patients serving as their own controls. SETTING: Operating room at a university hospital. PATIENTS: 11 ASA status I and II patients scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. ...
Saiki C - - 1996
1. In newborn and adult rats, hypoxia decreases metabolic rate, especially at low ambient temperatures (Ta). We examined whether a similar effect can occur during hypercapnia. 2. We measured metabolism (oxygen consumption, Vo2, open flow-through method), and expiratory ventilation (VE; barometric method (adults), airflow plethysmograph (newborns)) in air and 2% ...
Iwasaka H - - 1996
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of increased intra-abdominal pressure due to CO2 insufflation on the mechanical characteristics of the respiratory system and arterial blood gases during and after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODS: Respiratory mechanics and arterial blood gases were examined in 12 patients undergoing laparoscopic ...
Liem T K - - 1996
Abdominal CO2 insufflation has been shown to cause hypercarbia, acidemia, and decreased oxygenation in a pediatric animal model. Such metabolic derangements have prompted a search for alternative insufflation gases. This study compares the hemodynamic and ventilatory changes that occur during pneumoperitoneum with CO2 and helium. Four juvenile swine were intubated ...
Weisbach C. - - 1996
To test the hypothesis of an indirect or direct involvement of carbon metabolites in the short-term regulation of nitrogenase activity, nodule O2 permeability was manipulated either by defoliation or by varying rhizosphere O2 partial pressure. In contrast to defoliation, a 50% reduction of the nodule O2 permeability, due to adapting ...
Breen P H - - 1996
The measurement of average alveolar expired PCO2 (PAECO2) weights each PCO2 value on the alveolar plateau of the CO2 expirogram by the simultaneous change in exhaled volume. PAECO2 can be determined from a modified analysis of the Fowler anatomic dead space (VDANAT). In contrast, end-tidal PCO2 (PETCO2) only measures PCO2 ...
Basir M A - - 1996
BACKGROUND: Use of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) may result in intracellular acidosis due to the generation of CO2. Carbicarb, has been reported to be superior to sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) because of lesser generation of CO2. The present study was designed to investigate whether Carbicarb or NaHCO3 is superior to normal saline ...
Sauty A - - 1996
Arterialized ear lobe blood samples have been described as adequate to gauge gas exchange in acute and chronically ill patients. It is a safe procedure, usually performed by medical technicians. We have conducted a prospective study to verify the validity of this method. One hundred and fifteen consecutive adult patients ...
Wahba R W - - 1996
PURPOSE: This article examines and summarizes the published reports dealing with subcutaneous emphysema, pneumothorax and carbon dioxide (CO2) embolism during laparoscopic upper abdominal surgery. The purpose is to describe the expected clinical picture, the differential diagnosis and the management of these complications. SOURCE: The information was obtained from a Medline ...
Griffin Kevin L. - - 1996
We determined the short-term direct and long-term indirect effects of CO(2) on apparent dark respiration (CO(2) efflux in the dark) in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) seedlings grown in 35 or 70 Pa CO(2) partial pressure for 163 days in naturally lit, controlled-environment chambers. Two soil N treatments ...
Duke T - - 1996
Cardiopulmonary effects of laparoscopic surgery were investigated in five crossbred dogs (21 +/- 1.9 kg). Premedicated dogs were anesthetized with thiopental and maintained with halothane at 1.5 times minimum alveolar concentration in oxygen. Controlled ventilation maintained partial pressure of end-tidal CO2 at 40 +/- 2 mm Hg. Vecuronium was used ...
Volz J - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine local and systemic reactions of the body to a pneumoperitoneum to elucidate potential dangers and risks of laparoscopic procedures. STUDY DESIGN: Laparoscopy was performed on 25 pigs. The pigs were divided into five groups by level of intraabdominal pressure (14 and ...
Derouin M - - 1996
Using transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), 16 patients (ASA physical status I-III), undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy, were assessed for the occurrence of episodes of gas embolism and cardiovascular changes related to those emboli. The long-axis four-chamber view was monitored continuously, except for predetermined intervals where the transgastric short-axis view was obtained to derive ...
Corey K A - - 1996
Growth of plants in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) may involve the use of hypobaric pressures enabling lower mass requirements for atmospheres and possible enhancement of crop productivity. A controlled environment plant growth chamber with hypobaric capability designed and built at Ames Research Center was used to determine ...
Daunicht H J - - 1996
Knowledge on air pressure impacts on plant processes and growth is essential for understanding responses to altitude and for comprehending the way of action of aerial gasses in general, and is of potential importance for life support systems in space. Our research on reduced air pressure was extended by help ...
Matsuda T - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of CO2 pneumoperitoneum on respiratory function during urological laparoscopic surgery with exposure of the retroperitoneal space in the lateral decubitus position. METHODS: Arterial blood gas analysis and measurements of the partial pressure of CO2 in exhaled gas (PetCO2) were performed during CO2 pneumoperitoneum in 12 ...
Hanigan W C - - 1996
The cerebrovascular hemodynamics were recorded in two children with comparable hypoxic-ischemic injuries after strangulation. Monitoring was initiated within 13 hours of injury and continued for at least 38 hours. The profile included continuous measurements of cortical regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with a subdural thermal diffusion probe, intracranial pressure, mean ...
Mihaljevic T - - 1995
BACKGROUND: The intravascular gas exchanger is a lung assist device for augmentation of gas exchange in critically ill patients with severe acute respiratory failure. These patients often require inotropic support therapy due to the cardiovascular instability that almost inevitably accompanies severe respiratory failure. METHODS: We investigated the interaction of vasoactive ...
Makhoul I R - - 1995
Intratracheal pulmonary ventilation (ITPV) enhances the clearance of CO2 from dead space and lungs by a bias flow of gas administered in the distal trachea. ITPV flow is continuously administered through a separate catheter placed within an endotracheal tube (ETT). After exiting from catheter's tip in the distal trachea, the ...
Bhende M S - - 1995
Our objective was to evaluate a colorimetric end-tidal CO2 detector in a canine model for pediatric cardiac arrest. In a prospective unblinded study, cardiac arrest was induced in 11 anesthetized and paralyzed puppies, weighing 5.0 to 6.1 kg, by clamping the endotracheal tube (ETT) and discontinuing mechanical ventilation. During cardiopulmonary ...
Porras H - - 1995
Theophylline, a drug frequently used in newborns, stimulates respiration and increases the metabolic rate in a sustained fashion; hypoxemia, on the other hand, decreases metabolic rate and increases ventilation slightly and, at times, only transiently. This study looked at the effect of theophylline on the metabolic and ventilatory response to ...
Ortega A E - - 1995
PURPOSE: It was hypothesized that laparoscopic colon surgery may be associated with increased absorption of CO2 resulting from mobilization of lateral peritoneal reflections. METHODS: Six pigs underwent laparotomy with removal of a measured quadrant of peritoneum before insufflation to 15 mmHg with CO2. Six paired control animals also underwent insufflation ...
Patrick W - - 1995
The response of respiratory motor output to CO2 in the hypocapnic range (< 36 Torr PCO2) in the absence of hypoxemia is not well characterized in awake normal humans. We induced hypocapnia with hyperoxia in 16 normal volunteers by placing them on a volume-cycled ventilator in the assist mode. Subjects ...
Shuto K - - 1995
The effects of pneumoperitoneum with carbon dioxide and helium on systemic hemodynamics and arterial blood gases were investigated in pigs in an attempt to clarify the mechanisms by which pneumoperitoneum may induce organ dysfunction. A total of 16 anesthetized female pigs underwent pneumoperitoneum with carbon dioxide or helium (n = ...
Pelster B - - 1995
The metabolism of gas gland cells of the swimbladder epithelium is specialized for the production of acidic metabolites that are released into the blood stream and provoke an increase in gas partial pressure by reducing the effective gas-carrying capacity of the blood. In a subsequent step this initial increase in ...
Lindgren L - - 1995
We have compared, in a randomized study, conventional carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum with abdominal wall lift in 25 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) (11 (SD 2) mm Hg vs 2.7 (9) mm Hg) (P < 0.01) and total amount of carbon dioxide used (40 (23) litre vs 9 (7) ...
Wright D M - - 1995
Carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum has been shown to produce respiratory and hemodynamic changes due to both CO2 absorption and the effects of increased intraperitoneal pressure. We have measured the blood gas, end-tidal CO2, and hemodynamic changes produced during extraperitoneal CO2 insufflation (n = 22). These have been compared with the changes ...
Joris J L - - 1995
Pneumothorax can develop during laparoscopy, particularly during laparoscopic fundoplication, since the left parietal pleura is exposed and can be torn during dissection in the diaphragmatic hiatus. Such an event will result in specific pathophysiologic changes, since CO2, under pressure in the abdominal cavity, will pass into the pleural space. The ...
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