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Conway Bryan R BR British Heart Foundation/University of Edinburgh Centre for Cardiovascular - - 2014
Regression of albuminuria and renal fibrosis occurs in patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN) following tight control of blood glucose and blood pressure, however the pathways that promote regression remain poorly understood and we wished to characterise these using a rodent model. Diabetes was induced with streptozotocin in Cyp1a1mRen2 rats and ...
Peker Kemal K Department of General Surgery, Erzincan University Erzincan, - - 2014
Inguinal hernia repair is the most common surgical procedure performed by general surgeons worldwide. The Lichtenstein tension-free hernioplasty was first introduced in 1984 and evolved through 1988. Today it is the gold standard in hernia repair. The objective of this study was to determine if intra-abdominal and anal pressures changed ...
Johnson James E - - 2014
Background: Hemorrhage from the trunk?appendage junctions is a common, preventable cause of death on the battlefield. The recently U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-cleared SAM? Junctional Tourniquet (SJT) was designed to control out-of-hospital inguinal and axillary hemorrhage. The purpose of the present study was to provide safety and effectiveness data ...
Zhang Youjie - - 2013
OBJECTIVE: The goal of present study was to examine the influence of demographic characteristics, lifestyle, and metabolic factors on pressure-induced pain threshold. DESIGN AND SETTING: The study population comprised 2,517 healthy men at second-phase recruitment of a population-based cohort in China. The pressure pain threshold (PPT) at two locations, triceps ...
Takebayashi Katsushi - - 2013
BACKGROUND: This study assessed the ability of a novel microwave coagulation surgical instrument (MWCX) to seal lymphatic vessels when compared with LigaSure (Valleylab, Boulder, CO), the Harmonic Scalpel (HS; Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Cincinnati, OH), and electric cautery. METHODS: The burst pressure of pig inguinal lymphatic vessels was assessed after the sealing ...
Alidousti Hamidreza - - 2011
When there is a debonding at the bone-implant interface, the difference in stiffness between the implant and the bone can result in micromotion, allowing existing gaps to open further or new gaps to be created during physiological loading. It has been suggested that periprosthetic fluid flow and high pressure may ...
Lee Sae Yong - - 2011
CONTEXT. Altered foot dynamics due to the malalignment of the foot may change plantar pressure properties which result in various kinds of overuse injuries. OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of foot characteristics on plantar pressure related measures such as maximum pressure, maximum pressure time, ...
Kulkarni Prasad K - - 2011
Guidelines for measuring blood pressure includes measurement of blood pressure on both arms but it is often ignored. Our case report aims at highlighting the need follow the guidelines. A 60 year old 59 kg weighing male asymptomatic patient without any comobidities was posted for bilateral inguinal hernia repair. The ...
Farley Chad W - - 2011
ABSTRACT: Study Design. In vitro cadaveric study of thoracic spinal cord intramedullary pressure (IMP) in kyphotic deformity.Objective. To define the relationship between thoracic spinal kyphotic deformity and spinal cord intramedullary pressure.Summary of Background Data. Previous studies of asymptomatic volunteers have revealed that there is wide variation in regional sagittal neutral ...
Guerrero Tomás G - - 2011
Objective: To evaluate the effect of tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) on patellofemoral (PF) contact mechanics, and alignment of the PF and femorotibial (FT) joints in cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL)-deficient stifles of dogs. Study design: Ex vivo biomechanical study. Animals: Unpaired cadaveric hind limbs (n=9). Methods: Digital pressure sensors placed in ...
Giuliani Alexandre - - 2011
In order to deliver VUV (vacuum ultraviolet) photons under atmospheric pressure conditions, a differential pumping system has been built on the DISCO beamline at the SOLEIL synchrotron radiation facility. The system is made of four stages and is 840 mm long. The conductance-limiting body has been designed to allow practicable optical ...
Ninomiya Toshiharu - - 2011
The associations between blood pressure and dementia have been inconclusive. We followed up a total of 668 community-dwelling Japanese individuals without dementia, aged 65 to 79 years, for 17 years and examined the associations of late-life and midlife hypertension with the risk of vascular dementia and Alzheimer disease using the ...
Van Thiel Geoffrey S - - 2011
This study determines the biomechanical advantage and the optimal configuration of a high tibial osteotomy (HTO) and meniscus transplantation performed concurrently. Six cadaver knees were placed in a spatial frame, and an HTO was completed. Loading points between a mechanical 6 degrees of varus and 8 degrees ofvalgus were loaded ...
Ogunniyi A A Department of Medicine, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. - - 2011
To investigate the relationship between hypertension and dementia incidence in community-dwelling elderly Yoruba (aged 70 years and above) because of sparse information on dementia and its risk factors in developing countries. Community-based, prospective study of consenting elderly Yoruba using two-stage design. Blood pressure was measured during the baseline evaluation at ...
Manunta Paolo P Nephrology, and Dialysis San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Università Vita-Salute San Raffaele, Milan, Italy. - - 2011
To evaluate whether the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and endogenous ouabain system differently affect renal Na handling and blood pressure. Three hundred and one patients in whom we compared blood pressure, and renal Na tubular reabsorption in the basal condition and 2 h (T120) after saline infusion. Following multivariate-adjusted linear and ...
Siraj Seema - - 2011
Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is a clinical triad of gait disturbance, dementia, and urinary incontinence combined with radiographic findings of ventriculomegaly and laboratory findings of normal cerebrospinal fluid pressures. Although it was first described by Hakim and Adams in 1965, there is no formal definition of NPH, causing discrepancy in ...
Percival M David - - 2010
Renin is the first enzyme in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system which is the principal regulator of blood pressure and hydroelectrolyte balance. Previous studies suggest that cathepsin B is the activator of the prorenin zymogen. Here, we show no difference in plasma renin activity, or mean arterial blood pressure between wild-type and ...
Riccioni Graziano - - 2011
Hypertension is one of the most important risk factor and cause of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Chronic activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a key role in the development of hypertension, cardiac and renal diseases. RAAS inhibitors, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), improve cardiovascular ...
Gullapalli Nageshwara - - 2010
Agents that block the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) are the cornerstones of antihypertensive therapy in patients at high risk for cardiovascular or renal disease. Recently, it was shown that activation of RAAS may occur through alternate pathways not inhibited by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), or mineralocorticoid receptor ...
Konoshita Tadashi - - 2010
Calcium channel blocker (CCB) is one of the most useful antihypertensive agents. However, the activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is an unfavorable characteristic. N-type calcium channel is thought to be involved in catecholamine's release. Accordingly, N/L-type CCB has a probability of less activation of the RAS. We substantiated the ...
Riccioni Graziano - - 2010
Hypertension is one of the most important risk factors and causes of cardiovascular disease (CVD). From some years, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors such angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensin receptor blockade (ARB) have been of interest, not only for better blood pressure (BP) control but also for their involvement in ...
Pöss Janine - - 2010
Sca-1 and VEGFR-2 positive pro-angiogenic cells (PAC) predict outcome of patients with vascular disease. Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system impairs PAC function. The effects of the direct renin inhibitor aliskiren on PAC numbers and function are not known. Treatment of C57Bl/6 mice and Apo E(-/-) mice on high-cholesterol diet with ...
Krebs Simone - - 2010
Inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system is a widely accepted approach to treat immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy, whereas the role of fish oils as a supplement is controversial. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) is considered to be involved in the pathophysiologic process of this disorder. Recent in vitro and clinical observations ...
Cousin Christelle - - 2010
The discovery of a (pro)renin receptor ((P)RR) and the introduction of renin inhibitors in the clinic has brought prorenin, the inactive proenzyme form of renin, back into the spotlight. The (P)RR binds both renin and its inactive precursor prorenin, and their binding triggers intracellular signaling that up-regulates the expression of ...
Turner Stephen T ST Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA. - - 2010
Age and race categories or renin profiling have been recommended to predict blood pressure responses to monotherapy with a beta-blocker or thiazide diuretic. Whether these or other characteristics predict blood pressure responses when the drugs are administered as add-on therapy is uncertain. We evaluated predictors of blood pressure response in ...
Hamer M - - 2011
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system can be activated by sympathetic nervous input and is thought to have an important role in the prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular risk in black Africans. We examined (1) the association between plasma renin responses to mental stress and a marker of sub-clinical atherosclerosis; and (2) associations ...
Yanes Licy L LL Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Mississippi Medical Center, 2500 N State Street, Jackson, MS 39216-4505, - - 2010
After menopause, blood pressure increases in women. However, the underlying mechanisms responsible for postmenopausal hypertension are not completely understood. This study was conducted to determine the role that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays in post-menopausal hypertension. Post-estrous cycling (postmenopausal) spontaneously hypertensive rats or young female controls were treated with losartan, ...
Sharkovska Yuliya - - 2010
OBJECTIVES: The nitric oxide-soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC)-cGMP signal transduction pathway is impaired in different cardiovascular diseases, including pulmonary hypertension, heart failure and arterial hypertension. Riociguat is a novel stimulator of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC). However, little is known about the effects of sGC stimulators in experimental models of hypertension. We ...
Sällström Johan - - 2010
Mice with targeted deletion of neuronal nitric oxide (NO) synthase (nNOS⁻(/)⁻) display inability to increase plasma renin concentration (PRC) in response to sodium restriction. nNOS has a distinct expression at the macula densa (MD), and in the present study, it was tested whether nNOS supports renin release by cyclic guanosine ...
Galceran Josep - - 2010
Microalbuminuria is an issue of great concern in hypertensive patients owing to its close relation with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Treatment should aim to reduce microalbuminuria to the normal range. Drugs that block the renin-angiotensin system have specific antiproteinuric properties, but more than one drug is needed to achieve blood ...
Saad M Ahdy A - - 2010
This work aims at studying the possible alteration of renal renin secretion after human ischemic stroke and correlating it to the post stroke neurological and renal function alterations using angiotensin II type 1(AT1) receptor blocker (ARB), candesartan, and beta 1 adrenoreceptor blocker atenolol, which inhibits renin secretion, in Wistar rats ...
Chaudhary Kunal - - 2010
IMPORTANCE OF THE FIELD: The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is a key regulator of blood pressure (BP), as well as volume and electrolytes, in both hypertensive and normotensive individuals. Inappropriate activation of the RAAS is important in hypertension-induced cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Renin is the rate-limiting step ...
Ruddy Michael C - - 2010
Hypertension is the most prevalent and important risk factor for cardiovascular and renal disease worldwide. Despite the large armamentarium of available blood pressure-lowering agents, the need remains for safer and more effective antihypertensive treatment. Based on current target levels of < 140/90 mm Hg, only one-third of hypertensive Americans have ...
Israili Zafar H - - 2010
Hypertension, a serious disease affecting almost a billion people (25% of adults) worldwide, is a major modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) and renal disease. Despite numerous advances in the pharmacologic treatment of high blood pressure (BP) and availability of several antihypertensive drugs to treat hypertension, a significant proportion of ...
Verdecchia Paolo - - 2010
Aliskiren is an orally active direct renin inhibitor which inhibits the synthesis of angiotensin I by linking to active renin on a deep cleft of its molecular structure, the site of hydrolysis of the Leu10-Val11 bond of angiotensinogen. At variance with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, aliskiren eliminates the main substrate ...
Meade Tom T INon-communicable Disease Epidemiology Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E7HT, UK. - - 2010
Whether renin is involved in the onset of coronary heart disease (CHD) remains unclear. A case-control study in 1972, suggesting a causal association between renin and CHD, has now been followed by three prospective studies. One was based on 1,717 hypertensive subjects in a Work-Site Program in New York. The ...
Ferrario Carlos M - - 2010
The study of experimental hypertension and the development of drugs with selective inhibitory effects on the enzymes and receptors constituting the components of the circulating and tissue renin-angiotensin systems have led to newer concepts of how this system participates in both physiology and pathology. Over the last decade, a renewed ...
Milei Jos? - - 2010
In 1939, two independent teams, in Buenos Aires and Indianapolis, identified the polypeptide angiotensin. In 1934, Goldblatt et al. demonstrated that partial occlusion of the renal arteries produces hypertension in dogs, and Houssay in 1936 predicted the presence of a humoral mechanism and, with Fasciolo, demonstrated that the ischemic kidneys ...
Kotliar Carol - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the serum aldosterone (Ald)/plasmatic renin activity (PRA) ratio as a surrogate marker of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system status in unilateral (Uni)- and bilateral (Bi)-renal artery stenosis (RAS). METHODS: Seven hundred and eight hypertensive patients (HTP) were studied. Intermediate and high pretest risk of RAS was detected in 66 HTP ...
Alonso Florian - - 2010
Connexins (Cxs) play a role in the contractility of the aorta wall. We investigated how connexins of the endothelial cells (ECs; Cx37, Cx40) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs; Cx43, Cx45) of the aorta change during renin-dependent and -independent hypertension. We subjected both wild-type (WT) mice and mice lacking Cx40 (Cx40(-/-)), ...
Ichihara Atsuhiro - - 2010
Since renin inhibition interferes with the first and rate-limiting steps in the renin-angiotensin system, the renin step is a very attractive target for lowering blood pressure and minimizing target-organ damage. The newly developed direct renin inhibitor aliskiren has several attractive characteristics: it definitively reduces plasma renin activity among inhibitors of ...
Hiwatashi Kazuyuki - - 2010
The effect of commercial purified soybean saponin on renin activity and blood pressure was investigated. Soybean saponin significantly inhibited human renin in vitro with IC(50)=59.9 µg/ml. Orally administered soybean saponin at 80 mg/kg of body weight per day to spontaneously hypertensive rats for 8 weeks significantly decreased the blood pressure.
Roszer Tamás - - 2010
Recent research has revealed roles for the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) family of transcription factors in blood pressure regulation, expanding the possible therapeutic use of PPAR ligands. PPARalpha and PPARgamma modulate the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), a major regulator of systemic blood pressure and interstitial fluid volume by transcriptional control ...
Zhang Yonghong - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between plasma concentrations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1, soluble E-selectin, angiotensin II, renin activity and the risk of hypertension among 2589 study participants aged 20 years and older from Inner Mongolia, China. METHODS: Three blood pressure measurements were obtained using a ...
Destro Maurizio - - 2010
The treatment of moderate or severe hypertension in most cases requires the contemporaneous use of multiple antihypertensive agents. The most available two-drug combinations have an agent that addresses renin secretion and another one that is statistically more effective in renin-independent hypertension. The practice of combining agents that counteract different mechanisms ...
Zamo Fernanda S - - 2010
Spontaneously hypertensive rats develop left ventricular hypertrophy, increased blood pressure and blood pressure variability, which are important determinants of heart damage, like the activation of renin-angiotensin system. To investigate the effects of the time-course of hypertension over 1) hemodynamic and autonomic patterns (blood pressure; blood pressure variability; heart rate); 2) ...
Sun Zhongjie Z Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, - - 2010
The prevalence of hypertension is increased in winter and in cold regions of the world. Cold temperatures make hypertension worse and trigger cardiovascular complications (stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure, etc.). Chronic or intermittent exposure to cold causes hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy in animals. The purpose of this review is to ...
Xu Zhenrong - - 2010
Structure-guided drug design led to new alkylamine renin inhibitors with improved in vitro and in vivo potency. Lead compound 21a, has an IC(50) of 0.83nM for the inhibition of human renin in plasma (PRA). Oral administration of 21a at 10mg/kg resulted in >20h reduction of blood pressure in a double ...
Westermann D - - 2009
Arterial hypertension is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and one of the major causes for mortality worldwide. Drugs, that control hypertension effectively are therefore needed to reduce hypertension induced morbidity and mortality. The inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system (RAAS) is one target to control blood pressure in these patients. ...
Pinto Rekha - - 2009
Aliskiren, the first orally effective direct renin inhibitor, is an effective antihypertensive agent with distinctive properties including placebo-like tolerability, pharmacologic effects that persist after drug discontinuation, and a unique mechanism of action. When combined with agents that inhibit the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, ...
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