Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 1261
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Lee Y A - - 1993
The unique efficacy of converting-enzyme inhibitors in inducing regression, or preventing the occurrence, of ventricular hypertrophy associated with systemic hypertension has for many years pointed to a possible direct effect of the renin-angiotensin system in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy. Over the last 10 years evidence has been forthcoming about ...
Morton J J - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether induction of arterial hypertension in young normotensive Wistar rats by chronic inhibition of nitric oxide production with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) produced a form of self-sustained hypertension, and to investigate the role of the renin-angiotensin system and vascular hypertrophy in the hypertensive process. METHODS: Three-week-old Wistar ...
Scholz H - - 1993
1. It was the aim of this study to examine the interrelation between 'baroreceptor' function and the macula densa signal in the control of renin secretion from the kidneys. To this end we investigated the effects of frusemide and bumetanide, two different inhibitors of the macula densa Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl- cotransport, on ...
Brink H S - - 1993
In healthy subjects, intravenous infusion of the selective V2-vasopressin receptor agonist 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP, 400 ng/kg in 10 min) causes a marked increase in heart rate with a slight decrease in diastolic blood pressure. These haemodynamic responses are associated with increments in the plasma levels of renin, noradrenaline (NA), clotting ...
Swales J D - - 1993
Biochemical and bioassay evidence has proved the existence of tissue RAA systems although their function has not been satisfactorily defined. There are two sources of tissue renin: uptake from plasma and local synthesis. The uptake system has been demonstrated in arterial tissue. Retention of renin can be demonstrated in the ...
Battle T - - 1993
Converting enzyme inhibitors impair renal function of the kidney beyond a stenosis of the renal artery in humans and induce histological lesions in the clipped kidney of renal hypertensive rats. In two-kidney, one clip hypertensive rats, we compared the time course and magnitude of the biochemical effects of angiotensin converting ...
Matsukawa T - - 1993
To determine if an abnormality exists in the sympathetic nervous system of patients with accelerated hypertension, we recorded muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) from the tibial nerve by microneurography in eight benign essential hypertensives and seven accelerated essential hypertensives. Basal MSNA, plasma renin activity, and plasma angiotensin II levels were ...
Sheikh A U - - 1993
In adults, renin secretion is stimulated by reductions in arterial pressure and inhibited by increases in atrial pressure. In the late gestation fetus, a fall in arterial pressure stimulates renin secretion, but it is unknown whether elevation of atrial pressure will alter such an increase. Therefore we studied the effect ...
Clozel J P - - 1993
The goal of the present study was to compare the effects of three potent reference renin inhibitors (remikiren, CGP 38560A, and enalkiren) in sodium-depleted normotensive squirrel monkeys. In these monkeys, arterial pressure was measured in the conscious state with a telemetry system. Oral and intravenous maximal effective doses of the ...
Fukamizu A - - 1993
A reaction between enzyme renin and its only natural substrate angiotensinogen is the initial and rate-limiting step for producing a potent vasoconstrictor angiotensin II as the final product of the renin-angiotensin system, a contributory factor in the pathogenesis of hypertension. In order to assess the role of the interaction of ...
Carey D - - 1993
Lines of baboons with high and low blood pressure were developed by selective breeding. Blood pressure was measured in 456 adult feral baboons under ketamine immobilization by direct arterial cannulation. Males with blood pressures two standard deviations and females with blood pressures one standard deviation above and below the cumulative ...
Norsk P - - 1993
The hypothesis was tested that narrowing of arterial pulse pressure (PP) is a determinant of arginine vasopressin (AVP) release in humans. Six normal males completed a two-step lower body negative pressure (LBNP) protocol of -20 and -50 mmHg, respectively, for 10 min each. None of these subjects experienced presyncopal symptoms. ...
Persson P B - - 1993
1. The feedback control of arterial blood pressure by the kidney in the range of hours was investigated in resting, conscious foxhounds. 2. A servo-control device (connected to an aortic occlusive cuff implanted above both renal arteries) was used to maintain a constant pressure difference of 20 mmHg between aortic ...
Dzau V J - - 1993
The renin-angiotensin system traditionally has been conceived as a neuroendocrine system functioning in the circulation. Recent research has confirmed the existence of autocrine/paracrine tissue renin-angiotensin systems present and functioning at multiple sites, including cardiac, vascular, and renal tissues, which contain the majority of angiotensin-converting enzyme in the body. It appears ...
Ménard J - - 1993
AIM: To provide a historical overview of the renin-angiotensin system as a guide to the introduction of a new therapeutic pathway, non-peptide inhibition of a angiotensin II. METHOD: One hundred references were selected as a personal preference, for their originality or for their potential impact on medicine. CONCLUSIONS: This review ...
Heintz B - - 1993
Hypotension is a frequent complication in patients subjected to regular hemodialysis. Insufficient regulation of blood pressure following dialysis with ultrafiltration has been attributed to a lack in hormone activation. To determine whether altered production of vasoactive hormones is involved in the breakdown of blood pressure regulation during hemodialysis (HD), blood ...
Chen Y M - - 1993
Sequential changes in renin-aldosterone secretions and blood pressure (BP) response during acute sodium (Na) loading were studied in 50 patients with essential hypertension (EH) and nine normotensive volunteers. Following an infusion of 2 L of isotonic saline at a rate of 500 mL/h, plasma renin activity (PRA) and the plasma ...
Ruzicka M - - 1993
BACKGROUND: The degree of cardiac hypertrophy is not only load dependent: Among other factors, the renin-angiotensin system may play a role in the regulation of cardiac myocyte growth. METHODS AND RESULTS: To evaluate the role of the renin-angiotensin system in volume overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy, we assessed: 1) the time course ...
Scholz H - - 1993
Using isolated rat kidneys perfused at controlled pressure, we examined a potential role of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) in the pressure control of renin secretion. We found that stimulation of EDRF release by acetylcholine (1 mumol/liter) increased mean perfusate flow rates from 15.0 +/- 0.5 to 18.0 +/- 0.5 ml/min ...
Wideman R F RF - - 1993
Systemic hypovolemia and hypotension increase plasma renin activity (PRA) in fowl, but it is not clear whether this response is mediated directly by reduced renal arterial perfusion pressure (RAPP) or indirectly via renal nerves activated when systemic baroreceptors detect hypotension. To evaluate the influence of RAPP on renin release, arterial ...
MacFadyen R J - - 1993
A combination of dietary sodium restriction (40 mmol day-1) and frusemide pretreatment has been used to activate the renin angiotensin system (RAS) in order to characterise the haemodynamic and hormonal responses to enalapril in young normotensives. Enalapril significantly reduced supine blood pressure with a mean maximum fall of 19 +/- ...
Nakamura F - - 1993
1. To examine whether an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor prevents left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy even in low-renin hypertension, we studied the effect of the administration of perindopril on cardiac hypertrophy induced by partial renal ablation in hypertensive rats. 2. Rats that had undergone partial nephrectomy were randomly divided into four ...
Guillery E N - - 1993
The renin-angiotensin system plays multiple roles in the maintenance of normal blood pressure and renal function. The balance and integration of these roles change during development in ways that we do not yet fully understand. This article reviews the ways in which the renin-angiotensin system maintains normal cardiovascular homeostasis during ...
Clozel J P - - 1993
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are used for the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure. However, ACE not only cleaves angiotensin I but is also responsible for the degradation of bradykinin. Therefore, renin inhibitors which block the system at an early step without influence on bradykinin should be devoid ...
Laragh J H - - 1993
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone hormonal axis is the major long-term servocontrol for regulation of both arterial blood pressure and sodium balance. It supports normotension or hypertension via angiotensin vasoconstriction and angiotensin plus aldosterone-induced renal sodium retention. Normally, in the presence of hypertension or sodium-volume excess, plasma renin activity promptly falls to zero. ...
Silke B - - 1993
In chronic heart failure diuretic drugs improve central hemodynamic variables and cardiac pumping secondary to altered plasma and extracellular volumes; humoral markers of these changes include increased plasma renin and aldosterone levels. The latter increases are maximal over the first week but decline with chronic therapy. The plasma alpha-ANP levels ...
Clozel J P - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: To compare the acute hypotensive effects of three different methods of inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system in a primate model of cyclosporin-induced hypertension. DESIGN: The effects of maximally effective doses of an angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitor, antihuman renin antibodies or a renin inhibitor (Ro 42-5892) on arterial pressure were ...
Camargo M J - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of renin-angiotensin system blockade by a novel non-peptide angiotensin II receptor antagonist, losartan, on development of hypertension and acceleration of end-organ damage in salt-loaded stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). DESIGN AND METHODS: One hundred and eighty-one male SHRSP were fed a 4% sodium diet from ...
Takahashi K - - 1993
1. Elevation of blood pressure is one of the major side effects of recombinant human erythropoietin therapy in haemodialysis patients. 2. We investigated the possible involvement of endothelin in the pathogenesis of this recombinant human erythropoietin-induced blood pressure elevation in 51 patients undergoing maintenance haemodialysis. 3. Blood haemoglobin level increased ...
Hedner T - - 1992
AIM: To assess the potential for development of new classes of pharmacological drugs in the treatment of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. BACKGROUND: Basis of pharmacological blood pressure reduction: Since the discovery of the renin-angiotensin system by Tigerstedt almost 100 years ago, a large number of vasoactive peptides have been discovered. ...
Takahashi S - - 1992
Angiotensinogen, the precursor of a vasoactive octapeptide angiotensin II, is the only known natural substrate of renin, and its reaction exhibits strict species specificity and is the rate-limiting step in the renin-angiotensin system that controls the blood pressure. We measured blood pressure and heart rate of the transgenic mice with ...
Barrett G - - 1992
Transgenic experimentation has become a crucial part of hypertension and atherosclerosis research, and is growing more important in several other areas of cardiovascular disease. It has recently made a particular contribution to understanding the role of the renin-angiotensin system in controlling hypertension. The study of blood pressure regulation, cardiac hypertrophy, ...
Haga H - - 1992
To evaluate the antihypertensive and hormonal effects of oral magnesium supplementation, 17 inpatients with untreated, uncomplicated mild-to-moderate essential hypertension (EH) and 8 age-matched normotensive controls (controls) were given MgO orally 3 times a day at a daily dose of 1.0 g (0.6 g per day as Mg) for a period ...
Shimizu K - - 1992
Whether or not 1-desamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin (DDAVP) reduces blood pressure or affects the release of arginine vasopressin (AVP) and renin is controversial, although evidence suggests AVP and renin are important in maintaining blood pressure during hemorrhage. We therefore investigated the effect of DDAVP on endogenous release of AVP and renin and on ...
Gorman A J - - 1992
1. Prostaglandins (PG) and veratrum alkaloids stimulate ventricular sensory receptors with non-myelinated vagal afferents and mediate inhibitory circulatory responses. 2. The present study in conscious instrumented dogs was carried out to determine the effects of intracoronary artery infusions of veratrine (Ver-IC) and PGE2 (PGE2-IC) on plasma renin activity (PRA). 3. ...
Claybaugh, John R.
The research, conducted in conscious female goats, demonstrates for the first time that maintenance of blood pressure during hemorrhage is greatly compromised during conditions of hypoxia. This earlier reduction in blood pressure leads to an earlier increase in plasma levels of vasopressin but not plasma renin activity. Although these data ...
Bernardi M - - 1992
To assess the hemodynamic status of patients with compensated cirrhosis, mean arterial pressure, cardiac index and peripheral vascular resistance and markers of central (plasma concentrations of atrial natriuretic factor) and arterial volemia (plasma norepinephrine concentration, plasma renin activity) were studied in 10 patients and 10 healthy control subjects under steady-state ...
Salomonsson M - - 1992
To evaluate the role of the proposed baroreceptor mechanism in the afferent arteriole in regulating renin release, we modified the isolated perfused tubule technique to perfuse afferent arterioles. Arterioles with attached glomeruli were isolated from rabbit kidneys and perfused using standard methods. To stop the arteriolar flow and allow perfusion ...
Sigmon D H - - 1992
Endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF), through its inhibitory second messenger guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP), inhibits renin release in vitro. To determine whether EDRF affects renin in vivo, we tested whether EDRF synthesis inhibition could stimulate renin secretion in intact rats. Because EDRF synthesis inhibition increases blood pressure and consequently withdraws sympathetic ...
Schenk J - - 1992
Deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) is an agent commonly used to induce hypertension in experimental animals. This form of hypertension is dependent on altered regulation of central pressor mechanisms including the brain renin-angiotensin system. Additionally, there are characteristic changes involving the cardiovascular system and baroreflex responses. This review will discuss aspects of ...
Chen Y F - - 1992
Our previous studies demonstrated that the sexually dimorphic pattern of hypertension in the spontaneously hypertensive rat is androgen dependent. Gonadectomy retards the development of hypertension in young males, but not in females, and administration of testosterone propionate to gonadectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats of both sexes confers a male pattern of ...
Hof R P - - 1992
The antihypertensive effect of calcium antagonists is altered little by high salt intake or concomitant diuretic treatment. We therefore investigated whether modest changes in the salt balance might alter the acute response of the renin-angiotensin system to the calcium antagonist isradipine in conscious rabbits. Mongrel rabbits with indwelling arterial and ...
Shah N - - 1992
The impact of esmolol infusion on hemodynamics, ventricular performance, venous admixture, sympathoadrenal, and renin-angiotensin system responses during sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced hypotension was studied in 11 patients undergoing lymph node dissection during general anesthesia with 60% nitrous oxide and fentanyl. Radial arterial and thermistor-tipped pulmonary catheters were employed for hemodynamic monitoring. ...
Repine J T - - 1992
A series of renin inhibitors having alpha-heteroatom amino acids as P2 substitutions has been prepared. Examples where the heteroatom is oxygen, sulfur, or nitrogen are described. Many of the compounds exhibit subnanomolar potency when tested in vitro against monkey renin. When selected compounds were tested orally in conscious, salt-depleted, normotensive, ...
Binder N D - - 1992
We examined the relationship between acute reductions in renal perfusion pressure, as approximated by femoral arterial blood pressure, and plasma renin activity in the uninephrectomized fetal lamb. Renal perfusion pressure was reduced and maintained at a constant value by controlled partial occlusion of the aorta above the renal artery. After ...
Hans S S - - 1992
Correlation between increased cranial and peripheral norepinephrines and increased cranial to systemic renin ratio has been observed in a small number of patients with postcarotid endarterectomy hypertension. In an effort to confirm these findings, we studied cranial and peripheral levels of catecholamines and peripheral renin activity in 120 consecutive carotid ...
Cai Y - - 1992
Pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) increased significantly in rats after hypobaric hypoxic exposure for 15 days (CH15) (P less than 0.001) and was maintained at the same level after prolonged hypoxic exposure for 40 days (CH40). There were no significant changes in carotid systolic and diastolic blood pressure in CH15 and ...
Bock H A - - 1992
The isolated perfused glomerulus technique was used to study pressure dependence of renin release in single, microdissected rabbit glomeruli with intact afferent arteriole and intact Bowman's capsule. Renin release from individual afferent-glomerular units was measured in 30 minute intervals while afferent arteriolar pressure was either decreased from 55 to 40 ...
Kato T - - 1992
The effects of prostacyclin infusion (6.7 +/- 2.7 ng/kg/min, 3 to 10 ng/kg/min) on blood pressure, plasma renin activity (PRA), and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha (6-keto-PGF1 alpha) were studied in 7 patients with essential hypertension (4 men and 3 women) with a mean age of fifty-eight +/- eleven years (forty-six to ...
Oliveira V L - - 1992
High renin hypertension is usually accompanied by impairment of the baroreceptor reflexes. This feature has been mostly ascribed to overactivity of the renin-angiotensin system. However, renal nerves could also modulate the baroreceptor reflexes. In the present experiments, the effect of renal denervation on the depressed baroreceptor reflexes was studied in ...
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