Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 1260
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 >
Somers M J - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Angiotensin II-induced hypertension is associated with increased vascular superoxide production, which contributes to hypertension caused by the octapeptide. In cell culture, stretch increases endothelial and vascular smooth muscle production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In perfused isolated vessels, elevations of pressure can increase vessel angiotensin II production. The effects ...
Komiya I - - 2000
We analyzed the association of 2 biallelic polymorphisms of CYP11B2 (P450c11AS) gene (1 in the Lys(173)Arg of exon 3 and the other in the promoter at position -344T/C) with hypertension in 73 hypertensive patients and 134 normotensive subjects. The association between low-renin hypertension and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) gene was ...
Izzo J L JL - - 2000
The field of hypertension is entering an exciting new era in which new concepts in basic and clinical science are being rapidly translated into new recommendations for clinical practice. It is now readily apparent that an age-related increase in stiffness of the walls of the large arteries causes the predominant ...
Morganti A - - 2000
Endothelin (ET)-1 is a potent vasoactive peptide which is mostly secreted toward the vessel wall and the circulatory levels of which are quite low; for these reasons changes in plasma ET-1 may be difficult to detect even after the application of strong stimuli, which, in theory, should profoundly alter its ...
Benetos A - - 2000
Converting-enzyme inhibition reduces cardiovascular hypertrophy in hypertensive subjects. Whether the blockade of angiotensin II type 1 (AT(1)) receptors reduces arterial hypertrophy has never been investigated. In a double-blind study versus placebo in subjects with essential hypertension, the effect of the AT(1) blocker irbesartan (150 mg/day for 8 weeks) on blood ...
Warnock D G - - 2000
With the expression cloning of the subunits of the epithelial sodium channel, a new era has evolved in our basic understanding of the low-renin forms of human hypertension. The monogenic hypertensive syndromes manifest dysregulation of the epithelial sodium channel in the cortical collecting tubule. These rare syndromes provide a schema ...
Rohrwasser A - - 1999
The renin-angiotensin system is a major regulator of body sodium, predominantly through the actions of intrarenal angiotensin II of unclear origin. We show that polarized epithelium of the proximal tubule synthesizes and secretes angiotensinogen at its apical side and that the protein can be detected in urine as a function ...
Phillips M. Ian - - 1999
In 1898, Tigerstedt and Bergman published their observation that kidney extracts produce pressor effects. They characterized the substance and named it "renin." Although this was the beginning of understanding the role of the kidney in hypertension and the renin-angiotensin system, their discovery lay dormant for nearly 40 years.
Wagner C - - 1999
The aim of this study was to determine the role of renal innervation in the prolonged stimulation of renin secretion and renin synthesis accompanying renal artery stenosis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, in which the left kidney had been denervated or sham denervated 4 days earlier, received a left renal artery clip ...
Spence J D - - 1999
Renin profiling to assist in management of hypertension was first proposed about 27 years ago. However, it is still not widely used, perhaps because it was initially emphasized for management of primary hypertension, which is usually relatively easy to manage. Our experience in more than 4000 patients with referral hypertension ...
Fassot C - - 1999
Subarachnoid haemorrhage is a serious condition often accompanied by delayed cerebral ischaemia. Earlier reports have provided evidence suggesting a role for angiotensin II in the development of cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid bleeding. We sought to examine the influence of angiotensin II blockade with losartan on blood pressure and survival in ...
Bisognano J D - - 1999
The effective treatment of hypertension is associated with improved mortality and morbidity from diseases such as stroke, congestive heart failure, and renal failure. Use of medications that target the renin-angiotensin system for the treatment of hypertension can often achieve the desired decrease in blood pressure while causing a minimum of ...
Berthold H - - 1999
Previous studies in dogs have shown additive or even synergistic effects of combined angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition and either nonselective endothelin subtype A/B (ETA/B) or selective endothelin subtype A (ETA) receptor blockade on renal vascular resistance and mean arterial blood pressure. A possible mechanism underlying this interaction may be a stimulation ...
Güller R - - 1999
Piperidine renin inhibitors with heterocyclic core modifications or hydrophilic attachments show improved physical properties (lower lipophilicity, improved solubility). Tetrahydroquinoline derivative rac-30 with a molecular weight of 517 and a log D(pH 7.4) of 1.9 displays potent and long lasting blood pressure lowering effects after oral administration to sodium depleted conscious ...
Virdis A A Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pisa, - - 1999
The aim of the study was to evaluate whether adenosine infusion can induce production of active renin and angiotensin II in human coronary circulation. Adenosine can activate angiotensin production in the forearm vessels of essential hypertensive patients. In six normotensive subjects and 12 essential hypertensive patients adenosine was infused into ...
Su J - - 1999
This study was designed to assess the influence of the activation status of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) on the hemodynamic effects of EXP 3174 (an angiotensin AT1 receptor antagonist) and enalaprilat (an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor) in tachycardia-induced heart failure. Thirteen dogs were chronically instrumented to measure left ventricular ...
Zhang X - - 1999
BACKGROUND: The role of arginine vasopressin (AVP) in the development and maintenance of arterial hypertension is controversial. Furthermore, it remains unclear whether chronic treatment with antihypertensive agents modulates levels of AVP, with potential secondary effects on vascular tone and fluid homeostasis. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation between plasma AVP and ...
Harvey P J - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: The effect on blood pressure of oral replacement' doses of exogenous oestrogen may depend on the type and dose of oestrogen administered. This study was designed to compare with placebo the effect of once daily treatment with a 'natural' oestrogen, piperazine oestrone sulphate, in two different doses and a ...
Kai T - - 1999
1. The role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in cardiac hypertrophy and nephropathy was examined in Tsukuba hypertensive mice (THM) carrying both human renin and angiotensinogen genes. 2. Tsukuba hypertensive mice were treated with 20 mg/kg per day lisinopril, 30 mg/kg per day hydralazine or nothing. Administration of drugs was ...
Kimura Y - - 1999
A 42-year-old man had biochemical and somatic abnormalities compatible with pseudohypoparathyroidism type I (PsHP) and also had high plasma renin activity (PRA). After 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (calcitriol) supplementation the systolic/diastolic blood pressure, assessed by 24-hour non-invasive ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, was reduced from 145/96 mm Hg to 128/85 mm Hg with ...
Müller D N - - 1999
The physiological role of prorenin is unknown; however, the possibility that prorenin inhibits renin locally has been suggested. We tested the hypothesis that prorenin may be an endogenous competitor for renin uptake in the tissue. We also investigated whether prorenin can be activated to active renin and affect mean arterial ...
Catanzaro D F - - 1999
The renin-angiotensin system is normally subject to servo control mechanisms that suppress plasma renin levels in response to increased blood pressure and increase plasma renin levels when blood pressure falls. In most species, renin is rate limiting, and angiotensinogen circulates at a concentration close to the Km, so varying the ...
Zhang D Y - - 1999
A model of aortic ligation in mice with a hydronephrotic kidney (absence of macula densa) was used to determine the effects of aortic ligation on the renal renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Blood pressure increased from 83 +/- 2 to 133 +/- 8 mmHg within 7 days after aortic ligation (p < ...
Ribstein J - - 1999
-The determinants of the increase in arterial blood pressure associated with the use of estrogen-progestogen oral contraceptives (OC) remain poorly known. The purpose of this study was to assess the renal characteristics and the role of the renin-angiotensin system in women with OC-associated hypertension. Urinary clearances of technetium-labeled diethylene triaminopentaacetic ...
Dehmel B - - 1998
The hypertensive double transgenic rat harboring both the human renin and human angiotensinogen genes (dTGR) offers a unique opportunity to study the human renin-angiotensin system in an experimental animal model. Since nothing is known about the control of sodium and water excretion in these rats, this study was performed to ...
Thrasher T N - - 1998
The goal of this study was to determine the role of arterial baroreceptors in the reflex control of arginine vasopressin (AVP), renin, and cortisol secretion in response to a 30-ml/kg hemorrhage in conscious dogs. The hormonal responses were measured in six dogs under four treatment conditions: 1) intact, 2) acute ...
Vacca G - - 1998
It has recently been shown that distension of the uterus in anaesthetized pigs causes reflex haemodynamic responses through efferent sympathetic mechanisms. The present study was undertaken to determine whether these mechanisms include activation of the renin-angiotensin system. The same methods were used in 14 pigs which were anaesthetized with alpha-chloralose ...
Brock J W JW - - 1998
PURPOSE: The role of the renin-angiotensin system in the homeostasis of fluid, electrolyte and blood pressure has been known for quite some time. Recent developments indicate that angiotensin has a profound role, not only in the developing urinary tract but also in the response of the urinary tract to injury. ...
Maillet A - - 1998
BACKGROUND: When the European Space Agency planned the EUROMIR'95 long-duration flight with a European astronaut on board the Russian orbital MIR station, it organized simultaneously a ground simulation, called the Human Behaviour Study, of this manned space mission. The ground simulation was a confinement experiment, and this paper describes the ...
Blaine E H - - 1998
1. One of the most important issues in the field of hypertension research centres on the therapeutic use of inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Inhibitors of the RAS have potent anti-hypertensive effects, even in experimental models of hypertension and in human essential hypertension, where the activity of the peripheral ...
Preston R A - - 1998
CONTEXT: Renin profiling and age-race subgroup may help select single-drug therapy for stage 1 and stage 2 hypertension. OBJECTIVE: To compare the plasma renin profiling and age-race subgroup methods as predictors of response to single-drug therapy in men with stage 1 and 2 hypertension as defined by the Joint National ...
van der Ent M - - 1998
Neurohormonal activation and elevated ventricular filling pressures are prominent features in heart failure. Carmoxirole is a DA2 receptor agonist with limited central activity that modulates sympathetic activation and subsequently reduces pre-load and afterload in animals. The effect of carmoxirole on neurohormones and hemodynamics in humans was evaluated in 12 normotensive ...
Bader M - - 1998
The interplay of vasoactive peptide systems is an essential determinant of blood pressure regulation in mammals. While the endothelin and the renin-angiotensin systems raise blood pressure by inducing vasoconstriction and sodium retention, the kallikrein-kinin and the natriuretic-peptide systems reduce arterial pressure by eliciting vasodilatation and natriuresis. Transgenic technology has proven ...
Schunkert H - - 1998
Gi proteins mediate the intracellular effects of many vasoactive and proliferative stimuli. Recently such signaling was found to be enhanced in cultured cells of some hypertensive subjects. A polymorphism at position 825 (C-->T) of the G protein beta3 subunit gene (GNB3) was strictly related to this phenotype. The aim of ...
Huch K M - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Despite the known potent vasoconstrictor effects of vasopressin, the role of this hormone in the maintenance of blood pressure is incompletely understood. In studies performed in animals with increased plasma vasopressin concentrations, several complex cardiovascular effects have been noted, including decreases in heart rate and cardiac output, which may ...
Pipinos I I - - 1998
Sustained (late-phase) renovascular hypertension is associated with lower plasma renin activity than is the early phase. It is not clear to what extent this reduced plasma renin activity reflects diminished influence of the renin-angiotensin system. It also is not clear whether this change in the character of the disease influences ...
Haddy F J - - 1998
Three lines of evidence led to our suggestion in 1976 that sodium pump inhibitors are involved in volume expanded hypertension. These were 1) pressor activity of low renin hypertensive blood 2) natriuretic and sodium pump inhibiting activities of volume expanded blood and 3) potassium vasoactivity which was blocked by ouabain ...
Zolk O - - 1998
Abnormal intracellular Ca2(+)-handling appears to be a major cause of systolic and diastolic dysfunction in animals and humans with cardiac hypertrophy due to pressure overload and heart failure. However, the precise mechanisms which cause alteration of Ca2(+)-handling remain unclear. Several lines of evidence suggest that activation of neurohormonal systems may ...
Rothermund L - - 1998
The endothelins are 21-amino-acid peptides which may play a role in the pathogenesis of hypertension. There is increasing evidence that the endothelins have a central function in mediating end-organ damage in hypertension, and that important effects of endothelin in the pathogenesis of hypertension may be based on the interactions of ...
Zacharieva S - - 1998
A study was performed on seven patients with Cushing's disease and seven age and sex matched patients with essential hypertension. The patients maintained their usual diet and sodium intake and received the ACE inhibitor trandolapril at a dose of 2 mg daily for 8 days. Trandolapril treatment resulted in an ...
Nicholls M G - - 1998
The renin-angiotensin system is central to the pathophysiology of a number of cardiovascular disorders. Most obviously this is so with renin secreting tumours, but the system is of central importance in other disorders such as scleroderma renal crisis and most cases of malignant hypertension. Activation of the renin-angiotensin system in ...
Kreutz R - - 1998
The aim of the study was to determine blood pressures in young heterozygous transgenic rats harbouring the Ren-2 mouse gene, TGR(mREN2)27, and to examine the association between blood pressure and plasma renin-angiotensin parameters during the conscious state. Two litters of heterozygous TGR(mREN2)27 rats and their normotensive Sprague-Dawley reference animals were ...
Shimokama T - - 1998
The renin-angiotensin system has a pivotal role in hypertension. The Tsukuba hypertensive mouse (THM; a transgenic mouse carrying human genes for both renin and angiotensinogen) was generated to allow further examination of the renin-angiotensin system in a variety of pathologic conditions. We evaluated the development of renal lesions in these ...
Hartner A - - 1998
Prostaglandins contribute to the regulation of renin synthesis and secretion. We tested the hypothesis that the inducible isoform of prostaglandin G/H synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, contributes to the stimulation of renin synthesis in renovascular hypertension. The expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and renin was investigated in the kidneys of rats with two-kidney, one-clip renovascular ...
Møller S - - 1997
Patients with cirrhosis exhibit characteristic hemodynamic changes with a hyperkinetic circulation and an abnormal distribution of the blood volume and neurohumoral regulation. Their plasma and noncentral blood volumes are increased, and the central and arterial blood volume and systemic vascular resistance are decreased. A peripheral arterial vasodilatation may be of ...
Hohenbleicher H - - 1997
Animal studies have demonstrated a threshold below which renin release increases proportionally to a decrease in renal perfusion pressure. Demonstration of a similar mechanism in humans, however, has proved difficult, as any attempt to lower blood pressure below the putative renin threshold results in renin release mediated by reflex activation ...
Wiƛniewska R J - - 1997
Effects of cholecystokinin (CCK-33), caerulein (CER) and pentagastrin (PG) on arterial blood pressure and plasma renin activity (PRA) were studied in rats. The results showed that CCK-33 (106.25, 212.5 and 425.0 pmoles/kg i.v.) increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure and decreased PRA. CER used at doses: 0.37, 1.85 and 3.7 ...
Chiu Y J - - 1997
It has been reported that acupuncture can decrease blood pressure in patients with hypertension, possibly by an endocrine mechanism. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acupuncture on arterial blood pressure and the secretion of renin, vasopressin and cortisol in hypertensive patients. Acupuncture was performed ...
Yamada Y - - 1997
A series of renin inhibitors containing the (2S,3S,5S)-2-amino-1-cyclohexyl-6-methyl-3,5-heptanediol (2-amino-3,5-anti-diol) fragment as a novel transition-state mimic was synthesized, and their biological activities were evaluated. All of the synthesized compounds containing the 2-amino-3,5-anti-diol fragment at the P1-P1' position showed high in vitro renin-inhibitory activity with IC50 values in the 10(-8)-10(-10) M range, ...
Alberti C - - 1997
Selective A2A adenosine receptor agonists are potent vasodilators that reduce blood pressure and induce marked increments in heart rate and plasma renin activity (PRA). To examine the mechanisms and pressor relevance of these cardiac and renin responses, we measured blood pressure and heart rate by telemetry and PRA in separate ...
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 >